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A narrative of a visit 
to the Australian colonies 

James Backhouse 

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Introdaction xv 


TojBge to Tan Diemens Land. — Embarkation. — ^Emigrant Pensioners. — ^Dis- 
orderly Conduct. — Intemperance. — The Ocean. — ^Bottled Water. — Petrels. — 
Coast of Spain. — Birds. — Storm. — Danger. — Equator. — Sunset. — Trinidad 
and Martin Va«. — ^Funeral. — ^Whales. — Fishes. — ^Albatross. — ^African Coast — 
Cape Town. — Schools. — Slavery. — Public Institutions. — ^Religious Meeting. — 
Departure. — L'Agullas Bank. — Southern Ocean. — Birds. — Religious Labours. 
— Coast of Van Diemens Land. — Colour of the Sea. — Piratical Yessel. — Sharks. 
—Bad Bay. — ^ArriTal at Hobart Town 1 


Hobart Town. — Colonel Arthur. — Intense Sleep. — J. Leach. — ^Unexpected Meet- 
ing. — Home. — Meetings for "Worship. — ^The Liberty. — Conyict Ship. — ^Pri- 
soners. — Settlement of the Colony. — Female Factory. — ^Trees. — Animals. — 
Chain-gang. — ^Woody Hills. — OoTemment Ghurden. — Bees. — ^Assigned Pri- 
soners. — ^New Norfolk.— Bush Road. — ^The Clyde.— Green Valley. — ^Bothwell. 
— ^Hamilton. — Fences. — Remarkable Rock. — Porter and Thieying. — Emi- 
grants. — Style of Living. — Animals. — Hostile Aborigines. — Hospitality. — 
Bush-rangers. — She Oak. — ^Plains. — ^Remarkable Impression. — Sawyers' Huts. 
—Inn 14 

Hobart Town. — Pious Persons. — Penitenfiary. — ^Temperance Society. — Kings 
Pits. — Shrubs. — ^Fem VaUey. — School Meeting. — ^Voyage to Macquarie Har- 
bour. — ^Prison Ship. — ^Piracy of the Cypress.— Prisoners. — ^Loss of the Science. 
— ^Flsh. — ^Penguin. — Storm. — ^Port Davey. — Cockatoos. — Land Lobster. — ^Ex- 
cursions. — Sharks. — Swearing. — Storm.--Sea Fowl. — ^Entrance of Macquarie 
Harbour 82 


Macquarie Harbour. — ^Mountains. — ^Trees. — Rivers. — Sarahs Island. — ^Timber. — 
State of Prisoners. — ^Mortality. — ^Murders. — Privations. — Escapes. — Cannibal- 
ism. — ^Example. — Punishment. — Reformation. — Pious Prisoner. — Depravity. 
— ^Employment. — ^Provisions. — ^Pine-roads. — ^Phillips Island. — ^Fems. — ^Health. 
—Climate. — Spirits. — Bermuda Prisoners.- Wellington Head.— Jail Meetings. 


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— Prisoner Steward. — Spaniel and Blackfish. — ^Aborig^nes. — ^Eelp. — Lichen. — 
Birds 47 


Report to the Lieutenant Governor. — ^Thanksgiving. — Death of a Pensioner. — 
War. — Clarence Plains. — Hospitality. — Government Schools. — Chain-gang. — 
Scorpion. — Centipedes. — Muddy Plains. — Settlers. — South Arm. — ^Liberty. — 
Kangaroo. — Box and Cow Fishes. — ^Illicit Spirit Dealer. — Princess Royal 
Stranded. — Snow Storm. — Richmond. — ^Trees. — Imported Fruit-trees. — ^New 
Houses. — Bush-rangers. — Security. — ^Meeting. — Coal River. — Settlers. — Oven 
Hills.— Orielton.— Wages paid at Public Houses.— Sorell Town.— Windmill. 
— Rich Land. — ^Temperance Meeting. — Lower Settlement. — Sober Anglo- 
Tasmanians. — ^View. — Spring. — ^Birds, &c. — Anniversary of Departure from 
England 60 


Attendance of Meetings. — Religious Communications. — Embarkation for Flinders 
Island. — Cape Roaul. — Port Arthur. — Perilous Situation. — ^Cape Pillar. — 
Birds. — ^Maria Island. — Spring Bay. — Prisoner Seaman. — Octopodia. — Frey- 
cineta Peninsula. — ^Trees, &c. — ^Black Swans. — Schouten Passage. — ^Mutton 
Birds. — Swan Island. — ^Banks's Strait. — Superstition of Sailors. — ^Wreck. — 
Preservation Island. — Sealers and Native Women. — Black Snakes.— Green 
Island 70 


Discovery of Van Diemens Land. — Its Position and Character. — Aborigines. — 
Erroneous Ideas of. — Attack upon. — Provocations. — ^Hostilities of. — Attempt 
to Capture. — G. A. Robinson's Mission. — Settlement in Bass's Straits. — ^Flin- 
ders Island. — ^Productions. — ^Manners of the Natives. — ^Dances. — Civilization. 
— Sealer and Child. — Breakwinds. — Song. — Clothing. — Capacity. — Ornaments. 
— Sickness. — ^Birds, &c. — ^Excursion. — Cookery. — ^Dogs . — ^Mang^ves. — ^Kan- 
garoo Rat. — Bandicoot. — Bain. — Commandant*s Hut. — " Boatswain," a Na- 
tive Woman. — Sealers. — ^Tasmanian Porcupine. — Wallowing in Ashes. — Gra- 
titude. — ^Weapons. — Green Island. — ^Mutton Birds. — ^Music. — ^Tide-ripple. — 
Arrival at George Town 78 


George Town. — The Tamar River. — Launceston. — Meeting. — ^Aborigines. — 
Plants. — ^Leeches. — ^Kangaroos. — ^Middle Arm. — ^Tide Ripple. — ^North Coast 
— Blacks charged with Murder. — ^Mode of Transferring Fire. — ^Black Women 
Rescued. — Circular Head. — Van Diemens Land Company's Establishment. — 
Islands. — Woolnorth. — Rocks. — Cape Grim. — ^Bird Islands. — Kelp. — ^Mutton 
Fish. — Native Doctor. — Seeking a Needle. — ^Decoration. — Remembrance of 
Absent Friends. — Habitations. — ^Tribes. — Burning the Dead 95 


Circular Head. — ^Anchorage. — Highfield Plain. — ^Work People. — ^Indentured Ser- 
vants. — ^Flagellation. — Eagles. — Sponges. — Shells — Crabs. — ^Weather. — ^Ants. 
— Journey. — ^Rivers. — Grass-trees . — Blandfordia. — ^Banksia serratifoUa. — Hu- 
man Bones. — Scrub and Fern. — ^Fossil Shells. — ^Table Cape. — ^Trees, &c-^Ema 
Bay. — Magnificent Forest.— Gigantic Trees. — Tree Ferns. — ^Plains.— Abori- 
gines.— Road.^Arrival at the Hampshire Hills 107 

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coNTEirrs. V 


Hampshire Hilk FlanU Bumiog the Orast, &c — Surrey HiUf — St. Marys 

Plain. — Shrubs. — Ezcursion to Emu Bay. — Rocks — Gigantic Trees. — ^Man 
Lost. — Dense Forest. — Aborigines.— St. Valentines Peak. — Animals. — ^Hos- 
tile Natives. — ^Edible Fungi.-— Native Potato.-^Measurement of Trees.— Ex- 
ploratory Ramble. — Skill of Aborigines. — ^Myrtle Forest. — Animals. — Com- 
pass. — Attack upon the Aborigines. — ^lioeches.— Dense Forest. — Cataract. — 
Free Servants. — Reckless Drunkenness. — Quantity of Rain. — Snow. — Bur- 
leigh.— Black Bluff.— Yale of Belvoir.— Epping Forest.— Snakes.— "Great 
Western Road." — Forth and Mersey Rivers. — Circular Pond Marshes. — 
Burning Forest. — Caverns.— Dairy Plains.— Westbury.— Depravity.— Arrival 
at Launceston 110 


Launceston. — Foolish Washerwoman. — Lixard and Grasshopper.— Religious 
Meetings.-Perth.— Norfolk Plains.— Wheat Crops —Rioter.— Lake and Mac- 
quarie Rivers. — Summer Snow. — ^Hummocky Hills. — ^Profanity. — Campbell 
Town and Ross.— Salt Pan Plains.— Oatlands.— Jericho.— The Jordan.— 
Cross Marsh. — Green Ponds.— Constitution Hill.— Bagdad.— Blistered Feet. 
—Rate of Walking.— Hobart Town 131 


Hobart Tovm. — Lieutenant Governor. — Penal Discipline. — Reformed Prisoners. 
— Intemperance and Indiscretion.— Sheriff's Writs. — Timber-fellers. — ^Meeting 
Room Engaged. — Meeting. — Journey. — ^Anxiety for Liberty. — Infidel Prison- 
ers. — Binshy Plains. — Prisoner's View of Transportation. — Prossers River. — 
Spring Bay. — Kangaroo Grass.— Swan Port— Cultivated Land. — ^Oyster Bay 
Pine. — Boad. — ^Kelvedon. — Waterloo Point — Gunnia australis. — Ministry of 
F. C. — Character of the Land. — Shrubs. — ^Black Swans. — Boomer Kangaroo. 
—St. Patricks Head.— Dwelling.— Timber.-— Whales.— Mountains.— Tea. — 
Break o'day Plains.— « Dead Mens Graves."— Buffalo Plains.— Kindness of 
Aborigines. — Launceston. — Flinders Blacks. — ^Road Party. — Flagellation. — 
Weather. — ^Diseases. — ^Death of a Prisoner. — Intemperance. — Music. — Spring. 
—Ben Lomond.— Gums.— Fossil Tree.— Salt Spring8.—Eagle8.— Trees. . 137 

Meeting for Discipline Established. — Meetings for Worship. — Temperance Lec- 
ture. — ^Flagellation. — Causes of Crime. — Judicial Oaths. — Peculiarities of 
Friends. — Chain Gang. — Unsteady Emigrant — Ascent of Mount Wellington. 
—Notice of a Pious Prisoner 164 


Second Visit to Flinders Island.— West Coast Aborigines.— Dislike to Fat.— 

Emigrants.- Bruny Island.— Port Arthur. —Guard of Dogs, &c.— Discipline 

Diving of Native Women.— Shamrock Stranded. — ^Flinders Island — PUnting 
Potatoes. — ^Difference. — Civilisation.- Grass-tree Plains. — Prime Seal Island. 
—Spears. — ^Climbing Trees. — Comparative Skill.— Mustering. — Cleanliness. — 
Catechist. ^Light-house.— Bush-rangers. — ^Launceston 166 


Launceston. — ^Meetings. — Pious Prisoner.— Improvements. — ^| Aborigines' Mer- 
chandise.— Meeting at George Town. — Rambles.- York Town. — Trout— 

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Voyage. — Flinders Island. — Kangaroo Apple. — Greeting. — Distribution of 
Clothing. — Native Chief. — ^Fire. — Notions of Supernatural Influence, and a 
Future Existence. — ^Departure from Flinders Island. — Intemperance. — Cutter 
driven upon the Bocks. — Recklessness. — ^Dangerous Situation. — Arriyal at 
Kelvedon 176 


Kelvedon.— -Meetings.— Soldier Injured. — ^Papal Penance. — Animals Poisoned. — 
Instinct.— Use of Spirits in Whaling, &c.— Toad-fish.— The Saddle.— Eastern 
Marshes. — ^Dead Trees.— Farm. — Settler and his Flock. — Sheep Lands. — 
Opossums. — Meetings at Oatlands and Jericho. — Sheep and Wool. — ^Native 
Cat.— Dairy Farm — ^Vale of the Jordan. — Platypus.- Black Brush.— The 
Carlton. — Visiters — Inns Temperance Reformation. — Richmond. — Jerusa- 
lem. — Drought. — Parrots. — Green Ponds. — Settlers. — ^Invalid Road Party. — 
Mill. — New Norfolk. — ^Meetings. — Forlorn Prisoner. — Pious Settler. — Prison- 
ers at Bridgewater. — Return to Hobart Town. — Indisposition 185 


Hobart Town. — ^Meeting Places. — Discontinuance of Reading Meetings.— Week- 
day Meetings. — Ministers. — Meetings to which the Public were Invited. — 
Prayer. — Principles of Friends. — ^Base-line.< — ^Perjury. — Prisoner Boy. — Grass- 
tree Hill. — Esculent Vegetables. — Silent Meetings. — ^Flagellation. — ^Monthly 
Meetings.- Reflections. — ^Report on Chain Gangs and Road Parties. — ^Traffic 
of the Blacks. — " Guide to True Peace." — Colonial Hospital. — J. Johnson. — 
Orphan School. — Penitentiary 195 


Browns River. — Potatoes. —Cordage-trees. — ^Hobart Town Jail. — Meetings. — 
Baptism. — Condemned Criminals. — Ministry. — Comparison of the Stock- 
keepers with the Sons of Jacob. — Musk Rat. — Conrincement by Reading 
" Barclay's Apology." — ^Ministry. — Kangaroo Hunter. — ^Naming of Places in 
Van Diemens Land. — Penguins. — ^Albatross. — ^Morepork. — Delay. — ^Ministry 
of G. W. W. — ^Penitent Prisoner. — Trying Occurrences. — Seven-mile Beach. 
— Holothurida:.— Drunken Prisoners, &c.— Awkward Travelling, — Arrival at 
Kelvedon.— Fruit Trees. — Black Swans.- Arrival of D. and C. Wheeler. — 
Coralines, &c. — Cranes. — ^Track Lost. — Return to Hobart Town 206 


Old Johnson. — Prayer. — Spiritual Poverty. — ^Yearly Meeting. — Meeting at New 
Norfolk.— Influenza.— Cold of Mount Wellington. — Mantis.— Sale of Spirits. 
— Calumny. — Visit to Port Arthur. — Doughboy Island. — Black-backed GuU. 
— Commandant bewildered in the Forest. — State of the Penal Settlement. — 
Scurvy. — Educated Prisoners. — School. — ^Employment. — Convict Boys. — Coal 
Mine.— Black Snake.— Coal.— Plants.— Return to Hobart Town.— Letter.— 
Meetings. — Laws of Primogeniture and Entail. — Pensioners. — Rural Dean. 
— Surgeon of the Alligator 221 


Voyage to Sydney. — Cape Howe. — Diversity of Gifts. — Dangerous Situation. — 
Port Jackson. —Sydney. —Religious Instruction. — Aborigines. — Rock Oysters. 
— Brugmansia.— Visit to the Governor. — Projected Visit to Norfolk Island. — 
Meetings on Ship-board.— S. Marsden.— New Year's Day.— Shrubs. — "Brick- 

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fielder.*' — ^Fint Meetings on Shore. — ^Temperance Meeting.— Works of Crea- 
tion. — ^Visit to the Ooyemor, at Parramatta. — Card Playing. — Snake. — 
Blizabeth Bay. — ^Fig-tree and Acrosticum grande. — Peaches. — ^Plants.— School 
Meeting. — Group of Aborigines. — ^Parasites. — ^Meeting in the Conrt-House. — 
Iiominoixs Appearances in the Sea. — ^New Zealand Hostages. — ^Imposition on 
Medical Men. — Meeting on Board the Henry Porcher 230 


Arrangements for Visiting Norfolk Island. — ^Departure. — Adyerse Winds. — 
Shark and Pilot-fish.— Seamen.— Spiritual Navigation.— Jelly-fish.— " The 
Elisabeth" Whaler. — ^Tropic Bird.— Norfolk Island.— Departure of D. and C. 
Wheeler.— Orange Yale.— Oak.— Geology.— Features of the Island.— Norfolk 
Island Pine and Tree-fern. — ^Fruits. — ^Description of Prisoners. — ^Assemblies 
for Worship. — Jail 245 


Norfolk Island. — ^Kings Town. — Occupation of Prisoners. — ^Mitigation of Sen- 
tence. — Freycinetia. — New Zealand Flax. — Agriculture. — ^Pigeons. — ^Cats. — 
Fly-catchers. — Parrots. — ^Dying Prisoner. — Ansons Bay. — Wistaria? — ^Ipomcea 
pendula. — " The Sisters" Pines — Jasminum gracile. — ^Lagunea Patersonii. — 
Burixd of a Prisoner. — Improyement among the Prisoners. — Proyisions. — 
Sweet Potato. — Profanity. — Perjury. — Madrapores. — Sea Anemonies. — Papal 
Prayers. — ^Teaching of the Spirit 256 


Norfolk Island. — ^Disinclination to receiye Religious Instruction. —Prisoners* 
Barracks. — Iron. — ^Flagellation. — Oyerseers. — Sentence to Penal Settlements. 
— Sick Prisoners. — Rocks. — Cape Gooseberry. — ^Palm. — Wood-quest. N. I. 
Pines. — Roman Catholic Prisoners. — Cleanliness. — ^Temperature. — Reckless 
Prisoner. — Felling-gang. — Plants. — ^The Cascade. — Flora of N. I. — Sugar 
Cane. — Rum. — Christian Doctrine 262 


Norfolk Island. — Caye. — Remarkable Shrubs. — Mount Pitt — Group of Islands. 
— Capture of a Parrot. — Marrattia. — Petty Sessions. — ^Marine Animals. — 
Tree-ferns. — ^Animals. — Visit of Officers to Phillip Island. — Guayas. — True 
Church. — Return of Officers. — Wild-boar. — Runaway Prisoner. — ^Religious 
Interviews. — Luminous Fungus. — Prisoner's History. — ^Tidings. — Relapses. — 
Parting Opportunities. — Penitent Prisoners.— Departure. — Prisoners* Letters. 
— Voyage. — Storm. — Lord Howes Island — Portuguese Man-of-War. — Arrival 
at Sydney. — Disorderly Soldiers 270 


Sydney. — Penal Discipline of Norfolk Island Re-modelled. — Epistle to Friends 
in Hobart Town. — ^Meetings. — Unclaimed Property of Deceased Persons. — 
Drought. — Shrubs, — Thoughtless Young Men. — Conceited Woman. — Prayer 
in Spirit. — Australian School Society. — Unworthy Descendants of Friends. — 
Blacks Fishing. — Species of Callitris. — ^Ministry. — Shrubs. — Friends' Books. 
— D. and C. Wheeler. — J. Leach. — Consumption. — Meeting at Cooks River. 
— Travelling in New South Wales. — Mounted Police.— Meeting at the North 
Shore. —Botany Bay. — ^Dye-woods, &c. — Grass-tree. — Sweet Tea. — Miasmal 
Fever 286 

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Sydney.— Meetings —AtLitralian Settlers.— Weather.— ZaiuUu—Tegetable In- 
stinct — ^BeneTolent Society. — ^Aborigine!. — Goepel Labourers. — ^Temperance 
Lectures. — LiTerpooL— Bible Meeting. — Hospital.— Unsteady Emigrants. — 
Work of the Spirit —Perserering Prayer. — ^L. E. Threlkeld.— Invalids from 
India. — Temperance Committee. — Bible Meeting.— Spring. — ^Loqnat — Deci- 
duoos Trees 293 


Journey to Wellington Yalley.^Preliminary Arrangements.— Visit to Panra- 
QUitta. — ^Factory. — Orphan School. — Lunatic Asylum. — Elissing Point. — Bush 

Fire.— Drought Schools, &c.— Meetings. — CiTilisation of the Natives. — 

Forest.— South Creek. — ^Dislike of the Blacks to go ftur from Home.— Penrith. 
— ^Blue Mountains. — ^Ironed-gangs. — Huts and Carayans of Prisoners.— Wea^ 
ther-board Hut.— Views.— Cold.— Black Heath.— Mountain Road.— Bullocks. 
-Eagles.— Mount Victoria Pass.— Vale of Clywd.— HeUvellyn. — ^BiyerOak. 
— Junction Stockade. — Honeysuckle Hill.— Drunken Landlord. — ^Bathurst. — 
Drunkenness. — ^Famine. — ^The Rocks. — ^Newton. — Sheep.^Wild Dogs. — ^Ex- 
haustion.— Molong Riyer.— Birds— Limestone.— Newry.— Welcome,— Stock- 
keeper and Blacks.— Sheep-feeding — Cottages.— Arriyal at Wellington 
Valley 800 


Wellington Valley. — ^Mission Station. — ^Worship. — Doctrine. — Mission Stock. — 
Aboi%ines. — Morals. — Language. — Aquatic Plants.— Myami. — ^Honey. — Ani- 
mals, — Food of theNatiyes. — Cayem. — ^Mount Arthur. — Shrubs, Ac. — Burial 
Place. — ^Public Worship of Friends. — European Influence. — Ghrass. — Initiation 
of Blacks as Toung Men. — Natiye Women. — ^Prisoner Servants. — ^Molong. — 
Effects of Drunkenness. — Infanticide. — ^Feigned Intoxication. — ^Kangaroo Bay. 
— Civilization and Missionary Labours. — Milk. — ^Help in Time of Need. — 
Pious Fellow Traveller.- Definition of Love.— Bathurst — ^Verdure 815 


Bathurst.— Climate of N. S. Wales.— Public Worship.— Doctrine of Baptism. — 
Settlers. — Bank. — Prisons. —Woodlands. — Geology. — O'Connell Plains.- Spi- 
ritual Worship. — ^Fish River. — ^Dogs and Snakes. — Milk. — Prisoners. — Shrubs. 
— ^Blue Mountains. —Black Heath. — Govetts Leap. — ^AwM Death. — Couch 
Grass.— Penrith. — ^Flagellation. — ^Nepean. — ^Doctrine. — ^Vineyard. — Absence of 
Dew. — ^Horses destroyed by Thirst.- Nepean River. — Castlereagh. —Windsor. 
— ^Richmond. — ^Information of a Black. — Pitt Town and WUberforoe. — ^Unfidth- 
ful Professor. — Pious Persons. — Temperance Meeting. — Jail. — ^Religious Meet- 
ings. — ^Currajong. — Country. — Maize and Wheat Crops. — Orange Orchards. — 
Return to Sydney 331 


Opening of Friends* Meeting House, at Sydney.— Voyage to Van Diemens Land. 
— Escape from Danger.— Electric Phenomena. — Arrival at Hobart Town. — 

State of the Congregation of Friends —Yearly Meeting Journey to Kelve- 

don, Falmouth, Launceston, ftc. — Dangerous Riding. — Hunting Cattle. — Gen- 
tleness of Bulls. — Accident — Launceston. — Influence of Strong Drink. — Re- 
ligious Attainments. — ^Mounds of Oyster Shells. — Remarkable Tide. — High 
Rents.— Hospitals. — Irrigation. — Wesleyans.— Progress of Temperance. — 
Return to Sydney 343 

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Sydney.— fidigton of FeeUngs.— Botanie Gardai.--Co]leciion of Tmes — Self 
Kxamination^— libngy of Friends' Books.— Destnietkm of Spirita.— IMsoord 
and Tale-bearing.->TempeTance Lecture. — Sdiptnre LeMwns of the British 
and Foreign School Society. — ^Voyage to Moreton Bay.>-State of the Prison- 
ers. — EfEeots of Spirit^drinking. — Afflictions. — ^Moont Warning, Ao, — ^Axrival 
in Moreton Bay.— Tree Oysters.— ArriTal at Brisbane Town 850 


Moreton Bay^— Brisbane Town.— Qardens.-— Tread-miU. — Swearing.— Plants, 
Ac. — ^Natires.— Prisoners. — ^Family Worship. — Trees, Ac — Plants, and Ani- 
mals. — ^Female Prisoners. — Wood. — ^Destmction of Spirits. — ^Teredo. — ^Kan- 
garoos, &c.— Birds.— Want of Bibles.— Ab8oondffrs.~Aborig]nes 858 


Departure firom Brisbane Town. — Plumbago.— Fishes and Birds.— Dugong.- 
Stradbroke Island. — Amity Point. — Aborigines. — Penal Begnlations. — ^More- 
ton Island. — ^Trees. — Crabs. — ^Amnsements. — ^Hnts. — Native Dogs. — Fish. — 
Mannfactore. — Mangroyes,&c. — Animals. — ^Fight of NatiTCS. — ^Mistake in the 
Name of Biscuit. — ^Departure from Moreton Bay. — Storms. — ^Arriyal at New- 
castle. — Natiye Guides. — Ebeneser. — Aborigines. — Amusement. — ^Missionary 
Labours.— CiTiUsation of the Blacks. — ^Amomit of Native Population. — ^Forest. 
— Remarkable Spring.— Gregarious Caterpillars.— Wages of Blacks 368 


Sydney. — ^Tidings of D. and C. Wheeler. — Aborigines in Towns.— Work of the 
Spirit. — G^rant of a Burial Ground. — ^Reformed Prisoner. — ^Wills. — Trial of 
Blacks. — Bibles in Strange Tongues. — Meetings.- Voyage to Maitland.— 
I>ninkeime8s. — Season. — Ironed Gangs.— Fossils. — Country. — Plants. — ^Ar- 
thurs Yale. — ^Management of Prisoners.— St. Aubins. — " Prisoners of Aus- 
tralia."— Plants.— Rain. — Sheep. — Snow. — Mount Wingen.— Objects of Curi- 
oeity.— Return to Maitland. — Compass, &c. — Geology. — Cockfighters Bridge. 
— ^Prisoners.- Bibles and Card Playing.— Small Congregations. — Friends' 
Principles.— Self Delusion 385 


Maitland. — Cedar Bmshes.—Morpeth.— Retired Officer. — FaithAil Spaniel.— 
Raymonds Terrace.— Pottery.- Coimtry. — Plants.— Reformed Prisoner. — 
Fort Stephens. — Carrington. — Territory of the Australian Agricultural Com- 
pany. — Xurua River. — BooraL — Stroud. — Stock. — Land Speculations. — 
Blacks. — ^Dingadee. — Wallaroba. — Paterson. — Libraries. — Maitland. — New- 
castle. — Meetings. — Coal-works. — ^Voyage to Port Macquarie. — ^Lake Cottage. 
— ^Penal Establishment — ^Town. — Rocks. — ^Prisoners. — WiUon River. — ^Trees, 
Ac — Rollins Plains. — Natives.— Sugar Canes. — Tacking Point Wood. — Acros- 
ticum grande. — State of Prisoners. — Return to Sydney 397 


Sydney. — ^Plants. — Liverpool. — Hospital Patient. — State of Society. — Lansdowne 
Bridge. — Jail. — ^Male Orphan School. — Campbell Town. — ^Wretched Prison. — 
Fall of the Limb of a Tree. — ^Appin. — State of the Population. — ^Buli Road. — 
niawarra. — WoUongong. — Five Islands. — Hlawarra Lake. — Country. — Pious 
Cottager. — Mountain Road. — Snake.— Effects of Drunkenness. — Trees. — 

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Cabbage Palm, &e. — ^Dapto. — ^Manball Mount. — ^Aborigines. — Parrots, Ac. — 
Kiama.— Friends' Meetings.— Colomgatta.— Wattle Tick.— Plants.— -Coluber 
porphyryaceus. — Transmutation. — Stinging Trees. — Snakes. — ^Black disposed 
to Settle. — ^Want of Religious Instruction. — Implements of Blacks. — Cambe- 
warra Mountains. — Kangaroo Ground.— Compassion. — Aborigines. — Journey 
to Bong Bong 416 


Bong Bong. — Berrima. — ^Trees and Birds. — Marulan. — ^Ironed-gang. — ^Towrang. 
— Goulbium. — Hospital. — Ooulburn Plains. — Menara Plains. — Sheep Feeding. 
— Journey to Lumley. — Effects of Porter. — Aquatic Plants, &c. — Roads. — Tra- 
yelling. — Penalties. — ^Arthurslee. — English Plants. — ^Wombat Brush.— White 
Ants. — ^Return to Throsby Park and Bong Bong. — Sheep Shearing. —Mitta- 
gong. — Bargo Brush. — ^Drunkenness. — JarTis Field. — Brownlowe Hill. — ^Hot 
Winds. — ^Prisoner Shepherd. — Camden. — Seasons. — ^Hay. — Opossums. — Pur- 
suits of Settlers. — Cobbity. — Influenza. — Winboume. — Mulgoa. — ^Duneyed. — 
Milking Wild Cattle.— The Vineyard.— Parramatta.— Pennant Hills.— Kiss- 
ing Point. — Lunatic Asylum.— Return to Sydney 487 


Sydney. — ^Married Emigrants. — High Wind.— Sudden Death. — Coach TraTclling. 
— ^Delusion. — Hot Wind, &c. — Meetings in Sydney. — Destitute NewZealanders. 
— ^Visit to the Prisons in Sydney. — Hyde Park Barracks. — Carters Barracks. 
— ^Tread-mill. — ^New Jail. — Tunnel from the Botany Bay Swamps. — Phoenix 
Hulk. — Goat Island. — ^Address to the Prisoner Population. — Old Jail. — Colo- 
nial Hospital. — Prisoner's Letter. — Benevolent Asylum. — Books, &c. — Oaths 
and Affirmations. — Address to the Free Inhabitants 451 


North Harbour. — Pumice-stone. — Animals, &c. — School and Temperance So- 
cieties. — ^Tidings of D. and C. Wheeler. — Report to the Governor. — Sense 
of Unprofitableness. — Botany Bay. — ^La Perouse. — Circumnavigation. — But- 
terflies. — ^Fishermen. — Silent Meetings. — Drunkenness. — ^Convict Servants. — 
Arrival of D. and C. Wheeler. — Visit to the Governor. — Refraction. — ^Factory. 
— Aborigines. — ^Elizabeth Macquarie. — Departure from N. S. Wales. — Voyage 
to V. D. Land. — Jervis Bay. — Sheds, &c. of Aborigines. — Jelly-fish. — Storm. 
— ^Lying to. — ^Albatross. — Arrival at Hobart Town. 461 


Hobart Town. — State of the Meeting of Friends. — Sir John Franklin. — Party 
Spirit. — Temperance. — Pensioners. — J.Johnson. — Weight. — Aurora australis. 
— Schools. — Infants at Meeting. — Journey. — Improvements. — Kelvedon. — 
Baptism for the Dead. — Drought. — Increase of Opossums, &c. — Affecting Acci- 
dent. — Gibbet. — Launceston. — Barton. — Successful Emigrant. — Campbell 
Town and Ross. — Frost. — Observations on Temperature. — Vale of Bagdad. — 
Prisoners at Work. — Return to Hobart Town 471 


Hobart Town. — Recording Ministers. — Conversion of a Unitarian. — Journey. — 
Climate and Diseases. — Hamilton. — Frost. — Falling-stars. — Stranded Whale. 
— Birth-day. — Convict Discipline. — Captain Maconochic's System. — D. and C. 
Wheeler. — Meeting Premises and Burial Ground. — Death of J. Johnson. — 

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New Norfolk. — Sudden Death. — ^Affirmation Act. — ^Yearly Meeting.-^Abo- 
rigines on Flinders iBland. — Sir John and Lady Franklin. — ^Dr. Foreman and 
Female Prisoners. — ^Reformed Drunkard. — ^Departure from V. D. Land . . 480 


Voyage to Port Phillip.— Passengers.— Mutton Birds.— Islands.— Port Phillip. 
— ^Mission Station. — ^Effect of Fear upon a man bitten by a Serpent. — Indiffer- 
ence. — ^Melbourne. — Business 'and Wages. — ^Aborigines. — Influence of Society. 
— Esculent Roots. — ^Animals. — Country. — Natives* Baskets. — ^W. Buckley. — 
Lyre Bird.— "Wild Dog.— Sheep 495 


Voyage to South Australia. — Kings Island.— South Coast of Australia. — St. 
Vincents Gulf. — Holdfast Bay.— South Australia.— Adelaide.— Port Ade- 
laide. — ^Torrens River. — Country. — ^Drunkenness. — Fires. — ^Aborigines. — Un- 
just Legislation. — Religious Loss. — Cruelty. — Geology, Vegetation, and 
Entomology. — ^Heat. — Departure 608 


Voyage to King Georges Sound. — Kangaroo Island. — Danger of Landing in 
Uninhabited Places. — Birds, &c. — King Georges Sound. — Albany. — ^Vegeta- 
tion. — Inebriety. — Indolence. — ^Aborigines — Country. — Plants Gape Leeu- 

win. — Voyage to the Swan River. 622 


Swan River Settlement. — ^Freemantle. — Swan and Canning Rivers. — Perth. — 
Visit to the Governor, &c. — Sentiments respecting the Aborigines. — ^Plain of 
Quartania. — ^Trial of a Black. — Country. — Shells, Fish, &c. — ^Temperature, 
and Heated Sand. — ^Books, &c. — The Peninsula. — Guildford. — York District. 
— ^Poisoning of Sheep. — ^Toogee Country. — Ruinous Effects of Rmn. — Price 
of Land. — Revenue and Sources of Income. — Population. — Spirit Law. — 

Fruits Upper Swan. — Customs of the Aborigines.— Neglect of Civilization. 

— ^Meeting. — Bush Fires. — Zamias. — Native Fair and Customs 529 


Swan River. — Drunkenness.— Fights of the Aborigines. — Temperance Meeting. 
— ^Evils connected with the use of Spirits. — ^Ezplorators. — ^Weapons of the 
Blacks.— Retribution. — ^Amount of Black Population, &c. — Jelly-fish. — Edu- 
cation. — ^Visit of the Blacks. — Birds, &c. — Aurora australis. — Intemperance of 
Seamen. — Revenge and Expiation of Injuries among the Aborigines. — Em- 
barkation. — Peaceful Retrospect 543 


Mistake respecting the falling back of the Aborigines. — Contact of the 
Australians with the Malays. — ^Belief in Spiritual Influence. — Conscientious- 
ness. — Superstitions. — Koin. — Tippakallenn. — Kumir-kurran. — Nungngun. 
— Murramai. — Sentiments respecting Death. — Traces of Ideas of a Fu- 
ture State. — ^Traditions respecting Creation and the Flood. — Australian Lan- 
guage. — Evidence. — Importance of Inquests. — Change of Feeling toward 
Aborigines. — Importance of Christian Principle. — Aborigines Protection So- 
ciety. — ^Disappointment of Emigrants. — Causes of Unsettlcment. — Needf^il 
Considerations respecting Emigration 554 

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A.— Certificatefl of J. Backhouse and G. W. Walker i 

B. — A Concise Apology for the Peculiarities of the Societj of Friends, commonly 
called Quakers, in their Iianguage, Costume, and Manners vi 

C. — The Question, "Are Judicial Oaths LawAil?" Answered, with some Ob- 
serrations on the Moral Influence of Judicial Oaths ty 

D,— Remarks on the Indigenous Vegetable Productions of Tasmania, arailable 
as food for man zzxi 

E. — ^Extract from a Report, on the State of the Chain Gangs and Road Parties, 
in Van Biemens Land xli 

F. — ^Report upon the State of the Prisoners in Van Diemens Land, with Remarks 
upon the Penal Discipline, and Observations on the General State of the 
Colony in 1884 xlvi 

G.— Testimonials of Hobart Town Monthly Meeting of Friends, respecting the 
Religious Labours of G. W. Walker Ixvii 

H. — ^A Letter to Colonel Arthur, respecting Spirituous Liquors , Ixix 

I. — A Letter to the Catechist at Port Arthur Ixxii 

J. — Prisoners' Letters Ixxvi 

K. — An Epistle to Friends in Hobart Town Ixxx 

L, — An Address to the Prisoner Population of New South Wales and Van 
Diemens Land Ixxxiii 

M. — ^A Letter addressed to James Backhouse and George Washington Walker, 
by a Conyict confined on Goat Island, New South Wales cii 

N. — A Christian Address to the Free Inhabitants of New South Wales and Van 
Diemens Land cvi 

O. — ^A Report on New South Wales cxxiv 

P. — Letters to the GoTemor of New South Wales respecting the Abori- 
gines cxxxiv 

Q. — ^An Epistle to persons attending the Meetings of Friends in Sydney. ... cxl 

R.— A Letter to Van Diemens Land Yearly Meeting of Friends cxUii 

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Hobart Town, 1834 (Frontiapieee.) 

Bocks of Martin Vaz page 6 

View on the Clyde, V. D. Land , . . . 27 

A Fern Valley, V. D. Land 86 

Entrances to Port Dayey 38 

Kelyedon. The Residence of Francis Cotton 142 

Ben Lomond, V. D. Land 151 

A Chain Gang of Conyicts going to work 158 

Flinders Island Grass Trees ^ 171 

Heads of Port Jackson 232 

Aborigines of N. 8. Wales 240 

Jelly-fish. fi^. 2, a 8p€ci$$ ofVyrowma.) 247 

Ditto 248 

Ditto 249 

Norfolk amd Phillips Islands 260 

Trees of Norfolk Island , 266 

Mount Warning 356 

Hat of a Natiye, on Stradbroke Island 373 

Boatman, a Natiye of N. S. Wales 380 

Acrosticnm grande 418 

Cabbage Pahn of N. S. Wales 426 

Spears, &c. of the Natiyes of N. S. Wales 483 

Huts of the Natiyes of N. S.Wales 469 

Jelly-fish 469 

Entrance to the Derwent, V. D. Land 487 

JeUy-flah 648 

Chart of the World, with the track of J. B. and G. W. W At the end. 

Map of Tasmania or Van Diemens Land, with Do.* At the end. 

Map of New South Wales, with Do At the end. 

* In tkiM map, ike namei qf Cmmiiei are in open. Soman OapUali ; thate t(fHmdredt and 
Principai Placet, in plain, Boman CapiUOt ; ani tho$e ofParithet m JtaUc CapitaU. 

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Page. Line. 

60— 3rd from foot, for *< their feeling/' read thia feeling. 

98 — 13th from top, for " linestone," read limestone. 
112— 7th from top, for << thes mall/' read the email, 
113— 4th from foot, for " OxUlis/' read OxaUe 
150 — 13th from foot, for "prisoners," xeaA penaionere. 
158— foot of plate, for "Sidney, N. S. Wales," read Hobart Town, V. D. Land. 
267— 8th from foot, for " diforme," read difforme, 
286— 10th from foot, for " 19th of 8th mo. 1837/' read^Mi^tf 486. 
410 — 19th from top, for " calamifolium," read calamiforme. 
427 — 6th from top, for do. do. 

553— 2nd from foot, for " 1341," read 1841. 
IyU — 6th from foot, for " as in the case," read aaiathe ease. 

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The Visit to the Australian Colonies^ a Narrative of 
which is contained in the following pages^ occupied a 
period of six years, terminating with 1838. It was under- 
taken, solely, for the purpose of discharging a religious 
duty. During its course, the writer kept a Journal, in 
which, haying been trained to habits of observation, re- 
cords were made, not only on religious subjects, but also, 
on such as regarded the productions of the Countries 
visited, the state of the Aborigines, and of the Emigrant 
and Prisoner Population, &c. 

From this Journal, the Narrative has been prepared, re- 
gard being generally had, to the point of time at which 
the record was made; but this has sometimes been de- 
viated from, in order to give a more concise and dear 
view of a subject, and to avoid repetition. A copious 
Appendix is added to the work, containing a variety of 
documents, connected with subjects introduced into the 

The writer was accompanied in this visit, by his friend 
George Washington Walker, of Newcasfle-upon-Tyne; who 
united in the service, under the belief, that he also, was 
called to this work. Under impressions of religious duty. 

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the subject was brought before the meetings for discip- 
line^ of the Society of Friends^ to which the writer and 
his Companion respectively belonged; and they received 
Certificates of the unity of these meetings with them^ in 
regard to their proposed visit As these certificates are 
introduced in Appendix. A. further notice on this point 
is unnecessary here. 

A feeling of Christian interest, on behalf of a company 
of Pensioners^ emigrating to Van Diemens Land, induced 
the writer and his friend, to make the voyage to that Co- 
lony, on board a vessel, in which a number of these people 
were passengers. In the Australian Colonies, J. Backhouse 
and O. W. Walker visited a laige proportion of the coun- 
try Settlers, in their own houses, holding religious meet- 
ings with such of them as they could collect, almost every 
evening, in the course of their journeys. These journeys 
were generally performed on foot; this mode of travelling 
being the most independent, and giving the easiest access 
ta that part of the prisoner population, assigned to the 
Settlers^ as servants. In towns, meetings were held for 
the promotion of religion and good morals, to which the 
Inhabitants were invited; and many visits of a religious 
character were paid to Penal Establishments. To avoid 
repetition, the particular notice of many of these visits 
and interviews, is omitted in the Narrative, generally when 
nothing occurred to inform or instruct, of a diaracter 
different from what had been previously noticed. 

For the purpose of conveying more distinct ideas on 
various subjects^ than could be conveyed by words, three 
maps, with fifteen etchings^ on steel, and several wood- 
cuts have been introduced into this volume. Hie one, at 
page 158, was inadvertently entitled, by the engraver^ ^'A 
Chain Gang going to work, near Sidney, New South 
Wales,'' instead o^ ^^at Hobart Town^ Van Diemens 

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Land/^ In many respects, this plate would correctly 
represent the Ironed Gangs of Sydney, or any other part 
of New South Wales, as well as the Chain Grangs in 
Van Diemens Land, or the Penal Settlements of these 
Colonies; but it was originally drawn firom the Hulk 
Chain Grang, at Hobart Town. For this error, and a 
few others, that will be found in the volume, some of 
which are noticed in the list of Errata^ it is hoped that 
the reader will make due allowance. 

As dates are of considerable importance to be ob- 
served, in works on newly-occupied and rapidly advancing 
countries, those of the month and year have been placed 
at the heads of the pages. Should any extracts be made 
firom this volume, the writer hopes that diey may be 
accompanied by the dates, where these have a bearing 
upon the subject treated of. 

The Settlements on the south coast of Australia have 
made rapid advances since the visits here recorded, but 
as the writer was, in great measure, cut off from com- 
munication with the Australian regions, by a subsequent 
sojourn in Southern Africa, he apprehends that he shall 
not render his readers a service, by going out of the line 
of his own observations, and commenting upon these 
changes, respecting which, he supposes, that the public are 
in possession of better information, from other sources, 
than he has it in his power to communicate. For a 
similar reason, he has refirained from observations on some 
modifications of the Penal Discipline, of New South Wales 
and Van Diemens Land, which are of recent date. 

In the course of the Narrative, the term Savages is 
sometimes used in reference to the Aborigines of the 
coimtries visited; but it is only intended, by this term, 
to designate human beings, living on the wild produce of 
the earth, and destitute of any traces of civilization; and 

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by no means, to convey the idea, that these people are 
more cruel than the rest of the human race, or of inferior 

A hope is entertained by the writer, that this volume 
may convey a measure of useful information, and excite 
some interest on behalf of the Aborigines, and the Emi- 
grant and Prisoner Population of Australia, as well as 
s^gcst important considerations, in connexion with the 
relation of man to his Creator and Redeemer. Under 
this hope, and with the desire, that the perusal of the 
work may be attended by the divine blessing, without 
which, nothing can be of any real benefit, the volume is 
submitted to the attention of the reader. 

York, 15th of 12th mo. 1842. 

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Voyage to Tan Diemene Land. — ^Embarkation — ^Emigrant Pensionert. — ^Dis- 
orderly conduct. — Intemperance. — ^The Ocean. — Bottled Water. — ^Petrela. — 
Coast of Spain. -^ Birds. — Storm. — Danger. — ^Equator. — Sunset. — Trinidad 
and Martin Vaz. — ^FuneraL — ^Whales. — ^Fishes. — Albatross. — African Coast. — 
Cape Town. — Schools. — Slavery. — Public Institutions. — Religious Meeting. — 
I)eparture. — L'Agullas Bank. — Southern Ocean. — Birds. — ^Religious Labours. 
'^-Coast of Y. D. Land.— -Colour of the Sea.—- Piratical yesseL-^Sharkfl*— Bad 
^ay. — ^ArriTal at Hobart To^m. 

A£L necessary arrangements for a long voyage having pre- 
viously been made, we embarked in St. Katharine's Dock, 
London, on the 3rd of the 9th month, 1831, on board the 
Science — ^a fine barque, of 236 tons, William Saunders, mas- 
ter. A few- of our Mends accompanied us to Gravesend, 
where we anchored that afternoon, and others joined us there 
on the following day, with whom we went to meeting, at 
Rochester. In this, the last assembly for public worship 
which we attended in our native land, we were favoured to 
feel much of the comfort of the Holy Spirit, and of confirma- 
tion respecting our projected voyage being undertaken in the 
divine counsel. 

In the cabin of the Science, there were two other passen- 
gers ; and in the steerage, forty-six Chelsea pensioners, who 
had commuted their pensions for an advance of four years' 


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2 THE DOWNS. [9ih mo. 

payment; nine women^ chiefly pensioners' wives ; six chil> 
dren^ and a young man^ whom one of the pensioners had 
befriended. These, with the crew, amounted to above eighty 

On the 5th, some of the pensioners received a part of their 
advance from the Government, to enable them to purchase 
necessaries for the voyage, for which purpose some of them 
went on shore ; but they wasted their money in strong drink, 
and returned on board so much intoxicated, that the necessity 
of preventing others doing the same, was obvious. The men 
became very unruly, but were appeased by the women being 
allowed to go on shore to make purchases, and by a boat 
with supplies of clothing, bedding, &c. being sent off to the 
ship. — In the evening we proceeded farther down the river, 
and, on the 6th, dropped anchor off Deal. Here the men 
were determined to go on shore, and were taken from the 
vessel by Deal boatmen, in spite of remonstrance and threats 
from the captain : many of them came back intoxicated, but 
one returned no more. 

We sailed from the Downs on the 9th, and from that time 
till we reached the Cape of Good Hope, few days passed 
without some of the pensioners being intoxicated and quar- 
relling : sometimes but few were sober ; and, occasionally, 
the women were as bad as the men. Three times the captain 
was seized by different men, who threatened to throw him 
overboard. One man was nearly murdered by one of his fel- 
lows, and all kinds of sin prevailed among them. A fruitful 
source of this disorder was a daily allowance to each person 
of about five liquid ounces of spirits. Some saved it for a few 
days, and then got drunk with it : some purchased it from 
others, and so long as their money lasted, or they could sell 
their clothes, were constantiy intoxicated. The general ex- 
citement produced by this quantity of spirits, made them 
irritable in temper, and seemed to rouse every corrupt passion 
of the human mind. To all expostulation, the constant reply 
was : *^ We are free men, and it is our own : we have paid 
for it, and have a right to do as we please with it.'' 

From having been long accustomed to act in obedience 
to military discipline, instead of upon principle, these men 

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were generally as incapable of taking care of themselves^ 
when temptation was in the way, as children ; and the 
state of confusion they were in was often appalling. From 
first going on board we read to them twice a day from the 
Bible or religious tracts. This was nearly the only time they 
were quiet. At first some of them tried to stop us by making 
a noise, but finding we proceeded without noticing them, they 
ceased : and at the conclusion of the voyage, some of them 
acknowledged, that the time of our reading had been the only 
time in which they had had any comfort. 

On arriving at the Cape of Good Hope, the captain deli- 
vered three of the most disorderly men to the civil authori- 
ties: two of them were detained, and three others and a 
woman of bad character, left the vessel of their own accord. 
Those who remained on board conducted themselves better 
after we got to sea again, notwithstanding several of them 
had become of evil notoriety during our short stay in Cape 

But to return to our voyage. On the 16th pf 9th month, 
in the evening, we now and then caught a glimpse of the 
light on the Lizard Point, Cornwall; which was the last 
trace we saw of our native shores. Several of the pensioners 
had begun to repent of having embarked, before reaching 
this point ! On the l7th, we were out of soundings, and the 
ocean presented the dark blue colour that prevails where it 
is unfathomably deep. The circle of view, not being broken 
by other objects, appeared very limited. From the ordinary 
elevation of a ship^s deck, this circle is only estimated at 
about eight miles in diameter. The night of the 18th was 
stormy, and we were in some danger from want of skill in the 
second mate, in whose watch the vessel was "taken aback^^ 
in a squalL On the 19th, our water began to be very 
disagreeable ; and we found bottled spring-water, of which 
we brought out a good stock, a great luxury. Many Stormy 
Petrels followed the vessel on the 20th, and at various subse- 
quent periods. These little birds, which are about the size of 
a swallow, have a propensity to keep about the wake or track 
of a ship in windy weather, and before, as well as during a 
storm ; therefore when they follow a vessel in calm weather, 


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4 THE EQUATOR. £9th mo. 

they are considered as the harbingers of a breeze: but 
notwithstanding this, they are frequently to be seen in the 
same situation in continued fine weather, especially about 
meal times, when various crumbs of refuse food are cast 
overboard, which, floating into the wake of the vessel, 
are picked up with avidity by these lively little birds, 
that skim over the surface, sometimes alighting upon the 
unbroken waves, and running upon them with their webbed 
feet, balancing themselves by means of their wings, which 
they hold erect, and ready for flight. 

We were oflF Cape Finisterre, on the N. W. coast of Spain, 
on the 21st; some of the land seemed of considerable eleva- 
tion. On the 8th of 10th month, we entered the Torrid 
Zone ; and saw a few Flying-fish ; the first living creatures, 
except the Petrels, that we had seen for many days. 
A Swallow also cheered us by a visit : it flew many times 
arotmd the vessel. A great number of Black and White 
Gulls, and some Porpoises, were seen in the evening. 
On the 17th, we lost the trade winds, that had urged 
us on rapidly for many days, and reached a latitude 
where squalls, often attended by thunder and heavy rain, 
and dead calms and variable breezes, frequently follow 
each other in quick succession, the thermometer varying 
from 78o to 82® in the shade. During a severe squall on the 
25th, large patches of phosphorescent light were seen on the 
surface of the ocean for a short time : they presented a scene 
of great beauty, the interest of which was not diminished by 
the raging of the sea. The Swallow noticed on the 8th, and 
another which joined it, perished in the storm. On the 
25th, we were in considerable danger, in consequence of the 
second mate getting intoxicated, and falling asleep in his 
watch, when the wind was strong, and only an inexperienced 
youth, at the wheel by which the vessel is steered. The 
mate was in consequence degraded from his office. 

26th of 10th month, we crossed the Equator in 27® west 
longitude. None of those disagreeable scenes took place, 
that are often exhibited on such occasions, and that are as 
heathenish in their origin as in their practice; in which 
Neptune is represented by some person, and ceremonies are 

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Digitized by 


/ » 

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.1 V ' 

:-. !, ..- - I • .- 

. ^ ... Im: ■ • 

.1 '.: 

-i> ^t : 1 !. 

)t- •. 

.1 ! ^ ..' , » 

.?■.'" ' ' ■.." • '. !l 1. *. 

.V ^''ii:.. 

. .1 

• r J.'.- . .' : '' 

i^ • ■( i« iiT a ';r\ vf 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


performed, outrageous to Christianity and to civilization. We 
passed under the vertical sun on the 2nd of 11th mo. having 
had a fine breeze since crossing the equator. Within the 
tropics, the sky at sunset frequently presents a scene of great 
beauty, in the softest tints. Blue is the prevailing colour in 
the zenith; nearer the horizon, verdigris green is shaded into 
rose colour, and sometimes into glowing red; with which also 
some of the patches of rich brown cloud of various shade are 
tinged. A purple shade is cast over the ocean, which is sel- 
dom rough ; and the atmosphere being of a pleasant warmth, 
the eflfect of the whole is remarkably soothing and luxurious. 

On the 4th of 11th mo. we passed between the rocks of 
Martin Vaz and the little island of Trinidad, oflF the coast of 
South America. As we approached them, the swell became 
bolder, and some Terns and Black Gulb, and a few Boobies 
were seen. The sight of land was cheering, notwithstanding, 
it was only that of an uninhabited island, and of the grotesque 
rocks occupied by sea fowl, depicted in the annexed etching. 

On the 12th, the remains of an old man of some piety, 
named John Salmon, were committed to the deep. He had 
been in declining health from the time he came on board. 
His situation among a number who were swift to do evil, was 
painful, but he bore it patiently. On being inquired of, a 
short time before he died, if he felt peaceful, he replied, that 
he was very comfortable ; and on being asked, if all his hope 
was in Christ, he said, ^^ O yes ! it had need.'' Last night, 
the corpse, wrapped in a blanket and sewed up in a hammock, 
with three eighteen pound shots to make it sink, was brought 
on deck, placed upon a hatch turned upside down, and 
covered with a union jack. This morning it was removed to 
the quarter-deck, around which the passengers and crew were 
seated. A flag was hoisted half-mast high, and the vessel 
was laid to, or made still upon the waters. The Captain 
read the funeral service of the Episcopal Church for such 
occasions ; and when he came to the words, " Commit the 
remains, &c. to the deep,*' the men who were stationed for 
the purpose, removed the union jack, raised the head of the 
hatch, and launched the corpse over the ship's side into the 
ocean, in which it instantly sunk. At this moment a cry of 


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6 ATLANTIC OCEAN. [11th mO. 

distress burst from the widow of the deceased^ but she soon 
became collected again, and the Captain proceeded with the 
service. He afterwards addressed the company on the folly 
of wasting their lives in riot and excess^ and I added an 
exhortation to "watch and be sober :^^ but nevertheless, 
some of the pensioners were again intoxicated before night ! 

The seaman who was lately raised to the office of second 
mate^ betrayed his trust on the l7th^ and persuaded one of 
the boys to steal liquor, with which they both got drunk, and 
he consequently forfeited his place. — On the 27th, a sail was 
in sight, which proved to be the Borneo, of London, on a 
whaling voyage. Whales had frequently been seen for some 
time past, and at one time, a shoal of Porpoises of vast 
extent passed us, swimming in a westerly direction, at a very 
rapid rate. The Borneo captured two whales while within 
sight. One of them spouted blood to a great height when 
struck, and dragged the boat at a fearful rate, almost round 
the circle of our horizon. After the whale was towed along- 
side the vessel, we went on board, and inspected the huge 
animal, which was of the same species as those taken in the 
northern latitudes : it is called in this hemisphere the Right 
Whale. A shark was aheady at its side watching for prey. 
The Himipbacked and the Fin Whales have also been occasion- 
ally seen of late, and the Right Whale in considerable numbers. 
They make a noise resembling that occasioned by tlie escape 
of steam from the boiler of a steam engine, but this is not 
heard at a great distance : their heads are often beset with 
barnacles. The near view of these enormous animals, rising 
majestically to the surface of the ocean, and spouting clouds 
of spray, whilst the water is pouring off their ample sides, is 
very interesting. Within the warmer southern latitudes, 
a number of Pilot-fish frequently accompanied us, swimming 
rapidly, either dose before the bow, or after the stem of the 
vessel. They are about the size of mackerel, and are marked 
with alternate dark and silvery bands. A sharp nosed fish 
supposed to be a Sword-fish, about nine feet long, fol- 
lowed us for several days. Several thick, dark-coloured fish 
about a foot and a half long, were frequently swimming close 
by the rudder. Sometimes small Dolphins were playing 

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1831.] CAPB OP GOOD HOPE. 7 

about the vessel ; and numerous Flying-fish^ of two species, 
darted from the bosom of the deep^ and made aerial excur- 
sions of various length, sometimes of more than a hundred 
yards, endeavouring to escape the voracity of Bonitas and 
Albacores, which frequently sprung out of the water after 
them. The Flying-fish, which are about the size of small 
herrings, and of a silvery hue, often meet an enemy in the 
air, in the long-winged Wandering Albatross ; which, in 
small numbers, and of plumage so varied as to admit of the 
individual birds being identified, accompanied us in this 
part of our voyage, sailing almost motionless on the wing. 

On the 2nd of 12th mo. we sighted the coast of Africa, off 
Seldanha Bay ; from whence we beat up past Dassen and 
Robben Islands, into Table Bay, which we entered on the 
5th. The sea broke heavily on Dassen Island, which is low 
and sandy, and against the main land ; the coast of which 
appeared hilly, with mountains remote from the shore. 
Some of the slopes near the sea were very sandy, and the 
hills looked arid and brown, except where ttiere were 
patches of cultivation. About Table Bay, the scenery is 
very beautiful. Hills of moderate elevation, with a few 
scattered farms, bound the northern side : on the east is an 
extensive sandy flat ; beyond which, at a distance of about 
30 miles, rise the peaked and rugged mountains of Hot- 
tentot's Holland. And on the south, at the foot of Table 
Mountain, which is 3,582 feet high, with the Devil's Hill to 
the lefik, and the Lion's Hill to the right. Cape Town, with 
its clean-looking, white houses, interspersed with trees, is 
situated. The ships and boats in the bay, the houses 
scattered along the shore, and the numerous sea fowl — Gulls, 
Albatrosses, Terns, Divers, and Penguins — flying and swim- 
ming around, contribute to cheer the eye which has for 
many weeks looked upon little, but the unvarying circle of 
the dark blue ocean. — ^The Penguins are unable to fly on 
account of the shortness of their wings, but these serve as 
fins to impel them through the water, in which they swim 
with their bodies submerged. 

On the 6th, we went on shore, and became the guests of Dr. 
and Jane Philip ; from whom, as well as from some other 

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8 CAPE TOWN. [12tih mo. 

Christian friends^ before strangers to us^ we received much 
kind attention. Dr. Philip introduced us to the Governor, 
Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole, who received us politely, and- 
permitted us to land some cases of religious books and tracts 
for gratuitous distribution, free of duty, and without subject- 
ing the vessel to port charges, more than are usual on putting 
into the bay merely for refreshments. We also received a 
kind welcome from John Bell, the Colonial Secretary, and 
from several other persons of influence. 

In company with Dr. Philip, we visited several schools 
and other public institutions for the amelioration of the 
human race. One of the infant schools contained a set of 
interesting children of the upper class, who were all of 
white complexion : the separation between these and the 
other ranks was effected by a higher rate of payment. In 
the lower school there was a lively group, of varied shade of 
skin, including the children of the fair European, the brown 
Hottentot, and the Black of various nations, torn from his 
native land, by the ruthless hand of slavery. The animated 
countenances of all colours, and the prompt and pertinent 
answers the children gave, shewed intellectual powers, that 
under such cultivation, promised well for future days. 

Slavery, with its train of abominations, was still in ex- 
istence at this period in Cape Town. I one day saw a young 
man attempting to sell a coloured child, which I had ground 
to believe was his own ; and the reason he then retained it 
was, that he could not get his price ! — Several times we rode 
in a carriage driven by a young man of white skin, good 
person and agreeable countenance, whom benevolence had 
placed in a situation to earn the price of the cost of his own 
freedom. This circumstance forcibly reminded me of the 
question: ^^Who maketh thee to differ from another, and 
what hast thou that thou didst not receive ?'' It was not the 
young man's fault that he was born a slave : it was not my 
merit that I was bom free. I felt thankful imder the con- 
viction that God was increasing the friends of the oppressed, 
and opening the eyes of men to see the incompatibility of 
slavery with the Gospel. 

At a committee meeting of the Philanthropic Institution, 

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for redeeming female children fitmi slavery^ it was deeply 
interesting to see sprightly children, the age of my own, 
brought forward to be sold for manumission. As I watched 
a slave mother who held a little girl by each hand, and 
observed her animated countenance, lighted up by the hope 
of obtaining the boon of liberty for her offspring, the question 
recurred to me. Why were these children bom in bondage 
and mine bom jfree ? Was it only because the oppressor laid 
his unhallowed hand upon their parents, and because mine, 
by divine mercy, were saved jfrom such oppression ? A reck- 
less persecutor was indeed permitted to cast one of my 
predecessors into prison, because he dared not to violate 
his conscience; and to keep him there till his days were 
ended by the severity, long before he had attained to my 
own age; but this entailed no curse on me or on my 
children. The persecutor bore the curse ! But were men 
to act on the great Christian principle, "Whatsoever ye 
would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto 
them;^' there would be neither persecution nor slavery. 

We visited the noble Library, the reading room of which 
is open to all classes, also the College, Hospital, and Pri- 
sons. We attended a meeting for the formation of a Tem- 
perance Society, and were present at a meeting for religious 
purposes in the chapel of the London Missionary Society. 
In this meeting my companion spoke for the first time in 
the line of gospel ministry. I was also favoured with an 
opportunity to express my Christian interest on behalf of 
those assembled, in whose company we felt the force of 
the declaration "God is no respecter of persons: but in 
every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness 
is accepted of him.^^ 

On the 15th, having parted from our kind friends in Cape 
Town, with earnest desires that many more might be added 
to those already labouring to spread the knowledge of Christ, 
and to ameliorate the condition of their fellow-men, we 
returned on board the Science, being accompanied by Dr. 
Philip, who before he left us, prayed vocally for our pre- 

On the 18th, we were again out of sight of land ; which. 

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10 CAPS l'aoullas. [1831. 

while it was in view^ was bo attractiye as to keep us too 
unsettled to attend much to other things. In the evening 
a breeze^ which we had had during the day^ increased into a 
gale^ and as we were in the act of crossing L'Agullas Bank, 
whidi lies off Cape L'AguUas — the southermost point of 
Africa — the wayes were magnificently bold. Sometimes we 
were in a deep hollow, and the next minute moimted on the 
top of a lofty biQow, which, as it approached, seemed ready 
to swallow us up ; but the buoyancy of the vessel occasioned 
it to rise over the surge; in mounting which, the masts 
would form an angle of, perhaps, 45 degrees with the horizon, 
in an opposite direction to that in which the billow advanced: 
on reaching its top the inclination was suddenly reversed, 
the wind at the same time pressing the vessel against 
the receding mass of water, which boiled from under 
the leeward side, or sometimes flowed over a portion of 
the deck. Sometimes the top of a broken billow struck 
against the ship's side, and covered half the vessel with 
spray. Now and then a shower fell, but often the sun 
shone brightly on the agitated scene, illimiinating the spray 
from the tops of the broken, dark blue waves, with the 
colours of the rainbow, and sometimes shewing light of 
emerald green through the unbroken water. Vast numbers 
of Stormy Petrels were sailing on the wing, within a few 
yards of the stem of our bark, and numerous Wandering 
Albatrosses were flying around, or occasionally settling on 
the surface of the boisterous ocean, and riding with careless 
dignity over t^e highest billows, scarcely regarding their 
surfy tops. 

When custom has taken away the nervous excitement 
occasioned by the rolling of the ship, it is surprising how 
little the mind recognizes danger under such circumstances ; 
and " how thoughtless still the thoughtless seem.'' For my 
own part, I enjoyed the spectacle ; but the remembrance, 
that He who rules over all is our Father, merciful and kind, 
regarding us for good, was necessary for the enjoyment: 
and the knowledge, that such scenes were often the preludes 
of a summons to the bar of eternal judgment, rendered it to 
me, a time of deep searching of heart ; and one in which self 

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1832.] SOUTHERN OCBAN. 11 

was deeply abased under a sense of unworthiness ; notwitib- 
standing a capacity was granted to trust in Jesus for mercy. 

Our voyage was made between the 39th and 45th degrees 
of south latitude. Most of the way we had a strong breeze^ 
and the weather so cold that we found it needful to use 
warmer clothing than we had been accustomed to wear 
in England. — Persons making voyages of this kind ought 
not only to be provided with warm clothing, but with such as 
is adapted for wet weather at sea. — Fin^ Spermaceti, and Riglit 
Whales were often seen in this part of the voyage, also the 
Wandering and the Black Albatross. The latter is the 
bolder bird, though the smaller species. One taken, measured 
3ft. from the tip of the bill to that of the tail, and 7ft. from 
the extremity of one wing to that of the other. Sometimes 
a few Sooty and other Petreb were also seen, and on the 
10th of 1st month, 1832, when upwards of 100 miles 
south of the island of Amsterdam, a Penguin passed us* 
To the south of NewHoUand we saw a Fishing Eagle chasing 
the Albatrosses, and observed long pieces of sea weed. 

On the first day of the week, during the voyage, we 
regularly assembled the pensioners along with such of the 
ship's company as could be present> and imparted religious 
instruction to them, according to the fresh ability, from time 
to time afforded us. On these occasions we read to them 
from the Holy Scriptures ; directed them to the convictions 
of the Divine Spirit on their own minds, condemning them 
for sin ; counselled them to seek mercy with God through 
a crucified Redeemer; and often prayed with them for the 
continuance of the long-suffering of the Most High. When 
approaching the land of our destination, under a fresh sense 
of duty, we had religious interviews with them singly or in 
families, in which several of them were much contrited. 

On the 4th of 2nd month, we were cheered by the sight 
of Van Diemens Land, which we made opposite Port Davey, 
in consequence of the south-easterly direction of the wind. 
We had not seen land for fifty days, but had become so 
much accustomed to the solitude of the ocean, as to feel 
reconciled to it, and at home upon its bosom. — The water 
this morning presented the olive colour, common where the 

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12 OFF PORT DAVEY. [2nd mo. 

depth is fathomable^ or to use a sea term ^'within soundings/' 
It has this colour generally^ from the Cape of Good Hope to 
about opposite the island of Amsterdam. — ^A small sail was 
seen to the northward. The number of vessels sighted since 
we left England; has only been about six. One of these^ in 
the Atlantic^ was of piratical appearance and suspicious 
movements. We had no defence but in the Lord ; our trust 
was in him ; we lifted up our hearts to him in prayer for 
protection; and were separated by a thunder storm from 
the object of our fears^ when it seemed to be bearing down 
upon us : thus^ if these fears were not groundless^ were we 
^' delivered from unreasonable and wicked men.'* 

The south-west coast of V. D. Land is mountainous. 
Some of its features reminded us of the north front of the 
Cleveland-hills of Yorkshire, but it is more lofty and rugged, 
and the scattered herbage and bushes upon it looked as 
brown as an English heath. — ^Large bubbles ascended in slow 
succession to the surface of the ocean, while we were becalm- 
ed opposite Port Davey; numerous animalcules were sporting 
on the surface, and fringed Jelly-fishes tinged with purple or 
crimson, were swimming at various depths. Several sharks 
were cruising around the vessel. — In the course of our 
voyage, a few Grey Sharks, 6 to 8ft. long, were captured by 
means of hooked lines, baited with pork. When a vessel is 
making four knots, or miles, an hour, a shark cannot take 
the bait; because the voracious animal is under the necessity 
of turning on one side to sieze its prey, and before this can 
be effected, the bait has passed beyond reach. To remedy 
this the bait was bawled close under the stem, and line given 
out, so as to render the bait still upon the water; it was 
then immediately seized. One of these sharks had several 
Sucking-fish adhering to it, some of them within its gills. 
These fish when suffered to fasten on the hand, produced a 
strange and unpleasant sensation. The heart of the Shark 
being taken out of the body, and put into a bucket of salt 
water, continued to beat for several minutes. 

During the night of the 6th, we passed to the south of 
y. D. Land. The sea again assumed its dark blue colour. 
Three large Grampuses came close to the vessel : they made 

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1832.] VAN DIEMBNS LAND. 13 

a snorting noise^ but did not eject water like the larger species 
of the whale tribe. A breeze on the morning of the 7th 
carried us to the south of the Mew Stone — ^a large conical 
rock a few miles from the shore. The mountains on the 
south coast are rugged^ and some of them peaked. Patches 
of snow were lying on a lofty one near South Cape* Wood 
covered their sides and reached in some places to the water's 
edge. We were in danger of being driven into Bad Bay, 
after passing too close to the Acteon Reef, — possibly through 
an opening in it, — ^but were enabled to escape from this 
perilous position by a sudden change of wind accompanying 
a thunder storm. After being thus mercifully delivered 
from this peril, and having rounded the rocky islets fronting 
Tasman^s Head, the wind, before daylight was quite gone, 
resumed its former position, and we proceeded up Storm 
Bay, along the east side of Bruny Island, as far as Fluted 
Cape — a fine mass of columnar basalt. — Having the advan* 
tage of a bright moon we continued our course until so 
dazzled by numerous fires of large extent, consuming the 
adjacent woods, as to be imable to see our way. The vessel 
was therefore kept ^^ standing off and on'' till day light. 

Early in the morning of the 8th of 2nd mo. we entered 
the Derwent ; and at a short distance from Hobart Town, 
took in a pilot, who brought us to anchor in Sulivans Cove. 
Our feelings were those of reverent thankfulness to the 
Great Pj-eaerver of men, for having brought us safely over 
the great deep ; and our prayers earnest for the continuance 
of his care over us, and for ability to go in and out accept- 
ably before him. 

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Hobart Town. — Col. Arthor. — Intense Sleep. — J. Leach. — Unexpected Meeting. 
— Home. — Meetings for "Worship. —The Liberty. — Convict Ship. — Prisoners. 
— Settlement of the Colony. — ^Female Factory. — ^Trees. — Animals. — Chain- 
gang. — Woody Hills. — OoTemment Garden. — ^Bees. — Assigned Pnsoners. — 
New Norfolk.— Bush Road.— The Clyde.— Green Valley.— Bothwell. — Hamil- 
ton. — ^Fences. — Remarkable Rock. — Porter and ThieTing. — ^Emigrants. — Style 
of living — ^Animals. — Hostile Aborigines. — Hospitality. — Bush-rangers. — She 
Oak.— Plains. — ^Remarkable ImpreB8ion.-^awyer*8 Huts. — Inn. 

HoBART Town^ the capital of Tasmania or Van Diemens 
Land^ is beautifully situated on undulating ground by the 
side of an estuary called the Derwent, from its resemblance 
to the lake of that name in Cumberland — In 1831, the num- 
ber of its inhabitants was 8,360, In 1837 it had become 
augmented to 14,461, and was still rapidly increasing. The 
streets are spacious, and most of them cross at right angles. 
The houses are chiefly brick, and covered with shingles that 
have the appearance of slates : they stand separately in little 
gardens, except in a few of the streets best situated for busi- 
ness, and extend over several low hills at the foot of Mount 
Wellington, which is 4,000 feet high, and covered with wood, 
except where bassaltic cliffs protrude near the top. — ^The 
view from the town toward the sea is exceedingly beautiful, 
extending over many miles of water, enlivened by shipping 
and bounded by woody hills, on which the greenness of 
numerous patches of cultivated ground, ornamented by white- 
washed cottages, has taken the place of the sombre forest. 
The sketch of this picturesque spot forming the frontispiece 
of this volume, was taken by my friend Charles Wheeler, in 
1833. Since that period it has undergone several alterations, 
and a tall cupola has been substituted for the spire of the 
Episcopal place of worship. 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 15 

Soon after we came to anchor in Snlivans Cove^ on which 
the town stands^ several persons came on board to enquire 
for intelligence from England, and among them a merchant, 
on whom we had letters of credit. With him we went 
on shore, and he introduced us to the Lieutenant Governor, 
Col. George Arthur ; to whom we delivered a letter of intro- 
duction fipom Lord Goderich, the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, commending us to the protection of the Lieut* 
Governor, and requesting him to forward, what Lord Gode- 
rich was pleased to call, our benevolent object, so far as 
he could consistently with the public good. Our first inter- 
view with Col. Arthur, gave us a favourable impression of 
his character, as a Governor and as a Christian, which fur- 
ther acquaintance with him strongly confirmed : he took 
great interest in the temporal and spiritual prosperity of the 
Colonists, and in the reformation of the prisoner population, 
as well as in the welfare of the surviving remnant of the 
native Black Inhabitants; and he assured us that every 
facility should be granted us, in attempts to further any of 
these objects. 

In the evening we returned on board the Science, and the 
chief mate requested us to wake him at 10 o^clock, that he 
might see the lights of the steerage passengers put out ; some 
of them having been on shore and having returned intoxica- 
ted: he had been kept up during the past two nights, in con- 
sequence of the position of the vessel in regard to the land ; 
and now, when 10 o'clock arrived and he had been a short 
time asleep, we found it impracticable to awake him* After 
vainly trying a variety of expedients, some of which made him 
speak, but without consciousness, we extinguished the lights 
ourselves, the captain being on shore. The mate slept 
soundly till five in the morning, when he awoke in terror, 
under a vague idea of neglect of duty. 

2nd mo. 9th. We went on shore with John Leach, a young 
man from Bradford, Yorkshire, professing with the Wesleyans, 
who came to V. D. Land under an apprehension of religious 
duty : at this time he worked as a journeyman cabinet maker 
three days in the week for his support, and devoted the re- 
mainder of his time to religious purposes. — ^We made calls 

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16 HOBART TOWN. [2nd mo. 

on several persons to whom we had letters of introduction^ 
and engaged a lodging in Liverpool Street^ near the entrance 
into the Government Domain. — When walking in the town, 
my companion met one of his nephews, whose residence was 
in a distant part of the island, and who was greatly surprised 
to see his relative, having had no notice of his intention to 
visit this part of the world. This unexpected interview was 
mutually agreeable ; for thus far from home, (and every one 
in this country calls his native land Home) the mind clings 
with increased attachment to every tie and every recollection. 

12th. We sat down together to wait upon the Lord, in our 
own sitting room, and were joined by the captain of a vessel 
who had lately taken some of the Aborigines to Flinders 
Island, where they are provided for by the Government. — ^We 
continued the practice of holding our meetings- for worship, 
on first days and once in the course of the week, for a consi- 
derable period by ourselves, unless, as on this occasion, any 
one casually stepped in. In the evening we accepted an invi- 
tation from the Lieut. Governor, to take tea with him and his 
family — a numerous and interesting group. After tea, at the 
request of the Lieut. Governor, I read to them the 6th chap- 
ter of John, the servants being Ukewise assembled at the 
evening devotion of the family ; and after a subsequent pause, 
I also expressed a few words, on the importance of an indivi- 
dual participation in the bread which came down from heaven, 
which Christ declared to be his flesh, that he would give for 
the life of the world. We were favoured on this occasion, 
to feel comfort from the Lord, especially in a short interval 
of silence, which terminated in vocal prayer. 

15th. The little vessel which we saw on the 4th instant, 
proved to be the Liberty, she arrived at Hobart Town yester- 
day: we went on board of her to day, and learned from the 
captain that she was built out of the wreck of the Betsy and 
Sophia, which sailed from London on the 4th of the 6th 
month, 1831, on a whaling expedition, and which had gone 
to the Island of Desolation or Kerguelens Land, to take a 
kind of seal called the Sea Elephant : she had nearly com- 
pleted her cargo from the blubber of this animal and that of 
the Black Whale, and was coming out of one of the bays^ 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 17 

when she unshipped her rudder^ and in spite of all exertions, 

went to leeward upon the rocks, and became a wreck : the 

papers and stores were saved, and the latter were sufficient 

to serve four months ; but calculating upon the uncertainty 

of escaping for a long time from these inhospitable shores, 

the men immediately took to the scanty allowance of 2lbs 

of biscuit each, with about 4lbs. of pork per week, for 

the whole nineteen men ; two of whom had been brought 

from Prince Edward's Island, where they had been left by 

the captain of another ship. They used the flesh of Sea 

Elephants and of birds, to supply the deficiency in other 

food. They were wrecked on the 16th of 3rd mo. 1831. 

After being on the island about a month, they began to 

build their little vessel, which they named " The Liberty ;*' 

and in which fourteen of them sailed on the 12th of the 

12th mo. Their sufierings made many of them thoughtful, 

and they kept up religious service on board. They made 

this voyage in the latitude of 44° S. and had plenty of wind. 

Three times they had heavy gales, but their little bark, which 

had one mast and was about twenty tons burden, rode so 

well over the billows, that they shipped no seas; but they 

had almost constantly to work the pumps. They leached 

Macquarie Harbour, on the west coast of this Island, 

when they had only 6lbs. of biscuit left. It was late when 

they arrived at the Penal Settlement, and the Commandant 

was in bed; the captain therefore remained till morning 

before seeing him, but was furnished with comfortable 

accommodation. When he awoke, and found himself in 

a house, he said it was long before he could realize 

his situation, or be sure that he was not dreaming. The 

Commandant treated this crew with great kindness, and 

a pious minister addressed them so movingly in the 

chapel, that the hardy sailor said, f^ There was hardly any 

body there that did not cry. " They were furnished with a 

plentiful supply of provisions, and sailed from Macquarie! 

Harbour on the 4th inst. and were favoured to arrive here in 

good health, after a voyage of about 3,500 miles. Five men 

whom they left on the island, were afraid to come in the 

Liberty ; the provision and ammunition were therefore 


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18 HOB ART TOWN. [2nd mo. 

divided with them. A vessel was afterwards sent firom 
V. D. Land; to bring these men away^ but they had been 
previously taken off by an American Whaler. 

16th. We went on board the Elizabeth^ in company with 
Captain Forster^ the chief police magistrate, to whom we had 
been introduced by the Governor, and witnessed the exami* 
nation of part of the convicts, just arrived from England in 
this ship. A variety of questions were put to them relating 
to the crimes for which they had been sentenced to transpor- 
tation, the number of times they had previously been appre- 
hended, the causes of their apprehension, the punishments 
they had received, the state of their families, what their 
parents were, whether they could read or write, their occu- 
pation, &c. of all which a record is kept. The Government 
was already in possession of information on many of these 
subjects, but further particulars are often elicited after 
the arrival of the prisoners. The convicts are assigned as 
servants to the colonists, and the vacancies occasioned by 
any others having obtained tickets-of-leave are first sup- 
plied; the rest are then assigned to the service of such 
as apply for them, except in cases of second transporta- 
tion, When they are mostly sent to a penal settlement. — 
In the present instance, a man was brought out a second 
time; but on account of his having behaved well on the 
voyage, and some other circumstances in his favour, he was 
ordered by the Governor into a chain-gang; where, if he 
continue to improve, he will after a certain time be assigned 
to private service. 

Dr. Martin, the Surgeon-superintendent, who came out 
with the ship, went over it with us : it had been kept 
so clean and well ventilated, that it was perfectly free 
from unpleasant smell, notwithstanding the prisoners, 220 
in number, had slept in it last night. — ^The boys were 
separated from the men, and a system of discipline and 
instruction was pursued amongst them, that was attended 
with very pleasing results. Some of the convicts were 
employed by the Doctor as assistants and monitors. Oat 
of 120 of the prisoners, 7^ could not read; and many of 
them seemed never to have had any care bestowed upon them 

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1832.] VAN DIEMEN8 LAND. 19 

before. Several of them learned to read and write, and 
improved in their conduct upon the passage. 

Dr. Martin's system of discipline does not exclude corporal 
punishment in extreme cases ; but it unites firmness with 
kindness, and such an appeal to the convictions, as brings 
a sense of its justice with the exercise of coercion. The 
prisoners of good behaviour, particularly the boys, were 
encouraged by a reward, of a little more time on deck than 
the others. I was much gratified with the inspection of this 
ship : it in no degree diminished the interest I have felt for 
this degraded part of the human family: and I thought it very 
evident, that persons coming out under religious impressions, 
might be very useful in assisting the surgeons, in the discharge 
of the important duties that devolve upon them in convict 
vessels. On mentioning my views to Dr. Martin, he said he 
should have been very glad of such help ; and I apprehend 
such would be the general feeling of the surgeons employed 
in this service. It is impracticable for them personally to 
superintend the adults and the boys at the same time, when 
they are confined in separate places. 

20th. We went to the Penitentiary to see the convicts from 
on board the Elizabeth, examined by the Lieut. Governor, who 
spoke to several of them individually: he alluded to the degra- 
ded state into which they had brought themselves by their 
crimes ; this he justly compared to a state of slavery ; he gave 
them counsel regarding their future conduct, warning them 
particularly against the influence of bad company, and of 
drunkenness; and told them they might regard the door of a 
public house, through which many of them had come into 
their present situation, as the entrance to a jail; that their con- 
duct would be narrowly watched, and if it should be bad, they 
would be severely punished, putTto work in a chain-gang, or 
sent to a penal settlement, where they would be under very 
severe discipline; or their career might be terminated on the 
scaffold. That, on the contrary, if they behaved well, they 
would in the course of a proper time, be indulged with a 
ticket-of-leave, which would permit them to reap the profit 
of their own labour : that if they should still persevere in 
doing well, they would then become eligible for a conditional 

c 2 

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20 HOBART TOWN. [2nd mo. 

pardon^ which would give them the liberty of the colony : 
and that a further continuance in good conduct, would open 
the way for a free pardon, which would liberate those who 
received it, to return to their native land. That the masters 
to whom they were assigned, would in the meantime, provide 
them a sufficiency of food, clothing, and bedding ; and that 
the Government expected them to labour for their masters 
without wages, and to do it cheerfully. 

After the Lieut. Governor had concluded, I begged leave 
to say a few words, and my request was readily granted. 
I endeavoured to enforce what the Governor had said, 
pointing out its bearing upon their immortal interests ; also 
directing their attention to their own experience, in regard to 
the cause of the sins for which they stood convicted before a 
human tribunal, and of many others, of which they were 
guilty in the sight of God, at whose judgment-seat they must 
all stand. This cause, I suggested to them, was their neg- 
lecting to confer with their own consciences, and I recom- 
mended them to the daily exercise of this duty, in order that 
they might understand their need of the help of the Holy 
Spirit, to resist sin, and of the atonement of a Saviour for 
pardon, and thus be prepared to pray for help and pardon 
in the name of Jesus, who came to save men^om their sins, 
and not in them ; and in order that they might keep these 
things in remembrance, I recommended them daily to read 
their Bibles. 

Several of the convicts who arrived by the Elizabeth, had 
belonged to a society of thieves in London, who limited 
their number to forty members, admitted by their captain, 
at any age, but preferring the young. They were distin- 
guished by marks, which had occasionally been changed 
because others had imitated them. They met at certain 
times to be trained to expertness in pocket-picking, and to 
divide their booty, which was expended in dissipation and 
profligacy, unless any of their number were in prison ; in 
which case a portion was devoted to paying counsel for them 
on their trial. Several other such societies are said to 
exist in the metropolis of England. Some of the juvenile 
prisoners had been confined on board a hulk before being 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 21 

sent to V. D. Land. In this situation they appeared to 
have corrupted each other greatly. There is much ground 
to apprehend that the juvenile hulks are nurseries of vice 
and crime. 

22nd. I had some conversation with a person who was 
brought to the Colony in 1804, at the time that Lieut. 
Governor Collins first formed a settlement in V. D. Land. 
At that period she was but a child; and on landing was 
lodged with some others under a blanket supported by sticks, 
near the place where the Commissariat-office now stands in 
Hobart Town, which at that time was covered with wood. 
After spending a night there, they were removed to the spot 
where the village of New Town now stands, and lodged in a 
hollow tree. Here they were first visited by the Aborigines, 
with whom the children were often left, and who treated them 
kindly. Provisions becoming scarce, the people often cooked 
maritime plants collected on the sea shore, which bear to 
this day, the name of Botany Bay Greens. Sometimes they 
collected for food the crap or refuse of the blubber of whales^ 
out of which the oil had been taken by whaling vessels^ 
and which was washed up on the shores. At length the 
pressure of hunger was so great, as to oblige the Governor to 
give leave to some of the convicts, to go into the country and 
shift for themselves. Many of these committed outrages 
upon the natives, whose animosity toward the white people 
thus became excited at an early period, notwithstanding 
many years elapsed before they were in open hostilty. 

23rd. We visited the House of Correction for females, 
termed the Factory, a considerable building of several wards, 
with apartments for the Superintendent, and a chapel. It 
contains about 230 prisoners, who are employed in picking 
and spinning wool, and in washing for the Hospital, Orphan- 
school, &c. Most of the inmates sleep in hammocks, and 
every thing about the place is very clean. On being sent 
hither for misconduct, the women are dressed in a prison 
garb and have their hair cut off, which they esteem a great 
punishment ; and in some cases they are subjected to solitary 

25th. We occupied a little leisure by a walk to one of the 


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22 HOBART TOWN. [2nd mo. 

woody hills near the town, which was clothed with the Gum 
trees — species of Eucalt/pttut — of large size, having foliage 
somewhat like willows, and growing among grass and 
small shrubs. Many trees were lying on the ground, 
and in various stages of decay. Smaller trees, called here 
Honey Suckle, She Oak, Cherry Tree, and Wattle, wfere 
interspersed among the others, and the ground was decorated 
with Leptospermam scopariumy Cornea virena, Indigofera 
australisy and Epacris impressa ; the last of which resembles 
heath with white, pink, or crimson flowers. The trees in 
this country often bear the name of others belonging to 
the Northern Hemisphere. Thus the Honey-suckle of the 
Australian regions is generally some species of Banksia, 
often resembling a fir in growth, but having foliage more 
like a holly ; and the Cherry-tree is an Exocarpos — a 
leafless, green, cypress-like bush, with small red or white 
fruit, bearing the stone outside ! — ^The vallies here are termed 
gullies. In one of these we set up from among some dead 
wood, two Opossums and some animals called Bandicoots, 
both about the size of rabbits. Some pretty birds were 
sporting among the branches, gay butterflies fluttering among 
the flowers, and a Mole-cricket, enlivened by a recent shower, 
was merrily chirping in the ground. Grasshoppers with wings 
of black and yellow were very numerous, so as to be injurious 
to vegetation ; and among the rocks, and on the trunks of 
trees, little dark lizards were plentiful, basking in the clear 

26th. We visited a chain-gang of upwards of 100 prisoners, 
at Bridgewater, 11 miles from Hobart Town; they were em- 
ployed under the superintendence of a military officer, in 
making a raised causeway across a muddy flat in the Derwent, 
and were generally in good health, notwithstanding the water 
here is not of the best quality ; but like much in the colony, 
contains a large quantity of alamine. A guard of soldiers 
under arms stood over the prisoners while we addressed them 
in the barrack yard. They were quiet and attentive, and we 
were well satisfied in having gone to see them. 

27th. We walked to the Government-garden, which is 
situated on the beautiful banks of the Derwent, about a mile 

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1832.] VAN DlEliRNS L.AND. 23 

from the town, and comprises several acres^ enclosed with a 
wall, except on the side next the river. The climate is 
almost too cold for grapes and cucumbers, but apples, pears, 
quinces, mulberries, and walnuts, succeed better than in 
England. Oaks, ashes, and sycamores, raised from English 
seed, attain to three or four feet the first year. Bees have been 
lately introduced : the first hive swarmed sixteen times this 
summer ! Many of the little shrubs which ornament English 
greenhouses are natives of this country, so that the gardens 
here have the advantage of having them in the open ground; 
and to these are added several from Africa and New-South- 
Wales : here also are some fine, young Norfolk Island Pines. 
28th« We looked into the King's School, conducted on 
the National School plan ; in which there are upwards of 
forty boys, who pay from 4d. to Is. a week, but attend 
irregularly. — ^The inefficiency of this school occasioned it to 
be subsequently remodelled under a more efficient teacher. — 
In a walk in the evening, on a partially cleared hill, in the 
environs of the town, we had conversation with several 
assigned prisoners, who were breaking up plots of ground 
for their respective masters. On remarking to one of them, 
that he had perhaps found his way to this country ^^ through 
the door of a public-hotise :^' he replied with some feeling, 
" You say right ; and' if I had known sooner what I know 
now, perhaps I should not have come here at all.'^ Another 
said, with an expression of pleasure, that on his way out, he 
had learned to read the Testament, and that he thought he 
could read the tracts we had given him. Another, that he 
had lately become aware of his danger from sin, and was 
now seeking peace. On the remark being made, that peace 
was offered to man on the condition of repentance toward 
God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ; and that when 
it was obtained, the help of the Holy Spirit must be sought, 
for ability to walk in the right way, he added, ^^ Yes, and we 
must not grieve the Holy Spirit.^* One of these men became 
pious, and after some years made a profession with the 
Society of Friends : he subsequently became free, and 
continued to conduct himself creditably to his religious 

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24 NEW NORFOLK. [2nd mo. 

29th. We walked to Elizabeth Town, usually called New 
Norfolk, in consequence of a number of persons, formerly 
residing on Norfolk Island, being settled in the neighbour- 
hood. The distance from Hobart Town is about 22 miles, by 
the road, which is a pretty good one for carriages ; and, which 
passing through the little villages of New Town, O'Briens 
Bridge, and Glenorchy, winds under the mountains by the 
side of the Derwent, which retains the appearance of a chain 
of picturesque lakes most of the way. It is navigable for 
small vessels to New Norfolk, where it is about as wide as 
the Thames at Battersea. The mountains are clothed with 
wood; but in many places the timber is not so thick 
as to exclude the growth of grass. Some narrow flats of 
good land, partially cultivated, occur near the river. The 
rocks exposed by cutting the road are basalt and sand- 
stone, or more dense silicious formations, and limestone 
imbedding marine fossils. A considerable piece of road has 
been recently cut near New Norfolk, by a chain-gang, 
stationed in three poor looking huts, into one of which we 
stepped, to give the men a few tracts. They were without 
Bibles, which one of them remarked, they might often spend 
half an hour advantageously in reading. This we represented 
to one of the Episcopal Chaplains of the Colony, who caused 
the deficiency to be supplied, and placed some copies of the 
Scriptures at our disposal, to apply in other cases of need. 
Evening closed in, very dark, before we reached our destina- 
tion, and the noise of strange birds, lizards and frogs, 
became great, and very striking to an English ear. We 
passed several neat farm houses, and some decent inns on 
the way, and at the end of our journey found accommodation 
at the Bush Inn, little inferior to that of decent inns, a step 
below first-rate, in England. 

3rd mo. 1st. The site of New Norfolk is so laid out, that 
the streets will cross at right angles. The houses were at 
this time about thirty in number, exclusive of an Episcopal 
place of worship and an unfinished hospital. We visited the 
latter, which contained about forty patients, under the super- 
intendence of one of the Colonial Surgeons. We also visited 
a respectable boarding-school, of about twenty fine looking 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENg LAND. 25 

boys, kept by a yoimg man with whose family I was ac- 
quainted in England. 

2nd. We returned to Hobart Town, calling at a few small 
cottages on the Sorell-rivulet ; where we reasoned with the 
occupants on ^^ temperance, righteousness, and judgment to 
come.*' Learning that there was ^^ a marked tree road,*' or a 
way through *'the bush,** as the forest is termed in this 
country, marked by pieces of bark being chopped oflF the 
sides of trees, we ventured to take it ; and though the dis- 
tance was five miles, and it was extremely hilly and rough, 
the variety was pleasant. Some of the species of Gum-tree 
have deciduous bark, and consequently white trunks ; these 
are generally blackened at the base by fire, that has been 
kindled to clear off the underwood and long-grass, at various 
intervals ; long strips of bark hang from the branches, and 
great numbers of dying and dead trees, the wreck of ages, lie 
on the ground in these forests. The only quadruped we saw 
was an Opossum. A fiock of Black Cockatoos were scream- 
ing and tearing off the bark from dead trees, to obtain the 
grubs on which they feed. Near the main road, a prisoner 
was at work splitting the wood of the Peppermint-tree, a 
species of EticalyptuSy into posts and rails : he was one who, 
as well as his master and family, had been recently awakened 
to the inportance of eternal things, by the labours of John 
Lieach, and belonged to a little congregation of Wesleyans, at 
O'Briens Bridge. The warmth of feeling of the master was 
like that described by the apostle Paul, in some of the early 
converts to Christianity; who, he says, ^^If it had been 
possible, would have plucked out their own eyes, and given 
them to him.** 

5th. Apprehending it would be right for us to take the 
first opportunity of visiting the penal settlement, at Mac- 
quarie Harbour, we conferred with the Lieut. Governor, on 
the subject, and received his sanction. — 6th. We accom- 
panied the Lieut. Governor to the Old Orphan School, and 
to an unfinished building, designed for the better accommoda- 
tion of this institution. The latter is prettily situated near 
New-town, and is intended for about six hundred children. 

On the 7th, we went to New Norfolk by a coach, which 

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26 COUNTRY. [3rd mo. 

changed horses at the Black Snake Inn^ on the road ; and on 
the 8th, accompanied by Robert Officer, the surgeon in charge 
of the Hospital, made calls on several of the inhabitants, 
and visited a Government School at the Back River. On 
the 9th, we accompanied George Dixon, an old school-fellow 
of mine, and three of his nieces, to his house at Green 
Valley, on the Lower Clyde, travelling twenty seven miles 
on foot, by the side of a little cart, drawn by four oxen 
and driven by a prisoner, and proceeding at the rate of 
about two miles and a half per hour, along a road, a large 
part of which was a mere cart track. Much of the country 
was settled : it consisted of hills, generally covered with open 
grassy forest, and interspersed with little patches of cultivated 
ground. In locations of land of two or three thousand acres, 
it is seldom that as many hundreds have been tilled. Large 
portions are of woody and rocky hills that cannot be ploughed, 
but on which sheep feed. In this country, these animals keep 
in good health in the woods, the climate being exceedingly 
drj\ Where the ground is free from timber, the grass is in 
tufts, often not covering more than one-third of the surface. 

On the way we looked into a school near Macquarie 
Plains, and called at the huts of a chain-gang, employed at 
a place called the Deep GuUey, in cutting a point of land, so 
as to admit the road to pass by the side of the Derwent. At 
this place coal is visible, in narrow strata alternating with 
sandstone and shale. On Macquarie Plains we called on 
John Terry, an emigrant from Yorkshire, who has a com 
mill at New Norfolk, and who was here shearing his sheep. 
He is a scrupulously honest man, who left England at a time 
when farmers were suffering adversity, and notwithstanding 
many difficulties that he has had to contend with, he thinks 
his circumstances have been greatly improved by the change. 
A few miles beyond his cottage is the Woolpack Inn ; the 
sitting-room of which would not disgrace a market town in 
England. We called also at the hut of a Scotchman, to get 
a drink of water, no more being to be had for nine miles. 
Here we met a person of our acquaintance, who, like many 
other young men, on first arriving in the colony, was too 
much excited with the notion of shooting Kangaroos and 

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. I 


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s'.l . -v. .:,.. a:-.. 


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1832.] VAN DIBMENS LAND. 27 

Parrots, to settle down at once to some useful occupation. 
In the course of this excursion for amusement, he sustained 
an injury by falling from a horse, that long disabled him 
from earning a livelihood. Pursuing our route over low hills, 
some clear of wood and others covered with Black Wattle, 
Acacia qffinis, yielding a gmn like Gum Arabic, we at length 
reached Green Valley, where we received a hearty greeting 
from Agnes Dixon, a native of Lewis, one of the Western 
Islands of Scotland, who soon prepared a refreshing cup of 
tea; after which, we gladly resigned our weary limbs and 
blistered feet to rest. 

Geoi^e Dixon emigrated to this colony eleven years ago, 
he was trained to agricultural pursuits, and has brought a por- 
tion of his location of land into cultivation, both in the growth 
of wheat and other grain ; he has also formed a good garden, 
which is weU stocked with fruit trees and has a Hawthorn 
hedge. The common fences of the country are formed of logs, 
branches, or posts and rails. His house is built of split wat- 
tles, plastered and whitewashed, the roof projecting in front 
and resting on wooden pillars so as to form a verandah, a com- 
mon style of building in this country. The house consists of 
two front rooms with boarded floors, and two behind, — a 
kitchen and store room, — ^floored with stone. His land con- 
sists of basaltic hills with grassy forest, and he has about a 
mile of frontage on the Clyde, which at this season of the 
year is little more than a chain of pools — called here lagoons 
— of various length and depth, and about 30 ft. in width. 
In winter this becomes a considerable river. Some parts of its 
banks are open, others bushy, and some rocky. In one place 
a rock like a steeple stands between a cliff and the margin of 
the river ; this is depicted in the annexed etching, which pre- 
sents also a fair representation of the woody hills of Tasmania, 
and their white barked Gum-trees. G. Dixon^s shepherd is a 
prisoner, but a man of religious sensibility: he became a 
thief from the influence of intoxicating drink, but does not 
shew any dishonesty when he abstains : he had a ticket-of- 
leave, but lost it, in consequence of being persuaded to drink 
a glass of porter, which immediately revived his thieving 

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We remained in the district of the Clyde, which is a 
branch of the Derwent, till the 19th, and in the course of 
this time visited the recently iaid-out towns of Bothwell, on 
the upper, and Hamilton, on the lower part of the river, as 
well as many of the settlers in the surrounding country, and 
on another branch of the Derwent, called the Ouse. 

Bothwell has already a small Episcopal place of worship, 
built of stone, an inn of two stories, of brick, about thirty 
houses, of wood, and a small jail, of the same material. 
Several of the settlers in the vicinity are persons of respec- 
tability from various parts of the United Kingdom ; a few of 
them are remarkable for their piety : two have water-mills a 
little above the town. Hamilton, at this time consisted of a 
water-mill and about ten houses, occupied chiefly by artizans 
of various kinds, who are a great accommodation to the 
settlers of the surrounding district ; and such of them as are 
sober and industrious make a respectable livelihood. 

The country about Bothwell is hilly. Basalt is the pre- 
vailing rock, but some of the hills are sandstone ; and near 
the river in a place below the town, the sandstone forms 
projections ; under which, prisoners who had escaped into 
the woods, and who in this country are termed Bush-rangers, 
formerly found concealment. These people plundered the 
settlers and committed other outrages ; but most of these 
outlaws have been captured or shot. Many of the hills about 
Hamilton are also basaltic, some of them are remarkably red, 
and bare of wood at the top, which is often of a vivid green, 
from being covered with Chick-weed of the same species that 
is troublesome in the gardens of England. She-oak — Casual 
rina qiiadrivalviSy is the prevailing tree on these hills: it 
seldom grows in contact : its trunk is about 10 ft. high, and 
5 ft. round; its head spherical, 10 or 15 ft. in diameter, 
and consisting of pendulous, leafless, green, jointed twigs, 
resembling horse-tail weed. From the neighbourhood of 
Hamilton a range of rocky mountains is visible to the west, 
beyond which the country is high and little known, and 
toward the centre of the island, a high craggy mountain, 
called the Peak of TeneriflFe, is very conspicuous.* Among 
the hills, and on the tops of some of them are level tracts. 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 29 

which bear the name of marshes or plains^ but the ktter 
term is often used in Tasmania to signify lands clear of 
trees, even where the surface is far from level. 

When a place is first occupied by a settler, a hut of the 
simplest kind is formed, often like a mere roof resting on the 
ground ; and when other needful things have been effected, 
one of upright logs is built, and covered with shingles. This 
is usually divided into two rooms ; one of which is fitted up 
with broad rough shelves, for sleeping berths; and the other, 
which has a square recess for a fireplace, built of stones, 
at the outer end, and continued into a rude chimney a little 
higher than the roof, is used for a cooking and sitting room. 
The crevices between the logs either remain open, or are filled 
with wool or some other material. A square opening, closing 
with a shutter, admits light into each room, and short logs of 
wood or rude benches, serve for seats. Many families that 
have been brought up in England in respectable circum- 
stances, live for several years in a hut of this description, 
until they can find time and means to build themselves a 
better habitation ; and a hut of this kind is generally to be 
seen contiguous to a better house, and is occupied by the 
male servants, who are mostly prisoners. 

Perhaps a chief reason why some persons make a better 
livelihood here than in England, is, because they submit to 
live at a much smaller expense. The original settlers having 
had free grants of land, subject only to a quit-rent, had also 
no rent to pay ; but no free grants of land are now made. 
The lowest sum for which land is sold by the Government is 
£5 per acre. Although convict servants are sentenced to work 
without wages, they cost a settler in one way or another, from 
£20 to £25 a year, including maintenance, clothing, &c. 

Agricultural operations are carried on in this country by 
means of oxen, horses being scarce. Cattle are bred in the 
bush, where they become very wild. Many of the settlers are 
expert in hunting them into enclosures, and subduing them to 
the yoke. Brush Kangaroos are numerous here on the more 
woody hills 3 and the Vulpine Opossum — the Common 
Opossum of this land — ^abounds. Both are injurious to the 
com. The Opossums live in holes in the Gum-trees^ and 

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30 OREBN VALLEY. [3rd mo. 

feed chiefly on their leaves : they are shot in considerable 
numbers on moonlight nights to diminish them^ and for 
the sake of their fur, which is very thick and warm. 
When shot they sometimes hang by their prehensile tails^ 
by which they can lay firm hold of a branch. While 
warm^ their fur readily comes off^ but it becomes fast when 
they are cold. The skins sell for about four pence 
each^ and are blacky brown^ or grey. Birds of various 
kinds also abound in this country ; among them may be 
enumerated Green Parrots, that are great pests in gardens^ 
Nonpareil Parrots, that are very troublesome in corn fields, 
and pick about on the roads. Green Paroquets, that frequent 
farm yards. Lemon-crested Cockatoos, which are likewise a 
great annoyance to the farmer, several species of Crow 
and Magpie, also the Wattle-bird, the Miner, the Wedge- 
tailed Eagle, &c. The Emu is now extinct in this part of 
the island. 

In the course of one of our walks, we passed the remains 
of a hut that was burnt about two years ago, by the 
Aborigines of the Ouse or Big River district. An old man 
named Clark lost his life in it, but a young woman escaped ; 
she rushed from the fire and fell on her knees before the 
natives, one of whom extinguished the flames which had 
caught her clothes, and beckoned to her to go away. 
They killed a woman on the hill behind the hut. A few 
weeks after, they surrounded the house of G. Dixon, who 
received a spear through his thigh, in running from a bam 
to his house. Previously to this period, the natives had vi- 
sited this neighbourhood peaceably and excited no alarm. 
They have now been removed to Flinders Island; but a 
detachment of soldiers, such as was placed in various situar> 
tions to defend the settlers against the Aborigines, still 
remains at Elengowen, near the house of a fine old Scotch 
woman, named Jacobina Bums; who emigrated from her 
own country many years ago, and has induced several of her 
relatives to follow her. She has improved her circumstances, 
and is noted for hospitality, which is indeed a very general 
virtue among the settlers in this land. 

While at Green Valley, walking alone, and meditating on 

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1832.] VAN DIBMENS LAND. 31 

the clear evidence I had had of its being my religions duty to 
visit this part of the worlds for many years before the right 
time seemed to be come for me to set out, and querying 
within myself as to how we should proceed^ so as to be found 
acting in accordance with the divine will, the words ^^Go 
through the breadth of the land/^ were impressed on my mind 
with such authority as left no doubt but this was the counsel 
of the Lord, mercifully granted for our direction. For the 
Lord still condescends to lead about and instruct those who 
put their trust in him ; notwithstanding it may seldom be by 
impressions exactly of this kind ; but more frequently by a 
constraining sense of his will independent of any distinct 
form of words, or by the overruling of his providence. 

3rd mo. 19th, we visited a little agricultural settlement 
called the Hollow Tree, and a place named Cockatoo Valley, 
celebrated for the fineness of its timber, which is chiefly of 
the kinds called Stringy-bark and Peppermint. Some saw- 
yers were at work here. Their hut was entirely built of large 
slabs of bark, which are obtained from several species of Eu- 
calyptMSi and serve many useful purposes. At the Wool- 
pack Inn, in returning toward Hobart Town, we obtained 
beds made up on wooden sofas, for the use of each of which 
two shillings a night was charged, this also was the price of 
each of our meals. 

20th. The mornings are cold at this autumnal season, but 
mid-day is as warm as an English summer. Numbers of 
Piping Crows called also White Magpies, were hopping about 
near the inn, and raising their whistling notes to each other 
at an early hour, and the chattering of Miners, Wattle birds. 
Black Magpies, and Paroquets was very enlivening to us on our 
journey. On the way to New Norfolk, which we reached in 
time for the coach to Hobart Town, we had interviews with 
the Deep-guUey-road-gang, in three detachments; whose 
attention we called to the end of their being, the incapacity 
of persons whose affections are estranged from Grod, and set 
on carnal things, to enjoy heaven, and the consequent ne- 
cessity of being bom again of the Spirit, by yielding to its 
convictions, which produce repentance toward God and faith 
toward Jesus Christ 

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Hobart Town. — Pious FerBons. — Penitentiary. — ^Temperance Society. — ^Klngs 
Pits. — Shrubs. — Fern Valley. — School Meeting. — Voyage to Macquarie Har- 
bour.— Prison Ship. — Piracy of the Cypress. — Prisoners. — Loss of the Science. 
— Fish. — Penguin. — Storm. — Port Davey. — Cockatoos. — Land Lobster. — 
Excursions. — Sharks. — Swearing. — Storm. — Sea Fowl. — ^Entrance of Mac- 
quarie Harbour. -. 

We remained in Hobart Town till the 7th of 5 th month ; 
and were much occupied in putting religious tracts and books 
into circulation^ visiting the prisons^ conversing with various 
persons^ on the eternal interests of man^ and holding or at- 
tending meetings for the promotion of religion and morality. 
During this period we became acquainted with several 
pious persons; one of whom. Captain William Jacob, from 
India, was temporarily residing in this island, on account of 
his health ; Van Diemens Land being much resorted to by in- 
valids from India, and often with great benefit, from its fine, 
dry, salubrious climate. Another, was a drummer^ who went 
into the army at fourteen years of age, and had remained in 
it fourteen years. He said he had spent much of his time in 
sin, but had now learned the value of his Bible, and was 
glad when opportunity oflFered, to retire into the bush to 
read it alone : he had found peace of mind through faith in 
Christ, but was in a situation requiring great watchfulness, to 
retain the sense of the Divine presence being with him. Ano- 
ther, was a young man, who, when in London, sometimes 
stepped into Friends' Meeting House, in White Hart Court ; 
where a solemn feeling pervaded his mind, without his 
knowing from whence it arose; but as he supposed the 
congregation while sitting in silence, were exercised in 

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1832.] VAN DIBMEN8 LAND. 33 

examining the state of their own hearts before the Lord, he 
endeavoured to be similarly occupied. 

We several times visited the prisoners in the Penitentiary, 
who assembled for religious purposes in a mess-room accom- 
modating about 450 at a time: their quietness and attention 
were very striking; notwithstanding many of them wore 
chains, the least clink was rarely to be heard ; many of them 
appeared truly grateful for a little religious counsel extended 
in Christian sympathy. 

The Penitentiary contains upwards of 600 prisoners : 
it is the great receptacle of convicts on their arrival in the 
Colony : those returned from assigned service for mis- 
conduct, or other causes, are also sent here ; and those 
•retained for some of the public-works are likewise lodged in 
this place. Considering the class of its inmates, they are 
under good discipline. They are sent out in the morning 
imder overseers and guards, to work on the roads, and in the 
various departments, as sawyers, carpenters, builders, &c. 
and they are all mustered and locked up at night. This 
precaution renders property remarkably secure in Hobart 
Town; where formerly robbery was very common. The 
Penitentiary has a large day-room, and numerous sleeping 
wards. The men are lodged on two tiers of barrack-bedsteads. 
These are large platforms without any separation, which 
is a great evil. In every room there is a man in charge, 
who is answerable for the conduct of the rest ; but it is rare 
for one to dare to complain of the misconduct of his fellow. 
Each individual has a bed, blanket, and coverlet ; and the 
place is well ventilated and clean. A tread-mill is attached 
to this building, which serves the purpose of special punish- 
ment, and grinds com for the institution. — ^At a subsequent 
period, a large addition was made to this prison, including 
a number of solitary cells, and an Episcopal chapel, part 
of which is open also to the public. 

In the latter part of the 4th month, a Temperance Society 
was first established in Hobart Town, but not without 
considerable opposition. The Lieut. Governor became 
its Patron; and the senior Colonial Chaplain, stated, in 
support of the object, that he had attended between three 

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34 KINGS PITS. [4tih mo. 

and four hundred criminals to execution, nineteen out of 
twenty of whom, had been drawn into the commission of the 
crimes for which they forfeited their lives, either directly or 
indirectly by intemperance. 

On the 15th of 4th month, we held a meeting with some 
sawyers, in their huts, at a place called the Kings Pits, 
on the ascent of Mount Wellington, at an elevation of 
about 2,000 feet, and about four miles from the town. 
These people seemed a little interested in the counsel 
given them, and received a few tracts gratefully. The 
forest among which they are residing is very lofty : many of 
the trees are clear of branches for upwards of 100 feet. It 
caught fire a few months ago, and some of the men narrowly 
escaped. The trees are blackened to the top, but are* 
beginning to shoot again from their charred stems. The 
brushwood is very thick in some of these forests. A 
shower of snow fell while we were at the place. Acor- 
da OxycedruSy 10 feet high, was in flower on the ascent 
of the mountain. This, along with numerous shrubs of 
other kinds, formed impervious thickets in some places; 
while, in others, Epacria impressa, displayed its brilliant 
blossoms of crimson and of rose colour. 

The brook that supplies Hobart Town with water, 
flows from Mount Wellington through a valley at the 
foot of the mountain. Here the bed of the brook is 
rocky, and so nearly flat as scarcely to deserve the name 
of TTie Cascades, by which this place is called. Many 
dead trees and branches lie across the brook, by the sides 
of which grows DrymophUa cyanocarpa — ^a plant, allied 
to Solomon^s Seal, producing sky-blue berries on an 
elegantly three-branched, nodding top. Dianella carulea — a 
sedgy plant — flourishes on the drier slopes : this, as well as 
Billardiera longiftora — a climbing shrub, that entwines itself 
among the bushes — ^was now exhibiting its violet-coloured 
fruit. In damp places, by the side of the brook, a princely 
tree-fern, Cybotium BUhrdieri, emerged through the sur- 
rounding foliage. A multitude of other ferns, of large and 
small size, enriched the rocky margins of the stream, which 
I crossed upon the trunk of one of the prostrate giants of 

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1832.] VAN PIEMENS LAND. 35 

the forest, a Gum-tree of large dimensions, which had been 
uprooted by some blast from the mountain ; and in its fall, 
had subdued many of the neighbouring bushes, and made a 
way where otherwise the forest would have been inaccessible. 
On descending from this natural bridge, to examine a tree- 
fern, I found myself at the foot of one of their trunks, which 
was about 5 feet in circumference and 10 in height. The 
lower part was a mass of protruding roots, and the upper 
part clothed with short remains of leaf-stalks, looking rough 
and blackened : this was surmounted by dead leaves hanging 
down, and nearly obscuring the trunk from distant view : 
above was the noble crest of fronds, or leaves, resembling 
those of Asplenrum Filia^-fcemina in form, but exceeding 11 
feet in length, in various degrees of inclination between erect 
and horizontal, and of the tenderest green, rendered more 
delicate by the contrast with the dark verdure of the sur- 
rounding foliage. At my feet were several other ferns of 
large size, covering the ground, and which, through age 
and their favourable situation, had attained root-stocks a 
foot in height, crowned by circles of leaves three times 
that length. Other plants of tree-fern, at short distances, 
concealed from my view, by their spreading fronds, the 
foliage of the lofty evergreens that towered a hundred 
feet above them. The trunk of one of the tree-ferns was 
clothed with a Trichomanes and several species of Hy- 
menophyllum — small membranaceous ferns of great delicacy 
and beauty. On a • rocky bank adjoining, there were 
other ferns, with creeping roots, that threw up their 
bright green fronds at short distances from each other, 
decorating the ledges on which they grew. In the deepest 
recesses of this shade I could enjoy the novel scene — ^fems 
above, below, around — ^without fear of molestation ; no 
dangerous beasts of prey inhabiting this interesting island. 
The annexed etching wiU give the reader some idea of a 
tree-fern, many species of which exceed in beauty the stately 
palms of warmer climates. 

5th mo. 7th, 1832. Having obtained a letter of introduc- 
tion from the Lieut. Governor to Major Baylee, the com- 
mandant of the Penal Settlement, at Macquarie Harbour; 

D 2 

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36 iiOBART TOWN. [5th mo. 

and other necessary arrangements having been made for our 
passage on board the Government brig Tamar^ wfe embarked^ 
after dining with the senior colonial chaplain^ William 
Bedford^ and his family^ from whom we received much kind 
attention during our sojourn in V. D. Land. The vessel 
not sailing till the 1 0th, we spent the evening at the 
house of Nathaniel Turner, the Wesleyan Minister sta- 
tioned at Hobart Town, in company with John Allen 
Manton, a Wesleyan Missionary, also proceeding to 
Macquarie Harbour. At N. Turner's we also met the 
teachers of four sabbath schools, containing together 
about 200 children. Two of these schools are in Hobart 
Town, and the others at Sandy Bay and O'Briens Bridge. 
After the teachers had transacted the business of their 
monthly meeting, we had a solemn and highly ftivoured 
religious opportunity ; in which, in the fresh feeling of 
heavenly love, I endeavoured to encourage them to live 
under a sense of the divine presence, and to seek to the 
Lord for counsel and direction, in order that their well- 
intended labours might be blessed. 

There were in the cabin of the Tamar, John Burn, the 
captain for the voyage, Henry Herberg, the mate, David Hoy, 
a ship^s carpenter, Jno. A. Manton, George W. Walker, and 
myself. Ten private soldiers and a sergeant, as guard, occupied 
a portion of the hold, in which there were also provisions for 
the Penal Settlement, and a flock of sheep. Two soldiers* 
wives and five children were in the inidships. Twelve 
seamen, several of whom were convicts, formed the crew ; 
and 18 prisoners imder sentence to the Penal Settlement 
completed the ship's company. The last occupied a jail, 
separated from the hold by wooden bars, filled with nails, 
and accessible only from the deck by a small hatchway. 
One of the soldiers on guard stood constantly by this hatch- 
way, which was secured by three bolts across the open- 
ing, two walked the deck, the one on one side returning 
with his face toward the prison, at the time the other was 
going in the opposite direction, and two were in the hold, 
seated in view of the jail. The prisoners wore chains, and 
only two of them were allowed to come on deck at a time 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 3/ 

for air ; these were kept before the windlas and not 
allowed to converse with the seamen. This was rigidly 
observed, in consequence of two of these men having, at a 
former period, been parties in the seizure of a vessel named 
the Cypress, making the same voyage; which was carried 
off to the coast of China or Japan. They put the persons, 
now our captain and mate, on shore, along with several 
others, in Recherche Bay, at the mouth of IKEntrecasteaux 
Channel ; from whence they reached Hobart Town with 
great difficulty. The jail occupied by these men was not 
high enough for them to stand erect in, but they could 
stretch themselves on the floor, on which they slept, being 
each furnished with a blanket. 

On the 8th, I paid my first visit to the prisoners, just after 
they had been searched, lest they should have concealed any 
implements for effecting their escape. After enquiring respect- 
ing their health, I told them that if they had no objection, I 
would read them a chapter in the Bible, and desired to 
know if there was any one in particular they would prefer. 
One of them replied, there was some very good reading in 
Isaiah. I opened the book, and read the 42nd chapter, and 
at the conclusion commented upon it, pointing out the effect 
of sin, the object of the coming of the Saviour, and his 
power, not only to deliver out of darkness and the prison- 
house, in a spiritual sense, but also in an outward one; 
expressing my conviction, that if they would attend to that 
grace which reproved them for evil, they would be led to 
repentance, and into that faith in Christ, through which they 
would obtain forgiveness of sin, and a capacity to love and 
serve God; that this would produce such an effect upon 
their conduct, as to restrain them from evil, and enable them 
to work righteousness, procure them a remission of their 
sentence, and introduce them to peace and joy, beyond any 
thing of which they could form an idea while in the service of 
Satan, whom, I did not doubt, they had found in their own 
experience to be a liar, as they had been tempted by him to 
expect pleasure from sin, but had found in its stead 
trouble and loss. Several of them were attentive and 
appeared thoughtful, and on taking leave, one of them placed 


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38 PORT DAVEY. [5th mo 

his hand to my foot and helped me to ascend from the 

The day the Taraar sailed was very fine. The Science, 
by which we came to V. D. Land, was passing down the 
Derwent at the same time, on her voyage for England ; we 
parted from her on entering lyEntrecasteaux Channel, lit- 
tle anticipating the disaster by which she was lost off Cape 
Horn; where she was struck by a heavy sea, that swept 
away four of her men, and left the remainder, who w^ere 
ultimately rescued by another ship, in a forlorn and peri- 
lous situation. — ^The various bays and islands of D'Entre- 
casteaux Channel, with their wood-covered hills looked 
beautiful. We came to anchor in the evening off Mount 
Royal. Numbers of fish called Flat-head and Rock Cod 
were taken. The former is firm, and resembles in figure 
the Bull-head of English rivers, but weighs about Ijlb. 
The other is softer than the English cod, and weighs from 
3 to 71bs. When stewed with but little water it nearly 
dissolves, and makes very palatable soup; — at least so we 
sometimes found it when at sea, and having little but salt 

11th. Anchor was weighed early, and passing between 
the Acteon Islands and Recherche Bay — ^a navigation requir- 
ing great care — we rounded the Whales-head, and came into 
the open sea. The evening was beautifully fine. We passed 
close by the Mew Stone by moonlight. Jelly-fish, such as 
are said to be food of the whale, and resembling glass-beads, 
were in myriads in the day time, and at night the sea was 
illuminated by phosphorescent species. Sometimes we 
heard the cry of a small Penguin common in this vicinity, 
known by the name of the Jackass Penguin. 

12th. About two o'clock in the morning, the wind 
changed to N.W. At four it blew a violent gale, attended 
by lightning, thunder, and rain. We had just advanced 
far enough to be able to enter the middle harbour of Port 
Davey, by its northern opening, which is to the south 
of the northermost conical rock in the annexed sketch* 
The rocky island between that, and the southermost of the 
three conical rocks to the south, shuts this harbour in from 

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•«• • • •• 

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the open sea. We came to anchor in the middle of a bason a 
mile and a half across, surrounded by hiils, with little wood. 
One on the north, which may be 800 feet high, called Spring 
Hill, exhibits little but white quartz rock; which is abundant 
every where around. There were trees, many of which 
appeared to be dead, on the distant mountains. This was the 
first time we had taken refuge in a harbour in an uninhabited 
country; but solitary as it was, we were thankful for the 
refuge from the storm. 

We remained in Port Davey seventeen days. During this 
time the wind was contrary, and often blew with great 
violence ; sometimes threatening to drive the vessel on shore, 
notwithstanding it was moored with two heavy chain cables. 

During our stay the sheep were placed on a small island, 
on which were a few bushes and some coarse rushy herbage, 
such as was also the covering of much of the adjacent 

There were low Gum-trees on some of the hills, and the 
brushwood in some of the gullies was very thick, as it was also 
toward the sea beach ; on which, here and there, logs of the 
Huon Pine, a fine species of timber, were washed up. 
Several low shrubs of the Epacris tribe were growing in the 
clefts of Spring Hill : among them a species of Richea with a 
single head, resembling a pine-apple plant, mounted on a 
stick 6 feet high; two species of Decaspora — thyme-like 
bushes, with flattened purple berries, and Prinotes cerinth- 
aides — a straggling little shrub, with cylindrical, inflated, 
pendulous blossoms, an inch long, of a deep rose colour. 

I once ascended Spring Hill alone, taking the rocky part of it, 
which is composed of projections of white quartz, sometimes 
tinged with pink or blue, amongst which I could climb as on 
a rude stair-case. Being sheltered from observation by the 
rocky spires, I came among a flock of White Cockatoos, 
which are too shy knowingly to admit the presence of a 
stranger : they chattered to each other, and shook their 
beautiful lemon-coloured crests with an amusing degree 
of consequence, until at length I threw a stick among them, 
which dispersed the assembly. Much of the ground running 

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40 PORT daveYp [5th mo. 

back from the top of this hill^ was perforated by a land- 
lobster^ the size of a prawn; its holes were carried up 
with conical towers of earth about a foot high. Thb 
animal seems common in this wet part of Van Diemens Land. 

One of my objects in this excursion was to endeavour to 
ascertain^ if there existed beyond Bathurst Harbour — the 
sheet of water east of where the Tamar was lying — a 
lake doubtfully laid down on some maps; but this object 
was frustrated^ by the coming on of a fog and heavy raiu^ 
just as I had reached a remote peak^ from which I had hoped 
to see the desired spot. Previously, however, I had noticed 
the sea breaking on the south coast, at a much shorter dis- 
tance, than I had expected from the map. — ^The top of the 
peak was composed of large blocks of white quartz, with 
thick scrub between them. From one to another of these I 
skipped to the opposite side of the peak ; and from thence 
descending, passed through a thick scrub as high as my. 
shoulders, hoping to reach the vessel by a nearer cut ; but I 
had not proceeded far, before a deep woody ravine obstructed 
my course: and now was put to proof, the advantage of 
having my mind stayed on the Lord ; the feeling of whose 
good presence had been with me in my solitary wandering, and 
in my musing upon the novel scenes presented by his creation 
in this part of the world ; for had I become agitated I should 
probably have been lost. Evening was drawing on, I was 
alone and several miles from my companions ; the scrub 
through which I had come had closed as I had left it, and it 
was necessary to retrace my steps. Fixing my heart more 
steadfastly on the Lord, in prayer, and taking the bearing of 
a prominent rock by a compass, which in all my wanderings 
I carried in a pocket opposite to that occupied by my watch, 
I patiently parted the opposing scrub with my hands, now 
somewhat weakened by fatigue ; and after some time, again 
reached the rocky peak, which I mounted under such a sense 
of my Heavenly Father's love, as I hope not soon to forget, 
and which comforted and invigorated me, and constrained me, 
on bended knees, to give him thanks. 

The fog parted a few times, and opened a fine view of the 
northern harbour of Port Davey, the Davey River, Mount de 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 41 

Wit, and other mountains in that direction. Losing little 
time in observations, and being favoured to find my way 
across the rocks in safety, I took to my heels upon the more 
open ground, and came in sight of the Tamar before the sun 
had set. I was much surprised not to see the boat off, as I 
had requested the men who came on shore for water in the 
mornings to come for me in the evening, saying, they might 
then expect to see me somewhere on the face of Spring HiU, 
Like men of their class, they had so little regarded the in- 
structions, that when inquired of, a few hours after, they 
could give no account of me. My companion had become 
uneasy at my absence ; and, at length, I saw him with some 
seamen leave the vessel in a boat and come toward the shore, 
and heard the V. D. Land cry of Cooey, borrowed from the 
Aborigines, to which I answered ; but to my dismay, saw the 
boat again pushed firom the land. Not having taken into 
account that sound does not readily descend, they had con- 
cluded, as they did not hear me, that I was not there. No 
time was to be lost. I left the rocky part of the mountain for 
a slope on which I hoped to run ; but on reaching it, my 
feet slipped among a fmigus resembling moistened glue — ^a 
species of TremeUaF — ^with which the groimd had become 
covered during the rain. I arose and fell until my legs shook 
under me ; and giving up the hope of standing, I launched off 
in a sitting posture ; and besmeared with this sUmy vegetable, 
passed rapidly to the bottom of the hill. Here again I ran 
and shouted : my voice reached far over the still water, and 
the boat, to my great comfort, returned. I met it in the sea, 
for the purpose of washing my clothes, that previously, 
for several hours, had been soaked with rain, which fell at 
times so heavily that I had had no occasion to stoop to drink 
during the whole day. 

While detained in Port Davey, we made an excursion, in 
the ship^s boat, with the carpenter, to examine the northern 
entrance into the bason in which the Tamar lay. It proved 
sufficientiy deep for ships of moderate size ; but there is a 
sunken rock half a mile N. and by West of the largest 
pyramidal rock, which is called by the seamen Big Caroline. 
We also went into the southern opening, called Kelleys River, 

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42 PORT DAVBY. [5th mo. 

which is an estuary 5 or 6 miles long, 1 broad, and from 2 to 
3 fiathoms deep, and consequently only fit for boats. There 
were several Black Swans upon it These birds are abundant 
in this neighbourhood in the breeding season. Among the 
scrub on the shore there was a flock of Black Cockatoos. 
The Wombat — ^a burrowing, herbivorous animal, in figure 
somewhat like a small bear, — abounds in this neighbouriiood : 
its flesh, when young, resembles that of the hare. 

We likewise visited the Davey River, or northern harbour; 
in which, imder a point from the west, in the turn toward 
Cockbum Cove, vessels sometimes take shelter from a 
southerly gale. Oysters are obtained at low tides in this 
cove, on the smooth waters of which. Pelicans, Red-bills, 
and Gulls were swimming. On the north of it there is mica 
rock containing Garnets. Here we spent a night by a large 
fire, sheltered by a few bushes, near to heaps of oyster shells, 
accumulated from time immemorial by the Aborigines, who 
occasionally resort hither. The middle of the night was 
stormy and wet. The distant mountains were covered with 
snow in the morning. 

Fishing formed a frequent occupation on board the Tamar. 
Rock-cod and occasionally eels about 5 feet long and 14 inches 
round, were caught. Sometimes a small shark would take 
the bait ; and we had to expostulate with the soldiers against 
a cruel practice they adopted, of running a stick through the 
breathing apparatus of these animals, and in this state throw- 
ing them overboard to perish. This was done in the spirit of 
revenge, because of the annoyance, as they not only spoiled 
the baits, but drove away the fish. We succeeded in con- 
vincing the men that they were wrong in giving way to this 
spirit, and that it was their duty either to kill die sharks by 
the most speedy means or to liberate them, as they had as 
much right to take the baits, as the soldiers had to take 
the fish; seeing that in so doing, they only followed an 
instinct given by their Creator. One of the species is spotted, 
and is called in this country, the Nurse. 

Reading in the cabin, and the religious instruction of the 
respective groups of the prisoners, sailors, soldiers, and soldiers* 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 45 

wives and children^ also occupied portions of the time we were 
delayed here, which without employment, would have been 
tedious. In pleading with some of these people on the 
importance of a practical application of the doctrines of the 
Gospel, by those who profess to be christians, we desired them 
to judge of the corrupt state of their own hearts, at least, by 
that token which was obvious to others ; viz., the practice of 
cursing and swearing. They took our counsel in good part ; 
and whether changed from principle or not, became more 

There was something peculiarly interesting and affecting to 
my mind, in bringing the sound of the Gospel into this 
desolate part of the earth ; where perhaps, since the days in 
which the world itself was called into existence, it was never 
before heard ; and in proclaiming it as the message of mercy, 
to the people we brought with us — the only human beings in 
the place — ^whose hearts appeared to be as desolate as the 
hills by which we were surrounded. 

5th mo. 29th. The wind having become more favourable, 
the sheep were brought on board, and while preparation was 
making for sailing, G. W. Walker and the carpenter landed 
me on one of the islets at the mouth of the harbour, to cut 
Native Parsley and a variety of shrubs for provender. This 
islet is composed of a substance resembling Asbestos, and is 
fronted on the inside by vertical veins of quartz. In the 
middle is a deep cove with a hole through to the outside, 
the surf beating against which forms a jet of spray within 
many feet high, resembling the blowing of a whale. We 
boarded the Tamar on her passage out, and were soon again 
at sea, where the fair wind failed, and we stood off the land 
for the night. 

On the morning of the 30th, we had a view of Point Hibbs, 
and of a high, domed rock named the Pyramid. A series of 
heavy gales in the course of the four succeeding days, drove 
us far northward of our port. When we were laid to, the 
wind blew the topsail out of the bolt-rope, and while it was 
undergoing repair, we beat down the rocky coast with sails 
only just sufficient to enable us to keep off the shore. 
Scarcely anything was cooked during this period, and few 

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persons on board were disposed to eat. Most of the time we 
kept in our berths, which were warm and dry. The motion 
of the vessel was too great to allow a person to walk, or even 
to stand without hold, and we were unable from this cause 
combined with sickness, to wash or shave. 

Some Black and Wandering Albatrosses were continually 
soaring around us; and a flock of the beautiful Petrels, called 
Cape Pigeons, kept close to our stem, generally on the wing, 
but often swimming, or running on the water after anything 
cast from the ship. The wind howls, and the sea r^es in 
vain to these birds. They keep on the wing in the fiercest 
tempests, and swim with ease on the most boisterous waves. 
It was a trying time for aU on board, especially for the poor 
women and children ; into whose quarters the water several 
times found its way in torrents. The perplexities that some- 
times arose, occasioned some of the soldiers to quarrel and 
swear, even when the vessel seemed ready to be overwhelmed ; 
so inveterate was this evil habit ! It was a season of trial 
both of our faith and patience ; but the belief that we were 
in our right places was sustaining. 

On the morning of the 4th of 6th month, land was descried 
through the hazy atmosphere, and all sail was made with a 
varying but generally favourable wind, till we came distinctly 
in view of Cape Sorell, at the entrance of Macquarie Harbour. 
On approaching nearer, we were thrown into much perplexity, 
no signal being made from the pilot's station for an hour and 
a half, either to approach nearer or to stand oflF. During this 
time we stood backward and forward outside the dangerous 
bar, which is of wide extent, while the sea was again getting 
up. At length, when about to run back for shelter to Port 
Davey, we were descried, and a signal to enter was hoisted. 
We immediately stood in, and in a few minutes the oppor- 
tunity to return was past. The pilot put off, knowing better 
than ourselves, our danger : his boat coidd only be seen now 
and then above the billows ; but he was soon alongside, and 
ordered all the sails to be squared, that we might go right 
before the wind. On coming on board, he commanded the 
women and children below, and then came to me, and advised 
me to go below also. I replied, that if we were lost I should 

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1832.] VAN DEIMENS LAND. 45 

like to see the last of it, for the sight was awfully grand. 
Laying hold of a rope at the stem, he said, *^ Then put your 
arm round this rope and don^t speak a word/' To my com- 
panion he gave similar instructions, placing him at the opposite 
quarter. A man was sent into the chains on each side, with 
the sounding lead. The pilot went to the bows, and nothing 
was now to be heard through the roar of the wind and waves, 
but his voice calling to the helmsman, the helmsman's answer, 
and the voices of the men in the chains, counting off the 
fathoms as the water became shallower. The vessel was cast 
alternately from one side to the other, to prevent her sticking 
on the sand, in which case the biUows would have run over 
her, and have driven her upon a sand-bank a mile from the 
shore, on which they were breaking with fury. The fathoms 
decreased, and the men counted off the feet, of which we drew 
7i, and there were but seven in the hollow of the sea, until 
they called out eleven feet. At this moment a huge billow 
carried us forward on its raging head into deep water. The 
pilot's countenance relaxed : he looked like a man reprieved 
from under the gallows, and coming aft, shook hands with 
each individual, congratulating them on a safe arrival in 
Macquarie Harbour. 

We now soon entered into the inlet, which is about twenty- 
five miles long, and from three to seven miles broad, by a 
narrow passage between two rocks, called " The Gates," or 
from the nature of the settlement, ^^ Hells Gates ;" many of 
the prisoners recklessly asserting that all who entered in 
hither, were doomed to eternal perdition. We had a fine sail 
up the Harbour ; and on arriving off Sarahs Island, about 
twenty miles from the entrance, were boarded by the com- 
missariat ofiicer, siu^eon, &c. — all anxious to hear what was 
going on in the world, they having had no tidings for more 
than three months. They gave us a hearty welcome, and 
conveyed us to the Settlement, where I became the guest of 
Major Baylee, and G. W. Walker took up his quarters with 
our feDow-voyager, J. A. Manton ; for whom, as missionary, 
a house was in readiness. 

After a short time spent in conversation, each of us retired 
to rest, thankful to the Lord, who had answered the prayers 

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put up to him on the raging seas, for deliverance from the 
stormy tempest ; when the billows, spiritually as well as out- 
wardly, at times went over our heads. We cried unto God, 
who commands the winds and the seas and they obey him. 
We called to mind the situation of the disciples of his Son, 
when he was asleep in a tempest and they were afraid, and 
remembered, that when he arose and rebuked the wind, there 
was a great calm. We put our trust in his name, and re- 
newed our confidence in the Father of mercies through him. 
Our minds became comforted by his Holy Spirit : we laid us 
down and slept, being sensible that he sustained us. And 
now that he had permitted us again to land in safety, we 
could adopt the language of the Psalmist. ^^ Bless the Lord, 
O my soul, and all that is within me, bless his holy name. 
Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits : 
who forgiveth all thine iniquities; who healeth all thy 
diseases; who redeemeth thy life from destruction; who 
crowneth thee with loving kindness and tender mercies.^^ 

We remained 17 days at the settlement on Sarahs Island, 
making occasional excursions to the out-posts ; and, notwith- 
standing, the place has since been abandoned, on account of 
its distance from Hobart Town, and the difficulty of access to 
it, and the prisoners have been transferred to Port Arthur, on 
Tasmans Peninsula, I propose in the ensuing chapter to 
introduce some notice of it, and of the discipline of the 
prisoners, as being an interesting portion of the nearly im- 
inhabited, western side of V. D. Land, and exhibiting a 
specimen of the discipline of one of the older Penal Settle- 

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Hacquarie Harbour. — Mountains. — ^Trees. — ^Rivera. — Sarahs Island. — Timber.— 
State of Prisoners. — Mortality. — Murders. — PriTations. — Escapes. — Cannibal- 
ism. — Example. — Punishment — Reformation. — Pious Prisoner. — Depravity. 
— Employment. — Provisions. — Pine-roads. — Philips Island. — Ferns. — Health. 
— Climate. — Spirits. — Bermuda Prisoners — Wellington Head. — jTail Meetings. 
—Prisoner Steward. — Spaniel and Blackfish. — Aborigines. — Kelp. — Lichen. — 

Macquarie Harbour did not present the desolate appearance 
which we had been given to expect. The mountains along the 
east side are not nearly so bare as those of Port Davey, the 
rock only projecting above the soil on the tops of the highest. 
The most striking mountains are Mount Discovery, to the 
south. Mount Sorell, to the east, and Mount Zeehaan and 
Heemskerk, to the north. The herbage on their sides is 
coarse and deep ; it looks grassy from a distance, but pro- 
bably may not be so in reaUty, The scrub of the guUies runs 
into deep wood on the lower grounds. Deep wood also 
clothes many of the hills. The prevalence of Myrtle — Fagws 
Cunmnghamii — ^and other trees of dark foliage, gives a very 
sombre appearance to the forests. These extend also over 
the low hills at the foot of the mountains, and up the west 
side of the harbour, about ten miles, toward Cape Sorell. 
Behind the mountains on the east of Macquarie Harbour, rises 
a magnificent, snow covered range ; the most striking point 
of which is the Frenchmans Cap, having the form of a 
quarter of a sphere, perpendicular on the south, and towering 
to 5,000 feet above the level of the sea. This is probably 
the highest point of V. D. Land. The south end of the 
harbour is more level and less woody. A wide inlet called 
Birches River opens into it, and a little to the east, the 
Gordon River, which is navigable for 30 or 40 miles, but 

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closely hemmed in by scrub and mountains to a great dis- 
tance. Lime, which is rare in Tasmania, is obtained from 
the upper part of this river. On the east side is an inlet 
called Kelleys Bason, and near the northern extremity, is 
Kings River. The scrub in the? 'gullies and many parts of 
the forest is extremely thick, and very deep : it comes so 
close to the water's edge, as generally to render the shores of 
the harbour and tributary rivers inaccessible. 

Sarahs Island has a strikingly verdant appearance. The 
little paddocks, interspersed among the buildings and lofty 
paled fences, that give the whole island the look of a fortified 
place, vie in verdure with English meadows. — ^The capacity 
of the country about Macquarie Harbour, for cultivation, 
does not however appear to be great. Such lands as are 
sufficiently clear to admit of being ploughed, are peaty and 
wet ; but probably they might be made to produce grass and 
vegetables. No attempts have been made to raise any kind 
of grain ; and the humidity of the climate of the western part 
of V. D. Land, does not promise success to this branch of 
agriculture. Sheep do not thrive here; and at one time 
nearly half of the goats kept at the settlement died. 

The timber about Macquarie Harbour is very fine. Huon 
Pine, supposed to be a species of Dacrydium^ which is much 
valued for ship-building and general purposes, abounds on 
the eastern side : the wood is closer grained and more durable 
than White American Pine, and has an aromatic smell. This 
tree attains to about 100 feet in height, and 25 in circumference, 
and is of a pyramidal form : the branches from the trunk are 
a little below horizontal, and are clothed with numerous, 
slender, pendant, scaly branchlets, of lively green, serving the 
purpose of leaves, as in the Cypress and Arbor-vitee. Celery- 
topped Pine — Thalamia asplenifolia — so called from the re- 
semblance of a branch clothed with its dilated leaves, to the 
leaf of Celery, is well calculated for masts. Myrtle, allied to 
Beech, but with leaves more like Dwarf Birch, is suited for 
keels. Light-wood — Acacia Melanoxylon — clothed with leaf- 
like spurious foliage, resembling the leaves of a Willow, is also 
fine timber, and its roots make beautiful veneering. It derives 
this name from swimming in water, while the other woods 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 49 

of V. D. Land^ except the pines^ generally sink; in 
some parts of the Colony it is called Black-wood, on account 
of its dark colour. Other timber trees are known here by 
the names of Pink-wood, CarpodorUos lucida. Hard-wood, 
a species of Olea,, Athosperma moschata, Stink- 
wood, Zieria arborescena, &c. Forest Tea Tree, a species of 
Lepiospermum, is valued for fuel ; some crooked portions of 
its trunk are finely veined, and well adapted for fancy-work. 
The black substance forming part of the stems of tree ferns, is 
used for reeding, in inlaying, for which purpose it is superior 
to Ebony. Respectable hats have been manufactured from 
the shavings of some species of Acacia, as well as from broad 
leaved sedges, Lepidosperma gladiata ; the leaves being first 
boiled and bleached. 

Notwithstanding the fine scenery of Macquarie Harbour, it 
was a gloomy place in the eyes of a prisoner, from the priva- 
tions he suffered there, in being shut out from the rest of the 
world, and restricted to a limited quantity of food, which did 
not include fresh meat; from being kept under a military 
guard ; from the hardship he endured, in toiling almost con- 
stantly in the wet, at felling timber and rolling it to the 
water, and from other severe labour, without wages, as well 
as from the liability to be flogged or subjected to solitary 
confinement, for small offences. 

Out of 85 deaths that occurred here in eleven years, 
commencing with 1822, only 35 were from natural causes ; of 
the remainder, 27 were drowned, 8 killed accidentally, chiefly 
by the falling of trees, 3 were shot by the military, and 12 
murdered by their comrades. There is reason to believe that 
some of these murders were committed for the purpose of 
obtaining for the murderers, and those who might be called 
upon as witnesses on their trials, a removal from this place, 
though at the ultimate cost of the life of the murderers, and 
without a prospect of liberation on the part of the others ! 
Some of the prisoners who returned hither with us in the 
Tamar, had been witnesses in such a case ; but they had had 
the privil^e of the change, for a time, to the penitentiary at 
Hobart Town! These circumstances, with the fact, that 
within the eleven years, 112 prisoners had eloped from 

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50 MACaUARIE HARBOUR. [6th mo. 

this settlement^ proved also that its privations were felt to 
be very great. 

Escape from Macquarie Harbour was well known to 
be a difficult and very hazardous undertakings and very 
few who attempted it, reached the settled parts of the 
Colony. Out of the 112 who eloped, 62 were supposed 
to have perished in the bush, and 9 were murdered by 
their comrades on the journey, for a supply of food. For 
this purpose, the party proposing to attempt traversing the 
formidable forest, selected a weak minded man, and per- 
suaded him to accompany them ; and when the slender stock 
of provisions which they had contrived to save from their 
scanty rations, was exhausted, they laid violent hands on their 
victim. One party when lately apprehended near the settled 
districts, had in their possession, along with the flesh of a 
Kangaroo, a portion of that of one of their comrades ! An 
appalling evidence of how easily man, in a depraved state^ 
may descend even to cannibalism. 

Of the small number who reached the settied part of the 
country, some were immediately apprehended ; a few became 
formidable marauders, and were ultimately shot or executed ; 
others escaped to New South Wales, but continuing their evil 
practices, were transported to Norfolk Island; and of the 
remainder, who were an inconsiderable nimiber, the circum- 
stances remain doubtfcd. 

In the earlier days of this settlement flagellation was the 
chief punishment, and the reformation of the prisoners 
seemed hopeless. There is ground to believe the example 
of some of those under whose charge they were placed was 
at that period also of a deteriorating character. The first 
missionary sent here found a chief officer living in open 
profligacy, and saw so littie prospect, under such circum- 
stances, of being able to do any good among the prisoners, 
that he returned by the same vessel to Hobart Town. 

Of latter time the administration of corporal punishment 
was much diminished, and that of solitary confinement 
increased, witii evident advantage. Major Baylee also ex- 
postulated with the parties, and convinced them that he 
would not administer punishment without cause : this greatly 

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increased his influence, and obtained for him such respect 
and esteem, that he could go about the settlement, unattended, 
with perfect confidence. 

The following abstract exhibits the average of the returns 
of punishment for 1826, 7 and 8, and for 1829, SO, and 31. 


No. of Prisoners 
in the SetUement 

No. of Priaonen 

No. ofLashee 

No. of days of soli- 
tary confinement. 











The removal of a few prisoners from Macquarie Harbour, 
on account of good conduct, before the expiration of their 
sentence, had a decidedly good eflFect upon the others ; and 
the labours of William Schofield, the first missionary who 
became resident there, were, through the divine blessings 
crowned with encouraging success. He found a dij£culty in 
prevailing upon the men to cherish hope ; but when this was 
once effected, they began to lay hold of the offers of mercy 
through a crucified Redeemer, and some remarkable instances 
of change of character ensued. On conversing with some 
of the reformed prisoners, they said, that the change of 
heart they had tmdergone had altered the face of the settle- 
ment in their eyes: it had ceased to wear the gloom by 
which it was formerly overcast. Two, to whom it had been 
so irksome as to tempt them to run away, said, they were 
now well satisfied, and thankful they had been sent there. 
Others who had been placed in the less laborious part of 
the establishment, because of good conduct, were, at their 
own request, allowed to return to their old employments, 
which they preferred on account of being less exposed to 
temptation; saying, they were less afraid of labour than 
of sin. 

A man who lost his arm some time ago, was awakened 
to a sense of his sinful condition, whilst in imminent danger 
from this accident. He said the the Lord found him when he 
sought Him not, yet so strongly did he feel his own desperate 
wickedness, that he could entertain no hope, until he was 

E 2 

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reminded of the mercy extended to Manasseh, Mary Mag- 
dalene^ and others of similar character. He told me he 
had been guilty of housebreakings and many other crimes, 
for which he said he had been three times sentenced to this 
settlement; he said also that the gallows was no terror to him^ 
and that he was so hardened, that he did whatsoever he 
wished, in defiance of the laws of God and man, till the Lord 
visited him, and brought him low. He afterwards ranked 
amongst those, who having been forgiven much, love much. 
The alteration in his conduct was noticed by all around him : 
the Commandant said his very voice was changed ; formerly it 
was ferocious, now it was mild ; formerly he was contentious 
and addicted to fighting, now he was gentle and peaceable ; 
formerly he was so given to swearing, and the habit of it had 
such power over him, that, after he had turned to the Lord, 
if any thing irritated him, he had to lay his hand upon his 
mouth that he might not swear; now he was to be found 
warning others against this sin. 

The men who had turned from their evil ways, were allowed 
to sit in a room used for an adult^school, in order that they 
might not be disturbed in reading and meditation, by those 
who still remained in folly, and would be disposed to deride 
them ; and this man, on account of his infirmity, was al- 
lowed likewise to retire alone to one of the caves in 
the base of the island, to meditate and pray. Though he 
had lost an arm, he was not idle, but employed himself in 
carrying wood for fuel, after it was landed from the boat. I 
invited him to show me his cave; he readily consented, 
and led me down a steep and slippery path at the back 
of the island. The cave was damp on one side, and 
had a honeycomb-like incrustation upon it : its sloping roof 
was dry, a few old palings formed its loose floor, and a cold 
wind blew through it from a small opening at its farther 
extremity. I could not stand upright in it, but entered by 
stooping ; he followed, and we sat down upon its floor, and 
conversed for a while on the mercy of God to sinners, in 
3ending his Son into the world to save them, and in calling 
them by his Spirit to come imto Him. 

This cold and forlorn place was much prized by its 

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1832.] VAN DIBMENS LAND. 53 

occupant, in it, (to use his own words,) he contrasted his 
privilege, in being allowed to meditate in quiet, and to wait 
for the Spirit's influence, with the privations of those who 
in former ages wandered in sheepskins and goatskins, in 
deserts and mountains, and in dens and caves of the earthy 
being destitute, afflicted, tormented. Before quitting the 
place we kneeled before the Lord, and I prayed for 
this "brand plucked out of the burning,*' as well as for 
myself. When I ceased, he prolonged the voice of suppli- 
cation, ascribing glory, honour, and praise to Him that liveth 
for ever and ever, who in the riches of his mercy had called 
him out of darkness into his marvellous light, and translated 
him from the kingdom of Satan, into the kingdom of his 
own dear Son. In the course of conversation, this monu- 
ment of divine goodness, desired that I would tell audacious 
sinners of the mercy that God had shown to him; and 
assure them that he found such comfort and pleasure in 
righteousness, as he never could have thought of whilst he 
remained in sin. When he became awakened he found 
himself in ignorance also, and since that time he had learned 
to read. 

But though a few were to be found at this settlement who 
had turned to the Lord, and were bringing forth fruits meet 
for repentance, and most conducted themselves pretty well 
under the discipline exercised over them, there was still great 
depravity existing : many were so far under the dominion of 
the devil, as to be led captive by him at his wiD. The effect 
of the corruption of human nature, increased by indulgence 
in sin^ produced a description of character liable to fall into 
temptation whenever it came in the way, and far from being 
always restrained by the fear of pimishment. 

The number of prisoners at the settlement at the time of 
our visit, including the oufc-gangs, was 177 ; formerly it was 
about 300. Many of them were employed on Sarahs 
Island^ in ship-building, and others at out-stations, chiefly 
as a wood-cutting gang at Philips Creek, where they were 
superintended by a constable, and lodged in huts of the 
humblest construction ; but these, being furnished with good 
fires^ were not very uncomfortable, particularly when the 

E 3 

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inmates whitewashed them, and kept them clean. On con- 
versing with the men of this gang respecting the hope of 
remission of sentence on good conduct, one man, with tears 
in his eyes, said, he had been there 10 years : he seemed 
cast down almost below hope. We assiured them of the 
pleasure it gave the Lieutenant Governor, to remit their 
sentence, when they gained a character to warrant his doing 
so, and encouraged them to seek for a change of heart, by 
repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus 
Christ, as a foundation for such a character. On being 
asked, one man said, that their ration of provision was not 
sufficient for them at such hard work; and though their 
general appearance was healthy, yet when they were engaged 
in heaving timber, and rolling it down to the water, and 
other fetiguing labour, it might often fail in appeasing the 
cravings of exhausted nature. 

The timber they cut was chiefly Huon Pine. No beasts 
of burden were allowed at Macquarie Harbour. In order 
to get the felled timber to the water, a way had to be cleared, 
and to be formed with logs and branches ; over this, straight 
trunks of trees were laid in the manner of the slips or skids, 
used in laimching ships. Upon these the timber was rolled 
by the prisoners, sometimes to a great distance. These roads 
were termed Pine-roads. — If any of the men proved unruly 
at the out-stations, the constable lit a fire, the smoke of 
which was observed by the sentinel at the settlanent, from 
whence assistance was promptly sent. Except sometimes as a 
punishment, the men were not in irons, for if they had been, 
they could not have performed their work. The boat which put 
us ashore at Philips Creek, was ordered to push off as soon as 
it had landed us, and to remain off until we were ready to 
return, lest any of the prisoners should seize it, and attempt 
their escape; circumstances of this sort having occurred. 
At a short distance from Philips Creek, is Philips Island, 
the soil of which is peaty loam : it had for some years been 
cultivated with potatoes. Here seven men were employed 
under a constable. The constable being a prisoner, who 
had conducted himself so as to gain confidence. A steep 
path led from the shore, and passing the huts, extended 

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1832.] VAN DIBMENS LAND. 55 

across the island: it was planted on each side with native 
shrubs^ and rendered firm by pieces of the trunks of tree- 
ferns^ cut in lengths^ and laid at short distances one firom 
another; of these^ some of the steps were also formed on the 
steepest part of the ascent. The huts were almost overgrown 
with the Macquarie Harbour Yine^ a luxuriant climber^ bear- 
ing small acid firuit. We walked over the island^ and 
down one of its sides^ which was woody^ and which ex- 
hibited the finest tree-ferns we had seen, and in great 
profusion. They were of two kinds, one of which we 
did not meet with elsewhere Some of their larger fronds 
or leaves were thirteen feet long, making the diameter 
of the crest twenty-six feet. The stems were of all degrees 
of elevation, up to twenty-five or thirty feet ; some of them^ 
at the lower part, were as stout as a man^s body : those of 
Cyboiium BiUardieri were covered with roots to the outside : 
the whole length of those of the other species — Alscphila aus- 
trali» — ^^.^as clothed with the bases of old leaves^ which were 
rough, like the stems of raspberries, closely tiled over each 
other, and pointing upwards. There was also a number of 
other ferns of humble growth : two species of the beautiful 
genus GUchenia had tough, wiry stems, which were used in 
the settlement, for making bird-cages. 

The general health of the prisoners at Macquarie Harbour 
was good. Seldom more than three of them were in the 
hospital at a time. The average of deaths did not amoimt 
to more than one in 35 per annum, including those by 
violence and accident. These circumstances, the more re- 
markable in men whose habits had been dissipated, might 
reasonably be attributed to spare diet and hard labour, in a 
mild though humid climate, and seclusion from strong drink. 
But whether from the limited supply of food, or from 
being restricted to the use of salt meat, or from some other 
cause^ the surgeon remarked, that when the men became 
ill^ the tone of their constitution was so low that they were 
difficult to recover. Some of them were affected with 
scurvy for long after leaving the settlement. 

The common temperature of the winter at Macquarie 
Harbour, was 43° in clear weather, when the wind was from 

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the souths and 52° when cloudy with the wind from the 
north. Frost and great heat were of rare occurrence. Rain 
was said to have fallen on five days out of seven, during ten 
months in the year, from the formation of the settlement 
in 1822. 

The prisoners had no allowance of spirits at this station ; 
but rewards for little extra services were sometimes given 
them by the officers, in this pernicious article ; the 
allowance of which to the latter and to the military 
generally, was a great evil, and the soiurce of much 

Several of the prisoners who returned to Hobart Town in 
the Tamar, had been first transported to Bermuda ; but in 
consequence of a mutiny in which they were implicated, they 
were subsequently sent to V. D. Land. They preferred 
Bermuda, because they had there an allowance of fresh 
meat and rum, and some money for present use, as well as a 
sum reserved till the expiration of their sentence. 

During our stay at Macquarie Harbour, we received great 
kindness and attention from the Commandant, who afforded 
us all the information we desired respecting the discipline of 
the Settlement, and gave us free access to the prisoners, both 
for ascertaining their feelings, and for the purpose of impart- 
ing religious instruction. The other officers also were kindly 
attentive. On the 21st of the 6th month, we left them 
with feelings of gratitude, not soon to be efiaced, and sailed to 
Wellington Head, near the entrance of the harbour ; having 
in the jaU several prisoners returning from the settlement ; 
they were not under strict guard, as the vessel was pro- 
ceeding in t^e direction in which they desired to go, and 
had no stock of provisions on board to tempt them to try to 
carry her off. 

The wind proving unfavourable, we were detained eighteen 
days at Wellington Head ; in the course of which we visited 
the Pilot Station, and adjacent parts of the coast; and 
daily had religious opportunities in the jail, with the crew of 
the vessel, the military, and the prisoners. The jail was now 
so much occupied with timber as to render it difficult to 
crowd into it, and it was also dirty and dark ; and the only 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND* 57 

lamp we had^ gave barely sufficient light to read by; 
but the comforting sense of our Heavenly Father's love, 
which often attended our minds, made up for all privations. 
One of the prisoners, who, for some time past had exhibited 
much religious thoughtfulness, a few times joined his ex- 
hortations to ours, and pleaded with his fellows, on the 
necessity of preparing for the awful day of the Lord, He 
began by telling them, that they had known him when he 
indulged in sin as much as any of them ; but that they must 
have marked the change which had taken place in his 
conduct and character ; and he could assure them, that he 
was much happier in walking in the fear of the Lord than 
ever he had been in sin; he therefore entreated them to 
turn to the Lord and seek mercy through that Saviour, in 
whom he had found mercy. 

The person acting as steward on board the Tamar was 
transported when 14, years old. He attributed his early 
turpitude, to the influence of bad company, which led him 
to use strong drink and disobey his fether, and to practice 
many other evils. When gambling with his associates on 
a First-day, at the suggestion of one of the party, they 
robbed a young man who happened to pass. For this offence 
several of them were transported. Though he had forsaken 
his evil ways and was now filling an honourable post, he still 
felt keenly the bitter consequences of his former vices, for 
which he was still in bondage. 

6th mo. 22nd. We had the crew of the pilot-boat assem- 
bled, along with the persons on board the Tamar, and, after 
reading a portion of Scripture to them, spoke on the impor- 
tance of avoiding to ridicule religion in their companions or 
others, who might be disposed to attend to its duties ; we also 
exhorted them to consider what would be the feeling respect- 
ing having given way to such ridicule, when reflecting upon 
it, on a death bed. 

The pilot put us on shore on the north beach, upon the 
sand of which we walked a few miles, in company with the 
mate, and picked up some small Helmet-shells, and specimens 
of a large digitated sponge. Several Black-fish — a small 
species of whale — ^were driven upon this beach in the late 

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storm. A spaniel dog that accompanied us^ rolled itself on 
the partially decomposed carcase of each of these as he came 
at it ; I could not discover for what object. 

Parties of Aborigines resort hither at certain seasons. 
They cross the mouth of the harbour on floats^ in the form 
of a boat, made of bundles of the paper-like bark of the 
Swamp Tea-tree, lashed side by side, by means of tough 
grass. On these, three or four persons are placed, and one 
swims on each side, holding it with one hand. These 
Aborigines are said to be shy, but not to have committed 
any outrage. One of them exchanged a girl of about 
fourteen years of age, for a dog, with, the people at the Pilot 
Station; but the girl not liking her situation was taken 
back, and the dog returned. 

23rd. We went on shore close by the vessel, and on the 
way to the Pilot Station passed some large patches of a 
species of Blan^ordia — a lily-like plant, with a crest of 
scarlet tubular flowers — ^which abounds also at Port Davey. 

We afterwards traversed a portion of the beach, open to 
the sea on the south, near Cape SoreU. It consisted of 
numerous little bays; some sandy, others shingly, some 
rocky, and others covered thickly with decomposing kelp of 
enormous size, the smell of which was very disagreeable. 
Multitudes of maggots are produced in it, on which flocks of 
White Cockatoos feed, that roost among the large bushes 
on the shore. Ducks and other sea-fowl also find a plentiful 
supply of food in the maggots, which are floated off in abun- 
dance by the rising tide. The rotten kelp affords a manure 
to the peaty garden of the pilot, so congenial to the growth 
of potatoes, that those grown there exceed the best I ever 
saw in England. — ^There was a lichen on the neighbouring 
hills, of the same race as the Reindeer-moss, but of a texture 
resembling delicate net-work. In the abundant rain, it was 
distended into masses resembling cauliflowers. Like some 
of its congeners, it seemed as if it might be used for food : 
its taste was insipid, and I found no inconvenience from 
eating it. 

We remained all night at the pilot's house, and in the 
morning had a meeting with the men, in which we were 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 59 

made deeply sensible of the goodness and mercy of the 
Lord ; before whom we also spent some time in silent wait- 
ing, greatly to our comfort. 

27th. In a walk, I found the scrub so thick and en- 
tangled, that I was under the necessity of cutting my 
way through it with the back of a saw ; but when weary 
of doing this, I waded past it in the salt-water. — In some 
places, in this wet country, cyperaceous plants, which some- 
what resemble rushes, entwine themselves among the larger 
shrubs, and ascend to their tops, and lichens hang to a great 
length from the boughs of some of the trees. The sand- 
banks at the mouth of Macquarie Harbour are covered with 
Boobialla, a species of AcaciUy the roots of which run far in 
the sand. Black Cockatoos and some other birds enlivened 
the bush. Sometimes large White Eagles were seen sitting 
on boughs overhanging the water, watching for fish. 

On the 9th of 7th mo. the Commandant and the Surgeon 
paid us a visit ; they had previously sent us a fresh stock 
of provisions from the Settlement, those with which we 
originally set out being nearly consumed; and now, after 
waiting eighteen days for a feir wind, we crossed the bar 
without touching ; and soon passed the northernmost rocks 
of Cape Sorell. The following evening we were in sight 
of South West Cape. We laid-to till daylight on the 
11th, and then entered D^Entrecasteaux Channel; where, 
on passing some whalers, they informed us that we were 
reported in Hobart Town to be lost. In consequence of 
adverse winds we were unable to relieve our friends from 
anxiety on this point till the 13th, when we were favoured 
again to land in safety and received many greetings. 

Our old lodging being engaged, arrangements were made 
for a temporary residence with Thomas J. and Sarah Crouch, 
a pious young couple, who received us into their femily in 
Christian good-will, and to whose house we continued to 
resort, as lodgers, for several years. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Report to the lieat. Gk)Temor. — ^Thanksgiving. — ^Death of a Pensioner. — ^War. 
— Clarence Plains. — Hospitality. — OoTernment Schools. — Chain-gang. — Scor- 
pions. — Centipedes. — Muddy Plains . — Settlers. — South Arm. — Liberty. — 
Kangaroo. — Box and Cow Fishes. — ^Illicit Spirit Dealer. — Princess Boyal 
stranded. — Snow Storm. — Richmond. — ^Trees. — ^Imported Fruit-trees. — ^New 
Houses. — Bush-rangers. — Security. — Meeting. — Coal Birer. — Settlers. — Oven 
Hills. — ^Orielton. — ^Wages paid at Public Houses. — Sorell Town. — ^Windmill. — 
Rich Land. — Temperance Meeting — Lower Settlement. — Sober Anglo-Tas- 
manians. — View. — Spring. — Birds, &c. — ^Anniversary of Departure from 

We remained in Hobart Town a month ; in the course of which, 
in compliance with a request from the Lieutenant Governor, 
we presented him with a report on the state of the Penal 
Settlement at Macquarie Harbour ; the substance of which is 
contained in the preceding remarks. 

Our meetings for worship, during this period, were often 
attended by pious persons in an inquiring state of mind, 
to whom we were enabled to impart religious counsel. 
We had also discussions with some of them on the principles 
of the Society of Friends, which we endeavoured to show 
were those of the Gospel practically carried out. 

When taking a meal with pious persons, I was frequently 
requested to give thanks. This being intended as a mark of 
Christian courtesy to a stranger minister, I received it as 
such ; but we found it necessary to explain, that it was our 
practice on such occasions, to endeavour to feel thankful, but 
not to give expression to their feeling on behalf of ourselves 
and others, unless under such a sense of divine influence as 
warranted the belief that it was done in spirit and in truth. 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 61 

Though, in the course of our travels, we were sometimes 
present when thanksgiving was uttered in a formal way, 
which left upon the mind, the impression, that God was 
drawn nigh unto with the lip, while the heart was far from 
him ; yet we were often sensible of a measure of the 
influence of the Holy Spirit, when thanksgiving was de- 
voutly uttered by those who were in the constant practice 
of using expression on such occasions. Nevertheless, when 
we were present, where the attention of the company was 
individually turned to the Lord, in a short period of silence, 
in order to feel thankful, and to acknowledge this feeling 
in the secret of the heart, we were sensible of a greater 
measure of divine influence, which comforted our minds, 
under the belief that the Father of mercies condescended 
more decidedly, to mark this homage with approbation. 

One of the pensioners who came to this land by the 
Science, died in the Hospital about this time. He came under 
powerful convictions for sin, on the passage hither, and ap- 
peared to find a measure of peace through faith in Christ, and 
to be seeking help from God, in a humble frame of mind. At 
that time he abstained from drunkenness, but he could not be 
persuaded to give up taking his ration of spirits, alleging that 
the water was bad, and required qualifying. He had formerly 
been affected with dropsy, and having kept alive an appetite 
for intoxicating drink, his old shipmates succeeded, after he 
landed, in prevailing upon him to drink largely. This soon 
produced a recurrence of the disease, and again brought dark- 
ness over his mind, and in his last days, nothing could be 
learned to afford any ground of hope in his death. 

Meeting with a young man who had thoughts of entering 
the artillery, I endeavoured to dissuade him. Nothing seems 
to me more clear, than that if we ^ do to others as we would 
that they should do to us,' we cannot fight ; and that if we 
love our neighbour as ourselves, we cannot make war upon 
him. That if the keeping of the commandments of Jesus be 
a proof of our love to him, it is impossible to make war, and 
love him ; for this evil is as much opposed to his command- 
ment, ^ If thine enemy hunger, feed him, and if he thirst, give 
him drink,' as darkness is to light. It seems a vain attempt 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


to elude the force of this injunction^ by saying it applies to 
persons^ and not to nations. Is not this making the com- 
mandment of none effect by the tradition of men ? 

8th mo. 15th. We crossed the Derwent to Kangaroo 
Point — a distance of about three miles — ^in an open boat; 
and travelled along a cart track through the Bush^ to the 
house of a Government Surveyor on Clarence Plains, whose 
wife was our fellow-passenger firom England. Here we were 
received with that hospitality for which the settlers in this 
country are justly celebrated, and of which we largely partook 
during our journeying among them. There are several houses 
in this direction ; but as is generally the case in this coimtry, 
most of the land is unenclosed, grassy forest. The few fields 
which are near the houses are fenced with posts and rails. 

16th. We visited one of the Government Schools, many 
of which are established in different parts of the Island. They 
are generally imperfectly organized on the plan of the English 
National Schools, which is far from working well with the 
small and irregular attendance general in this country. 
This originates in the lack of interest, induced by the 
schools being free, the want of a proper value for education 
on the part of parents, the unsettled and imdisciplined habits 
which prevail extensively, and from the circumstances in which 
the settlers in a newly-occupied country are generally placed. 
Many of the people in this district were formerly resident on 
Norfolk Island; from whence they were removed by the 
Government : they have had too little education themselves 
to be able to estimate its value for their children. 

1 7th. We visited a chain-gang stationed at Kangaroo Point, 
consisting of twenty-nine men, employed in making roads, &c. 
While speaking to the men as they sat on the ground at the 
dinner hour, a Scorpion came out of a log upon their fire, and 
attempted in vain to escape from the heat ; it became affected 
with convulsive movements, by which its tail struck its back. 
Probably something of this kind may have given rise to the 
notion, that a scorpion commits suicide by stinging itself 
when surrounded by fire. Scorpions are common in this 
coimtry among decayed timber ; they are of small sise, and 
their sting is not much worse than that of a wasp. A green. 

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1832.] VAN DIBMENS LAND. 63 

TenomoQS Centipede, about three inches long, is fotind in 
similar situations, and among stones. Its bite is considered 
worse than the sting of the scorpion, producing gangrenous 
inflammation ; but from the habits of these animals, which 
sting only in self-defence, and seek retirement, accidents 
rarely happen by them. 

18th. Haying received an invitation from a settler named 
Robert Mather, to pay him a visit at Lauderdale, on Muddy 
Plains, we made our way to his house, crossing a salt marsh, 
on the side of which were large bushes of Shrubby Sam- 
phire. R. Mather sent notice to his neighbours, of our wish 
to have a meeting with them, and walked with us to the house 
of an industrious, sober couple, who, while prospering in tem- 
poral things, did not forget the importance of those that are 
spiritual. A well-worn bible was lying on their table, and 
the woman told us, that as she became unable to do needle- 
work by candle-light, she spent much of her evenings in 
reading this precious book to her family. Her husband was a 
marine, and is a pensioner. He was formerly addicted to the 
use of spirits, tall, like many others in this country, he would 
bring rum home in a bucket, and drink it neat out of a pint 
tin. This, his wife would not allow, and he had the good 
sense to submit to her better government, by which he has 
become greatly raised in circumstances and in comfort. 
They have a neat, clean brick house, two tidy children, 
and a thriving garden, clear of weeds. — ^The hills on the 
peninsula of Muddy Plains abound with Blue Guin,' Pepper- 
mint, and She-Oak: some of these trees as well as another 
kind called He-Oak, are also plentiful on the lower grounds. 

19th. We had a meeting on R. Mather's premises, with 
about twenty-five persons, some of whom were prisoners, in 
which the people were warned against habitual sins. Drunken- 
ness and swearing were particularly adverted to, as openly 
dishonouring Ood and serving the devil. 

20th. Accompanied by R. Mather, we called on several 
of the settlers, many of whom are of the poorer class, to 
whom we spoke on the importance of attending to their 
spiritual concerns, and gave some tracts, for which they 
appeared grateful. We dined with a respectable family living 

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64 MUDDY PLAINS. [8th mo. 

in a hut of the humblest structure, who increased their means 
of support, by converting into lime, such shells as have accu- 
mulated in great abundance on the shore of Ralphs Bay. At 
this place we met with William Gellibrand — a settler resid- 
ing on a peninsula in the Derwent called South Arm, — and 
accepting an invitation to visit his establishment, proceeded 
thither in a lime boat. W. Gellibrand's hoi^se is situated 
near the northern extremity of the peninsula : it commands 
a view of Ralphs Bay and the Derwent, backed by the 
woody hills on the shore, with Hobart Town at the distance 
of 9 miles. This part of South Arm is a little elevated. 
Basaltic and grit rocks project on its steep sides ; on which 
Qulls and Shags roost in great numbers. Peach and almond 
trees are coming into blossom in the well-stocked garden. 
The native grass of the country is thin; but the land in 
tillage yields a fair return. The intelligent proprietor pays 
more attention than most persons, to the comfort and 
morals of his assigned servants. This attaches them to 
him, and raises a tone of feeling in their minds congenial 
to their reformation. On conversing with one of these men, 
who has had an unusual measure of privilege during the time 
he has been a prisoner, respecting the comparative difficulties 
he might expect on becoming free, his sentence expiring in 
a few days ; he remarked, ^^ But, Sir, Liberty is sweet \" 

21st. We returned to the main land, and dined with an 
interesting family of Independents. Here we first partook 
of Kangaroo, the taste of which is somewhat intermediate 
between that of beef and mutton : it is usually served up 
with bacon in a kind of hash called '^ a steamer.'^ 

22nd. Accompanied by a son of R. Mather, we visited 
the settlers around the Pipeclay Lagoon, which opens into the 
sea, and on the shores of which were lying the remains of 
some Box and Cow-fishes. These are about four inches long, 
and are encased in coats of mail; having apertures for their 
mouths, eyes, fins and tails. One of the people on whom 
we called is said to be an illicit dealer in spirits, or what 
is called in the Colony, the keeper of a ^'Sly-grog-shop.'* 
These are a description of persons that are a great nuisance, 
but it is difficult to obtain evidence against them, and 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 65 

they are rather numerous in the Australian Colonies^ espe- 
cially in remote places. 

23rd. Proceeding across a salt marsh to the shores of 
Frederick Henry Bay, we saw the Princess Royal — a vessel 
with female emigrants from England — driving from her 
anchors, in a violent storm of wind and snow. She was 
perceived also by some persons on the opposite side of the 
bay, who lighted a fire as a signal, on a point, behind which 
was a mud bed; on this, the ship went safely on shore 
in the night, the helmsman attending to an instruction 
received from the land, in a welcome English tongue, when 
those on board knew not on what coast they were driving. 
We took refuge from the snow storm in the house of a 
settler from Uxbridge, by whom we were hospitably en- 
tertained ; and afterward proceeded to Glen Ayr, the resi- 
dence of William de Gillern, which we made out when 
almost dark, by following the barking of a dog, and where 
we felt the value of a kind welcome, after a walk of 15 
miles in snow, wet and mire. 

24th. The snow was about three inches thick in the 
morning; but defending ourselves against the frequent 
showers, we went to Richmond, to arrange for holding a 
meeting. The court-house was readily granted for the 
purpose by William T. Parramore, the Police Magistrate; 
who also ordered a constable to invite the inhabitants. The 
court-house at this time was used as a place of worship by 
the Episcopalians and Wesleyans. The town of Richmond 
consisted of the court-house, a jail, a windmill, and about 30 
dwelling-houses, three of which were inns. It is prettily situ- 
ated, at the extremity of an inlet called the Sweet Water. 

In the evening we returned to Glen Ayr. The snow 
among trees in full foliage, presented a novel appearance to 
an Englishman. — ^All the trees and shrubs of this country 
are evergreens ; and with the exception of the little patches of 
land that have been cleared by settlers, may be said to cover 
the whole country. The thermometer at Richmond was at 
27° several times this winter. 

25th. We returned to Richmond, and called upon John 
H. Butcher, a magistrate, residing in an unfinished stone 

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66 RICHMOND. [8th mo. 

house near the town ; who, when he came to this country, 
brought a variety of fruit trees, packed and stowed at the 
bottom of the ship's hold. The Ribstone Pippin, French 
Crab, Golden Harvey, and a few other sorts of choice 
apples, survived the voyage, and have stocked the gardens 
of the Colony, in which fruits of this kind are produced in 
greater abundance and perfection than in England. People 
in this country often occupy houses as soon as they are 
built, and finish diem as they have opportunity. In the 
earlier days of the colony J. H. Butcher, as well as many 
others, was robbed of much of what was available in his 
house, by Bush-rangers ; but these marauders have been 
so reduced, diat the inhabitants now live in such security, 
as often to be without fastenings to their doors and windows. 

26th. We had a religious interview with the prisoners 
in the jail, and a meeting with the inhabitants in the 
court-house. In the latter, it did not seem to be my 
place to express much ; nevertheless I was well satisfied in 
having appointed the meeting; believing that if people were 
directed to wait more singly upon the Lord, they would not 
omit assembling for worship because no minister was pre- 
sent, as some did to-day, when their minister was prevented 
from arriving by the stormy weather. It is a hurtful thing 
to lean upon man, in that which is a duty to God, and which 
ought to be performed in spirit and in truth. 

27tih. Accompanied by J. H. Butcher, we visited some 
of the settlers upon the Coal River. The district which 
bears this name is remarkably rich and fertile : it consists 
chiefly of extensive grassy levels, and gentle undulations, 
thinly timbered, and bounded by more thickly wooded hills, 
of various height and form. In this district there is a 
striking variety in the settlers. One of them is an intel- 
ligent man from one of the West India islands, who is 
improving a beautiful park-like estate, on which he has put 
up about 17 miles of post and rail fence, at the rate of jB/O 
per mile, by free, and £60 by convict labour. Another was 
a prisoner, in the earlier days of the Colony: he became 
free and obtained a location of land, but retained such 
a love for strong drink as was incompatible with advance- 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 67 

ment in the scale of society. Few of this class have retained 
their possessions ^ and the greater strictness in the penal 
discipUne of latter years^ combined with the new regulations^ 
which put a stop to the granting of land^ and only allow it 
to become the property of settlers by purchase^ now pre- 
cludes such men from becoming proprietors. The day was 
bright and pleasant. Numbers of little green Parrots were 
extracting honey from the flowers of the Black-butted Gum- 
tree ; and AnguUlaria dioica, a little^ purple-spotted^ white- 
blossomed^ bulbous plant, was decorating a sunny bank^ as 
one of the first harbingers of spring. 

*28th. We have lodged a few nights at the Lenox Arms^ 
a good inn^ but with higher charges than in England. This 
evenii^ we returned to Glen Ayr, after attending a meeting 
for the formation of a Temperance Society, and visiting some 
caves, in a range of hills near Richmond, called the Oven 
Hills. Formerly they were the resort of a horde of bush- 
rangers, the name of the chief of whom was Michael Howe. 
These hills are of silicious sandstone, and are clothed chiefly 
with thin grass, and Gum and She Oak trees. 

29th. We visited Orielton, a fine estate, on which a 
considerable quantity of land has been brought into cultiva- 
tion. Our guide thither was a prisoner constable, from 
Birmingham. On remarking to him, that we met with many 
prisoners from that place, he replied, that many of them 
were persons who had formed bad habits, beginning with 
drinking ; and that they were often drawn into this practice 
by having their wages paid at public-hoiises, or by the 
wages of several being paid to one man, which occasioned 
them to resort to public-houses for change, in order to 
divide the sum. From Orielton we went to Sorell Town, 
and became the guests of James Norman, one of the Co-' 
lonial Chaplains, with whom we became acquainted in Hobart 

30th. Sorell Town, often called Pitt Water, firom being 
situated on a little gulf of that name, has a neat Episcopal 
place of worship, a parsonage, a Government School-house, 
and a watch-house of stone, as well as about 50 houses and 
cottages, most of which are of wood. There is likewise 


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68 PITT WATER. [8th mo. 

near the town^ a hird-cage windmill^ — a lively object, and 
rare in this country. The land in the vicinity is considered 
the richest in the Colony ; some of it is said to have pro- 
duced sixteen crops of wheat in succession, many of them 
self-sown : but this careless sort of agriculture, has in some 
places allowed Perennial Cress, an imported plant that has 
become a troublesome weed, to take almost exclusive pos- 
session of the land. — ^An estate of 400 acres is now on sale. 
The price asked is j£2,000 — a large sum for this country. 
A meeting was held for the formation of a Temperance 
Society: it was the first for a philanthropic purpose ever 
held in the place. 

31st. We visited the lower settlement on Pitt Water, and 
dined with James Gordon, a native of Middleton Tyas, 
Yorkshire, who was acquainted with some of the older 
branches of my family, and was one of the first persons 
who welcomed me to this land, where a knowledge of 
family connexions, is a source of great interest, often pro- 
ducing pleasant recollections. At his house we found 
several of the females landed from the Princess Royal, and 
formed an acquaintance with Charles Price, an Independent 
Minister, who came out as superintendent of the female 
emigrants, and had much trouble with some disorderly in- 
dividuals, who were injudiciously put on board, to the 
destruction of the comfort of all the others. In the evening 
we had a meeting with a small company in the Government 
School-house at Sorell Town. 

9th mo. 1st. Accompanied by J. H. Butcher, who again 
joined us at Sorell Town, we visited a number of the 
settlers to the north of that place, to invite them to a meet- 
ing. Some of these were bom on Norfolk Island and others 
in this Colony ; and, as is the case in numerous instances, 
these are less intemperate than many originally from Europe. 
— The view from behind Sorell Town is striking and beau- 
tiful. Undulating, cultivated ground, divided into fields 
by post and rail fences, and ornamented by the scattered 
dwellings of settlers, stretches in various directions among 
the woody hills, except to the south, where the lively- 
looking little town stands on the shore of Pitt Water, in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 69 

which are several small islands. On its further side is a 
long and narrow woody point of land^ over which are seen 
the sea in Frederick Henry Bay^ the hills of Tasmans 
Peninsula and Muddy Plains^ and more remotely^ those of 
Bruny Island. In the distance, surmounting the lower hills 
to the west, Moimt Wellington, the top of which is still 
covered with snow, bounds the interesting picture. The 
weather has become as fine as that of 5th month, in England. 
Many little flowers begin to enamel the ground, one of which 
is too much like an English daisy not to excite the pleasing 
recollections associated with that little flower. Others, by 
their form and colour, bespeak the antipodes of England: 
and *^ strange bright birds'^ of the parrot tribe, as they 
exhibit in the sun their brilliant plumage of crimson, yellow, 
blue, and green, remind the British spectator, that he is in 
a foreign land; his ears are also assailed by the strange 
sound of their screaming voices, and by the imceasing noise 
of frogs and crickets, the former of which often rival that 
of a spinning miU. 

By the day of the week, it is a year since we sailed from 
London. The time seems to have gone rapidly, though 
we have passed through a great variety of scenes. On the 
5th, it will be a year since we saw the fiice of a member of 
our own Society, to which we do not feel the less attached 
on that accoimt. The remembrance of the last meeting we 
were at, with our fellow professors, is still fresh in our recollec- 
tion. The Comforter, who powerfully affected our minds at 
that time, is still, through the mercy of God in Christ 
Jesus, present with us, to bless and to keep us; so that 
from season to season we can acknowledge that the Lord 
hath dealt bountifully with us. 

On the 2nd we had a meeting with about 70 persons, 
in the school-house at Sorell Town, and on the 3rd, after a 
rough passage over the Bluff Ferry, and a walk of nine 
miles through the bush, we re-crossed the Derwent, in a 
large boat, from Kangaroo Point, to Hobart Town, where 
we were cheered by letters from our friends in England. 

F 3 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Attendance of Meetings. — ^Religions Communications. — ^Embarkation for Flinders 
Island. — Cape Roanl. — ^Port Arthur. — PerUons Situation. — Cape Pillar. — 
Birds. — Maria Island. — Spring Bay. — ^Prisoner Seaman. — Octopodia. — ^Frey- 
cinets Peninsula. — ^Trees, &c. — Black Swans. — Schouten Passage. — ^Mutton 
Birds. — Swan Island. — ^Banks's Strait. — Superstition of Sailors. — Wreck. — 
Preservation Island. — Sealers and Native Women. — ^Black Snakes — Oreen 

With the exception of holding a meeting with a road party 
at a place called Robleys Barn^ and another with the 
inhabitants of Clarence Plains, in a school-house, on the 
-east side of the Derwent, we remained in Hobart Town till 
the 25th of 9th month. In the mean time, a few persons be- 
gan to meet with us frequently for public worship ; among 
these was a member of our Society, who came out to the Swan 
River, but not succeeding there, proceeded to V. D. Land, 
and took up his residence in Hobart Town, where he has not 
found it easy to obtain a Uvelihood. At the conclusion of 
one of our meetings, a young man informed me, that he felt 
burdened in mind from not having expressed something 
that had impressed him, believing that he ought to have 
communicated it. I therefore requested the company again 
to take their seats ; and he proceeded in a humble but feeling 
manner, to comment on the declaration of Christ, ''My 
yoke is easy and my burden is light ; '^ saying, he had felt it 
so, when he had waited on the Lord for strength ; but that 
when he had attempted in his own will and strength to 
perform religioiis acts, he had become burdened by them. 
At another time, after I had made some remarks on 
the advantage of allowing the mind to dwell under the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 7l 

influenoe of the Holy Spirit, in silence^ alter vocal aappK- 
cation^ a good old Wesleyan observed^ that the remarks 
reminded him of the expressions in the parable of the Sower, 
^ Immediately Satan cometh and taketh away that which was 
sown. '^ This, he said^ he had often noticed to be the case, 
in passing immediately from religious exercises to con- 
versation, without taking time to dwell under the impressions 

25th. Having received the sanction of the Lieutenant 
Governor^ to visit the Establishment for the Aborigines 
on Flinders Island (Great Island, of Maps) in Bass's Straits, 
we embarked in the Charlotte Cutter, John Thornloe, 
a young man from Doncaster, commanding her for the 
voyage. The little cabin was in such confasion when 
we went on board, that during much of the day, which 
was wet, we could do little to advantage but stand still and 
exercise patience, till others got their luggage out of the way. 
In the evening the cutter drifted against the Challenger Man- 
of-war, in the dark. Without discovering, so feur as we 
could make out, that the Cutter was a Government vessel^ 
the officers and men on board that ship, exerted themselves 
with civility and kindness, and cleared us without cutting 

26th. Early in the morning we sailed, and in the even- 
ing, passed Cape Raoul or Basaltes, a magnificent mass of 
perpendicular basaltic columns, forming the south west point 
of Tasmans Peninsula. 

27th. We put into Port Arthur, a penal settlement 
lately formed to receive prisoners from one, recently given up 
on Maria Island. — ^The Clarence bound for England put in 
here to-day, to deliver up three prisoners, found on board 
after sailing firom Hobart Town ; who had stowed themselves 
away in the hope of escaping. — Port Arthur is much of the 
same character as Macquarie Harbour^ but being newly 
formed, it is less organized. — ^Allowing such of the prisoners 
as conducted themselves well at this place, a few square 
yards of ground for gardens, and a small quantity of tea and 
sugar, had a very beneficial influence upon their conduct, 
but these indulgences being considered incompatible with 

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72 BAST COAST. [9th mo, 

the rigid nature of the discipline intended to be maintained 
at such stations^ were after a time withdrawn. 

28th. We again proceeded on our voyage, but got to sea 
with great difficulty. At one time the cutter " missed stays.*' 
Though little of a sailor, I saw the only alternative was to 
get way upon the vessel, by running directly toward a rock 
near us, and on which there was a danger of being wrecked, 
and then to try again. The commander of the vessel, though 
an intrepid young man, had turned pale with fear, but on 
my promptly pointing out the possibility of escape by this 
means, he recovered his courage, and made the efiFort, which 
proved successful ; the vessel amswered her helm, and we 
glided safely past the point of impending of danger. In the 
course of the day we rounded Cape Pillar and Tasmans 
Island, which is aJso of columnar basalt, and in the evening 
were oflF the Hippolyte Rocks. Near Cape Pillar we fell in 
with the barque Bolina, of London, on her passage from 
New Zealand. Along the coast many Gannets were diving 
for fish, which they dart upon from a considerable height in 
the air. Albatrosses, Cape Pigeons, and Blue and Stormy 
Petrels, were seen at intervals. Large flocks of Mutton- 
birds were flying about Tasmans Island at sunset. 

29th. We beat up between Maria Island and the main land. 
The coast of the latter was steep and woody. Some parts of 
Maria Island are lofty : the northern end is 3,000 feet high, 
and steep : the island is divided into two portions by a low 
sandy neck. Black-fish, Gannets, and Mutton-birds were 
seen ; and in the evening, we were cheered by lights on the 
coast, at the house of a settler, and at a whaling station, in 
Spring Bay. The last proved of great service in directing 
the course of the cutter, which dropped anchor at midnight, 
the wind having failed. 

30th. We had reading on deck. The company, among 
whom were a few other passengers, did not exhibit much 
appearance of religion, but some of them showed evidence 
of the want of it. One of the crew, a prisoner having a 
ticket of leave, who had been educated in a school on the sys- 
tem of the British and Foreign School Society, at Norwich, 
said he had not met with any of his school-fellows in 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 73 

this Colony^ except one of his own brothers. These men^ 
as well as some others, retain a sense of the* kindness they 
met with from Joseph John Gumey, Peter Bedford, Eli- 
zabeth Fry, and some others of our friends in England^ 
such as gives us a more ready access to their best feel- 

In the afternoon we again made sail, passed Green Island^ 
which has been stocked with Rabbits, and made a course 
outside the White Rock, oflF Oyster Bay, on which the kind 
of Seal that affords rich fur, is occasionally taken. In 
Spring Bay one of the people fishing, brought up a species 
of Octopodia, an animal of the Cuttle-fish tribe, with eight 
arms^ which in this specimen were 15 inches long. These 
it fixed to whatever came in its way, by means of circular, 
saucer-like suckers. It travelled with its mouth, which is 
in the centre of the arms and like the beak of a parrot, 
downward, and its red body of about 3 inches long, and like 
an oval fleshy bag, upward. Between these, its large eyes 
were very conspicuous. Its strange appearance and re- 
markable movements, excited no small degree of surprise 
among our company. 

10th mo. 1st. Mutton Birds were in such vast flocks, 
that, at a distance, they seemed as thick as bees when 
swarming. — ^The wind became adverse, and fearing lest we 
should be driven out to sea, we ran into Schouten Passage, 
and brought up under Preycinets Peninsula, in Oyster Bay, 
where we went on shore. One of the soldiers, going as a 
guard to Flinder's Island, shot a Black Swan, on a lagoon 
running parallel with the beach. The hills on the peninsula 
are red, porphyritic granite, as are also some of those on 
Schouten Island ; but, on the inside of the latter, which is 
about four miles across, the newer formations occur vertically. 
On the hills, are the Blue Gum, the Oyster Bay Pine, and the 
CaUiiris pyramidalisy which is a Cypress-like tree. — ^The bush 
here was gay with various shrubs, among which were several 
species of Acacia, Boronia and Hibbertia, some of the 
Epacris tribe, Pomaderris elliptica, with large clusters of 
small sulphur coloured blossoms, and Comesperma voltUnliSy 
a beautiftil climber, the flowers of which, in spring, hang 

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74 8CHOUTBN PASSAGE. [10th mO. 

in blue festoons^ among the bushes^ in all parts of V. D. 

2nd. The wind continuing adverse^ the cutter remained 
at anchor. Some of the men procured another Black Swan 
and some ^gs. I took a solitary walk among the hills, in 
the course of which I was brought into close self-examina- 
tion, and given to feel afresh the importance of watchful- 
ness and prayer, and of the continued exercise of faith 
in Christ; thus the traversing of the uninhabited wilds, 
to observe the works of Him, whose all-seeing eye beholds 
us in the deepest solitudes, as well as in the most crowded 
haunts of men, was made conducive to my spiritual 

3rd. This morning I took three fine Flat-heads, which, 
with a Swanks egg, contributed toward an abundant break- 
fast: the latter is rather inferior to the egg of a common 
fowl. In the forenoon the anchor was weighed, and sail 
made ; but just when we got near the outside of the passage, 
the wind failed, and left us drifting from side to side for several 
hours, so that it was necessary from time to time, to tow 
the head of the vessel round by means of a boat, to keep 
her from drifting against the terrific, granite rocks, which 
are too perpendicular to allow of anchorage near them. 
The dangers of a calm do not appear to be much less in 
such a situation, than those of a storm. Though no one 
expressed fear, anxiety was marked on many countenances, 
during this time of suspense, from which we were at length 
favoured to be relieved by the turn of the tide, which carried 
us out to sea. 

7ih. During the last three days, we have been beating 
up the coast against a contrary wind. Yesterday the brig 
Helen, from the Isle of France to Sydney, with sugar, sent 
a boat to the Charlotte, and obtained a bag of biscuit, hav- 
ing run short of this necessary article. A Right Wliale, a 
shark, and niunerous flocks of birds, were seen. The flocks 
of Mutton-birds sometimes formed dense lines near the ho- 
rizon, that might have been mistaken for rocks or land. 
Their flight is usually low ; they move their wings smartly 
a few times, and then soar with them motionless for a 

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18S2.] VAN DnSMENS I<AND. J 5 

considerable distance^ except in taming or changing their 
altitude^ which they effect by altering the position of their 
wings. A flock of them was swimming off Ekldystone 
Point. In the course of the forenoon we dropped anchor 
in 13 fathoms water, under Swan Island, in Banks^s Strait, 
to avoid drifting back with the strong tide. To the south 
we had the low sandy shore of Cape Portland, with low 
woody and grassy hilLs further distant; and to the north, 
Clarkes Island, and Cape Barren Island, with its lofty 

The superstition of sailors often leads them to attribute 
a tedious voyage to having some unlucky person in the 
vessel. On hearing one of them remark, that we must have 
some Jonah on board, I took occasion to observe, that it 
would be well if we had not many worse than Jonah ; for 
he was remarkable for disobedience to the Lord in one in- 
stance, but I feared, that in our company, there were those 
who were disobedient in many. — ^There is little ear for 
religious instruction, but no profession to despise it. I 
have been much restrained in mind in regard to expression 
on religious subjects, and have felt the force of the decla- 
ration *^ Where the Spirit of the Lord is there is liberty f 
the reverse of which is also true. Here, there is a want of 
regard for this Spirit, and little ear to hear. Nevertheless 
there are two individuals on board, who say little, but spend 
much of their time in reading the Bible and hymns, whom 
we look upon with some comfort. The wreck of a brig that 
was lately lost, it is said, in consequence of drunkenness, 
was still lying on Swan Island. 

As soon as the tide served, we again made sail; and 
passing the west end of Clarkes Island, came safely to 
anchor in Horse-shoe Bay, under the east shore of Preser- 
vation Island. 

8th. Early in the morning, five Pelicans and some Cape 
Barren Geese, were upon the beach of Preservation, not 
far from two huts belonging to James Munro, an old sealer, 
who, with a native black woman named Jumbo, is the only 
permanent resident on the Island. We went on shore and 
paid them a visit, and had an interview also with three 

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other sealers^ and three female Aborigines^ casually here, 
on their way to the coast of New Holland, where, on a 
number of small islands, they still obtain Fur Seals. 
These animals have become rare in the Australian seas 
compared to what they were a few years since, when they 
were destroyed in vast numbers, often in the breeding 
season. On Ouncarriage and Woody Islands, a few miles 
distant, several odier sealers are residing, with female Abo- 
rigines, who assist in the management of their boats, take 
Mutton-birds, and do other kinds of work for these men* 
Some of the sealers exhibit the recklessness frequent in the 
character of sailors, in a superlative degree. The women 
were dressed in frocks made of the skins of the Wallaby, 
a small species of Kangaroo. One of them presented neck- 
laces of shells to my companion and myself; these she 
dropped into our hands as she passed, appearing to wish 
to avoid receiving any acknowledgment. 

Preservation Island is low, and surrounded by round- 
topped, grey, granite rocks, except in a few places, where 
tihere are small sandy bays : it is covered with grass, barilla 
and nettles, and a large portion of it is so thickly bur- 
rowed by Mutton-birds, that it is difficult to walk without 
breaking into their holes. J. Munro raises wheat, potatoes^ 
and other vegetables near his house, which is sheltered 
by a few Tea-trees, the only ones on the island : he also 
rears goats, pigs and fowls ; and by means of these, added to 
the collecting of birds and their eggs, obtains a subsistence. 
Black Snakes sometimes take possession of the burrows of 
the Mutton-birds. We saw one of these formidable animals, 
more than five feet long, and gave it a blow that made it 
rear its head with a threatening aspect. As the only switch 
we could raise was a feeble one of Cape Barren Tea-bush, 
it was not thought expedient to repeat the blow, and the 
animal soon took refuge in a neighbouring hole. A sister 
of Jumbo lost her life by the bite of a Black Snake, in 
her hand. When taking Mutton-birds, the natives put a 
stick into the burrows and listen, to distinguish whether 
snakes or birds are the occupants. 

9th. Notwithstanding the wind was adverse, J. Thornloe 

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1832.] bass's straits. 77 

detennined to attempt proceeding, having heard that the 
settlement on Flinders Island was suflFering for want of 
proTisions; he therefore sailed from Preservation, and by 
the assistance of J. Munro, as pilot, passed Long Island, 
Badger Island, Chapel Island, and a number of others, 
and succeeded in reaching the anchorage under Green Island, 
the nearest place of safety to the settlement, at which a 
vessel could lie. 

On approaching Flinders Island, a smoke was observed 
on the shore, which we afterwards learned was a signal to 
the boats of the Settlement that were out, where they could 
not see the cutter. Two boats soon came off, in which 
were the Commandant, Ensign William J. Darling, and A. 
McTiachlan, the surgeon of the Establishment for the 
Aborigines. The arrival of the Charlotte was hailed with 
joy, the white inhabitants of the settlement having been 
reduced in supplies, to potatoes and oatmeal, and the Abo- 
rigines, who do not like oatmeal, to potatoes and rice ; so that 
had it not been for the supply of Mutton-birds which they 
were able to obtain, they would have been greatly straitened. 
Happily their tea and sugar also, were not exhausted ; for 
of tea, as a beverage, the Aborigines are not less fond than 
the Europeans, from whom they have acquired this taste. 

Before proceeding with my Journal, I will introduce a 
brief notice of Van Diemens Land and its Aboriginal In- 
habitants, and of their history up to the time we first 
visited them on Flinders Island. 

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Discoyerj of Y . D. Land. — Its positioa and character. — ^Aborigines. — ^Erroneous 
ideas of. — Attack upon. — Provocations. — Hostilities of. — ^Attempt to capture. 
— G. A. Bobinson's Mission. — Settlement in Bass's Straits. — ^Flinders Island. — 
Productions. — Manners of the Natives. — Dances. — Civilization. — Sealer and 
Child. — Breakwinds. -Songs. — Clothing. — Capacity. — Ornaments. — Sickness. 
— Birds, &c. — ^Excursion. — Cookery. — Dogs. — ^Mangroves. — ^Kangaroo Rat — 
Bandicoot. — Rain. — Commandant's Hut. — " Boatswain," a Native Woman. — 
Sealers. — ^Tasmanian Porcupine. — ^Wallowing in Ashes. — Gratitude. — ^Wea- 
pons. — Green Island. — ^Mutton Birds. — Music.—- Tide-ripple. — Azrival at 
George Town. 

Van Diemens Land was discovered by Abel Jansen 
Tasman, in 1642; he supposed it to be a part of the 
Australian Continent, and named it in honour of Anthony 
Van Diemen, at that time Governor General of the Dutch 
possessions in the East Indies. It was ascertained to be an 
bland in 1798^ by Dr. Bass, and taken possession of by 
the English in 1803, by Lieutenant Bowen. The first 
Lieutenant Governor arrived in 1804, and removed the seat 
of Government from the original settlement at Risdon, or 
Rest-down, on the east bank of the Derwent, to the present 
site, which he named Hobart Town, after Lord Hobart. 

The island lies between 41° 20^ and 43° 40' south latitude, 
and between 144° 40^ and 148° 20' east longitude : its length 
is about 210 miles, from north to south, and its breadth 150 
from east to west; it is very mountainous and covered with 
forest, which in many parts is extremely thick, but in others 
open and grassy. The original inhabitants, whose forefathers 
had occupied it from time immemorial, were of the Negro 
race. They were of moderate stature, dark olive colour, 
and had black, curly, woolly hair. They were few in 

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1832.] bass's straits. 7d 

number^ probably never more than from 700 to 1^000^ their 
habits of life being mifriendly to increase. Excepting on 
the west coast, they had no houses^ but in inclement 
weather took shelter in the thicker parts of the forest^ in the 
yallies or near the sea. They wore no clothes, but some- 
times ornamented themselves by strips of skin with the 
fur on, which they wore around the body, arms, or legs. 
To enable them to resist the changes of the weather, they 
smeared themselves from head to foot with red ochre and 
grease. The men also clotted their hair with these articles, 
and had the ringlets drawn out like rat-tails. The women 
cropped their hair as close as they could with sharp stones 
or shells. 

These people formed a few tribes, differing a little in 
dialect and habits; they were destitute of any traces of 
civilization ; their food consisted of roots and some species 
of fungus, with shell-fish, grubs, birds, and other wild ani- 
mals. The latter they took by means of the simplest mis- 
siles, or by climbing trees ; they cooked them by roasting, 
and daily removed to a fresh place, to avoid the offal and 
filth that accumulated about the little fires which they 
kindled daily, and around which they slept. In this state, 
the first European visitants of their island, found them, and 
mistaking some peculiarities in their manners for stupidity, 
set them down as lower in intellect than other human beings. 

In the early days of the Settlement of V. D. Land by 
the English, a party of the Aborigines made their appear- 
ance near Risden, carrying boughs of trees in token of 
peace, and were fired at by order of a timid officer, who 
became alarmed at their visit. Several of them were killed, 
and the rest fled in alarm. Though they did not forget 
this act of outrage, they were long before tiiey became 

The opinion seems general that the misconduct of Euro- 
peans gave rise to the aggressions of the Aborigines. These 
aggressions, however, produced retaliation on the part of 
the Whites, who shot many of the Aborigines, sometimes 
through fear, and there is reason to apprehend, sometimes 
through recklessness. At lengtii, the Aborigines finding 

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80 FLINDBR8 ISLAND. [10th mO. 

diemselves in danger^ and their hunting grounds occupied 
by the intruders into their country^ determined to attempt 
to expel them. For this purpose they set fire to houses, 
and speared persons at unawares, until there were few fami- 
lies in the Island, who had not sustained some injury, or 
lost some member by them : the woody nature of the coun- 
try afforded them ready concealment in thus carrying forward 
their attacks. 

About 1828, a part of the Colony, was declared to be 
under martial law, as regarded the Aborigines, and about 
two years after, a military expedition was imdertaken, with 
the intention of driving all those in the south-east part of 
the island, to Tasmans Peninsula. This project, which 
a better knowledge of the country and the people, proved a 
most absurd one, happily ended in no greater evil than the 
expenditure of a considerable sum of money, and the sojourn 
of a large proportion of the male, white inhabitants, for a 
few weeks, in *^ the bush,^^ with little or no loss of life on 
either side. A *^ cordon^* was formed across the coimtry, but 
it was found impossible to keep the people in a Une among 
the rocks, ravines and thickets, with which the island 
abounds, and the Aborigines stole through the ranks in 
the night, and escaped safely into the rear of their pursuers. 

At length George Augustus Robinson, a benevolent indi- 
vidual, professing to be actuated by a sense of reUgious 
duty, offered to go into the woods, attended only by a few 
of the native Blacks, who had become domesticated, and 
had lived with him for a time on Bruny Island, and from 
whom he had acquired some knowledge of their language, 
and to endeavour to conciliate the Aborigines, and to per- 
suade them to give themselves up to the protection of the 
Government, on condition of being well provided for, on 
an island in Basses Straits. This project was considered 
by most, as one of madness, but it met the patronage of the 
Lieutenant Governor, and the Senior Colonial Chaplain, as 
well as of a few others, and Robinson set forth on his mission 
of mercy, and succeeded in his object. He was sometimes 
exposed to considerable danger, and had difficulty in obtain- 
ing interviews with the alarmed natives; but in order to 

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1832.] bass's straits. 81 

inspire them with confidence^ he put away every thing that 
they could mistake for weapons^ and approached them with 
extended hands^ even when the Blacks who accompanied 
him^ shrunk back through fear. 

The first of these people who became conciliated^ were 
placed on Swan Island, which, being bare of wood and much 
exposed, was soon found unsuitable. They were therefore 
removed to Ouncarriage Island, but this was also found too 
small, and it did not afford wild animals for their support, 
in case of need. They were at one time in danger of star- 
vation from the failure of their provisions, which were 
irregularly supphed firom the colony, but they were relieved 
by a small quantity of potatoes obtained £rom some sealers. 
Their next removal was to a place on Flinders Island, 
where their wants were better attended to, and where we 
found them in 1832. And here, their number received ac- 
cessions £rom various parties successively conciliated, but it 
never became large, as few of them had children, and many 
of them, before being removed hither, had attained to the 
ayerage period of the duration of their lives. 

Flinders Island is of granite, and is about 130 miles in 
circumference ; mountainous and rocky. The lofty parts are 
sterile, but the lower hills are covered with timber, chiefiy 
Blue Gum. The lower grounds in various places are clothed 
with tall scrub, intermixed with She-oak and other trees. 
The open, grassy parts are not numerous, but some portions 
are capable of cultivation. The Wallaby, a small species of 
Kangaroo, abounds here, as do also various kinds of wild- 

A considerable number of the Aborigines were upon the 'beach 
when we landed, dose by the Setdement, but they took no 
notice of us until requested to do so by W. J. DarUng ; 
they then shook hands with us very affably. It does not 
accord with their ideas of proper manners to appear to notice 
strangers, or to be surprised at any novelty. On learning 
that plenty of provisions had arrived by the cutter, they 
shouted for joy. After sunset they had a " corrobery ^' or 
dance around a fire, which they kept up till after midnight, 
in testimony of their pleasure. 

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82 FLINDERS ISLAND. [10th mO. 

In these dances the Aborigines represented certain eyents, 
or the maimers of different animals: they had a horse 
dance^ an emu dance^ a thunder and lightning dance^ and 
many others. In their horse dance^ they formed a strings 
moving in a circle^ in a half stooping posture, holding by 
each others loins, one man at the same time going along;, 
as if reining in the others,* and a woman as driver, striking 
them gently as they passed. Sometimes their motions were 
extremely rapid, but they carefully avoided treading one upon 
another. In the emu dance, they placed one hand behind 
them, and alternately put the other to the ground and raised 
it above their heads, as they passed slowly round the fire, 
imitating the motion of the head of the emu when feeding. 
In the thunder and lightning dance, they moved theb feet 
rapidly, bringing them to the ground with great force, so as 
to produce a loud noise, and make such a dust as rendered it 
necessary for spectators to keep to windward of the group. 
Each dance ended with a loud shout, like a last effort of 
exhausted breath. The exertion used, made them very warm^ 
and occasionally one or other plunged into the adjacent 
lagoon. One of their chiefs stood by to direct tiiem, and 
now and then turned to the bystanders and said, ^^ Narra, 
coopa corrobery^* — ^very good dance— evidentiy courting ap- 

10 mo. 10th. Several of the Aborigines came into the 
Commandant's hut, when we were at breakfast, and seated 
themselves quietiy on stoolsf, or on the floor; they did not 
offer to touch anything, but expressed pleasure on receiving 
a Httle tea or bread. They have a great dislike to butter or 
anything fat. At their own meals, they have learned to use 
tin cans and dishes, of which they take some care. On their 
first setdement, they threw away these articles as soon as 
their meals were over, and it was a matter of no small 
trouble, and exercise of patience to gather them together 
again. Fuel was at first collected by their white attendants, 
to boil the water for their tea, but when their taste for 
this article became strong, they were told, that they must 
either bring fael for themselves or go without tea; and by 
meibis of this kind they were led to exertion in supplying 

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1832.] bass's straits. 83 

their own wants. They now collect fad cheerfully^ and 
assist in cookings making breads &c.^ and a soldier's wife 
teaches the women to wash. — In the course of the day a 
sealer from Ouncarriage Island^ came and took away a child 
that he had had by a native woman^ now married to a man of 
her own nation, on the Settlement: he would not be persuaded 
to leave the Httle girl tmder the care of its mother, who 
was greatly distressed at parting with it. 

Late in the evening we visited the Aborigines in the three 
huts or "breakwinds" that have been erected for them; 
these are built of spars, and thatched with rushes : they 
resemble roofs, and have an aperture along the ridge, for 
the escape of smoke. These, with a few cottages of similar 
materials, for the soldiers and prisoner boats-crew, and some 
weather-board huts, occupied by the Conmiandant, Surgeon, 
&c., and a tent used by a Surveyor, form the Settlement at 
this place, wMch is called The Lagoons. In each of the huts 
of the natives, there were fires along the centre, around which 
they were lying, in company with their dogs, which are good 
tempered like themselves. On our entering the people sat 
up, and began to sing dieir native songs — sometimes the men, 
at others the women — ^with much animation of countenance 
and gesture. This they kept up to a late hour: they are 
said often to continue their singing till midnight. To me^ 
their songs were not impleasing: persons skilled in music 
consider them harmonious. 

11th. The men having been requested to cease &x)m 
wearing ^^bal-de-wiimy," that is red ochre and grease, in their 
hair, they had signified a willingness to do so, if they might 
have some other covering for their heads ; and to-day, ac- 
cording to a previous agreement, Scotch Caps were distri- 
buted among them, with which they were much delighted. 
In these they seemed to perceive a similarity to the head- 
dress of the military, and they immediately arranged them- 
selves in a rank ! Tliey are very docile, and having noticed 
that the soldiers always went to inform the Commandant 
when going off the Settlement, they have adopted a similar 
practice, of their own accord. They neither exhibit the 
intellectual nor the physical degradation, that have been 


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attributed to them. Naked human beings^ when in a lean 
condition^ are forlorn looking creatures ; but many of these 
people have become plump^ and are partially clothed^ and these 
circumstances have removed much of what was forbidding to 
a civilized eye. 

The Blacks make symmetrical cuttings on their bodies and 
limbs^ for ornament. They keep the cuts open by filling 
them with grease^ until the flesh becomes elevated. Rows 
of these marks^ resembling necklaces around the neck^ and 
similar ones on the shoulders^ representing epaulets^ are fre- 
quent. Rings representing eyes are occasionally seen on 
the body^ producing a rude similitude of a face. They 
also wear necklaces formed of Kangaroo-sinews rolled in 
red ochre^ and others of small spiral shells. They likewise 
wear the bones of deceased relatives aroimd their necks^ 
perhaps more as tokens of affection than for ornament ; and 
these are also used as charms. They are commonly leg or 
jaw bones^ wrapped with strings rolled in grease and ochre, 
the ends only protruding ; but there is a couple here who 
lost their only child in infancy, and its skull is generally to 
be seen suspended on the breast either of its father or its 
mother. A man who had a head-ache to-day, had three 
leg bones fixed on his head, in the form of a triangle, for a 
charm. The shells for necklaces are of a brilliant^ pearly 
blue : they are perforated by means of the eye-teeth, and are 
strung on a kangaroo-sinnew ; they are then exposed to the 
action of pyroligneous acid, in the smoke of brushwood 
covered up with grass; and in this smoke they are turned 
and rubbed till the external coat comes off, after which, they 
are polished with oil obtained from the penguin or the 

When any of these people fall sick, in their native state, 
so as to be unable to accompany the others in their daily 
removals, they are famished with a supply of such food as 
the party happens to have, and a bundle of the leaves of 
Mtsembryanthemum equilaterale — a plant known in the Co- 
lony by the name of Pig-faces — ^which the natives use as a 
purgative ; and they are left to perish, unless they recover 
in time to follow the others. This is done as a matter of 

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1832.] bass's straits. 85 

necessity, and does not appear to arise out of a nature more 
cnid than is common to mankind generally. 

In the course of a walk, along the margin of the woody 
land, adjoining the beach, we saw a Black Swan and some 
Ducks, upon a lagoon: several Spur-winged Plovers were 
feeding among the rocks on the coast, and we observed a 
number of interesting shells on the shore. 

12th. The present site of the Settlement, being unfit for 
agriculture, and in other respects unfavourable for advance* 
ment in civilization, a project has been formed for removing 
it about 15 miles northward, to a place named by the sealers 
Pea Jacket Point. For this place, we set out in the after- 
noon, the weather having become fine after a wet morning. 
The company consisted of W. J. Darling, G. W. Walker, 
and myself, attended by four native men and two of their 
wives, with eight dogs. We had not proceeded far before 
a duck flew off her nest, and her numerous eggs quickly 
became the spoil of some of our attendants, who rushed to 
the spot, and each, seized as many as he could, but without 
quarrelling as to the division of them. Our way was some- 
times along the beach, at others on the adjacent land, and 
sometimes through the scrub, in crossing projecting points. 
The dogs killed a Kangaroo Rat and some mice, rather 
larger than English Field-mice. The Kangaroo Rat was 
cooked during a halt, made till the tide ebbed sufficiently 
to allow us to cross a creek. The animal was thrown into 
the ashes till the hair was well singed off, and it became a 
little distended by the heat; it was then scraped, and 
cleared of the entrails, after which it was returned to the 
fire till roasted enough. This is the dommon mode of cooking 
practiced by the Aborigines, who find that, by thus roasting 
the meat in the skin, the gravy is more abundant. In 
eating, they reject the skin, and it forms the portion of their 
numerous dogs. These are generally very lean, but they 
are highly valued by their owners, who obtained them from 
Europeans, there being originally no wild dogs in V. D. 
Land. The flesh of the Kangaroo Rat is much like that of 
a rabbit. Near this creek some fine bushes of Myoporum 
serratum were beautifully in blossom. This shrub is like a 

G 3 

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86 FLINDBBS ISLAND. [10th mO. 

laurel, in size and general aspect, and is common along the 
coasts of V. D. Land, where it bears the name of Man- 
grove, which, in Australia, is given very promiscuously to 
shrubs and trees growing within the reach of salt-water. On 
the ebb of the tide, we crossed the creek, and proceeded till 
near dark. The dogs killed a Bandicoot. This animal like 
most other quadrupeds in this part of the world, carries its 
young in a pouch. The Bandicoot of V. D. Land, feeds chiefly 
on ants, but it gets the blame of much of the mischief done 
in gardens by the Kangaroo Rat. After passing over a 
remarkable, sloping point of granite, by following a pro- 
jecting vein of quartz, that afforded hold for our feet, and' 
collecting some limpets from the adjoining rocks, where four 
fine Pelicans passed over our heads, we turned into a well 
sheltered place, by a small streamlet, to remain for the night. 
A fire was quickly kindled, and the tear-kettle, which one of 
women brought suspended round her neck by a string, was 
set upon it. The Bandicoot and limpets were cooked, the 
latter being pitched by the natives, with great dexterity, 
into the glowing embers, with the points of the shells down- 
ward : their contents, when cooked enough, were taken out by 
means of a pointed stick. These, with provisions from the 
settlement, formed an ample meal, after which we laid down 
by the fire, in blankets, &c., brought by one of the men, 
and rested till morning. 

18th. On the way to the place of our destination, the 
dogs killed a Wallaby, about the size of a lamb of three 
months old. Here we found two huts built of wattles 
and Uned with grass, by an industrious soldier, who had 
also brought a plot of ground into cultivation. The site 
appeared much preferable for a settlement to the Lagoons, 
being a promontory with a considerable quantity of grass- 
land, sheltered by thick scrub toward the sea, and having 
access to the mountains behind; nevertheless fresh water 
was not so plentiful as was desirable, but sufficient for 
necessary purposes. Having surveyed the place, we returned 
to the Lagoons, with the addition to our company of a man 
carrying two young Cape Barren Geese, one of which died 
on the way, from the effect of cold and rain. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1832.] bass's straits. 87 

The Aborigines retained their cheerfcdness all the way, and 
hraghedwhen looked at, as the storm beat against them, not- 
withstanding, at first, they wished to stop when it rained. On 
being informed that people stopping in wet clothes would 
take cold, they were satisfied, and travelled on till the rain 
abated, when they dried their garments by holding them 
separately to the fire — ^a much safer and more expeditious 
plan, than drying them upon their backs. 

We reached the Settlement again about six in the evening, 
well pleased with our excursion, but heartily tired ; and had, 
as before, visits firom some of the Aborigines ; to whom 
both W. J. Darling and A. Mc'Liachlan are Uberal, offcen 
encouraging good feeling, by giving them out of their own 
supplies, a panakin of tea, and a piece of biscuit or damper, 
which is a kind of bread made of flour, water and salt, and 
baked in the ashes, with which they are much pleased. They 
were also highly gratified by some coloured cotton hand- 
kerchiefs, which we distributed amongst them. 

14th. This morning, the white population assembled in 
a place formed of brandies, and used as a chapel : several 
of the Blacks were also present. I was particularly desirous 
of this opportunity, to point out to the Europeans, their 
responsibility to God, for being blessed with the knowledge 
of the Gospel, especially as it regarded their influence and 
example among these unenlightened people. By a paraphrase 
upon Romans 2nd, beginning with the I7th verse, and some 
comments upon the other parts of the same chapter, with 
the 1st and 3rd, which were also read, I endeavoured to 
point out the danger to some of them, through neglecting 
these things, of the unenlightened Blacks rising up with 
them in the judgment and condemning them; seeing that 
these people, like the Gentiles of old, having not the law, 
are a law unto themselves, when they do by nature the 
things contained in the law, showing the work of the law 
written in their hearts ; their consciences also bearing wit^ 
ness, and their thoughts meanwhile accusing, or else excus- 
ing, one another. 

Though able to understand little more than the general 
object for which we were assembled, and having scarcely 

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any ideas of a Deity^ or a future state, the Aborigines be- 
haved with great reverence and attention. — It was afiecting 
and humiliating to be cut off from communication with them 
on these subjects, by the want of a knowledge of their 
language ; but there was a comfort in knowing, that ^^ where 
there is no law, there is no transgression ;^^ and that '^ sin 
is not imputed where there is no law ;^' and that they will 
be judged only according to the measure of light, they have 

I am persuaded that this doctrine, which is held up in 
the Holy Scriptures, in no way invalidates that of salvation 
through Jesus Christ, nor diminishes the force of his in- 
junction to his disciples, ''Go ye into all the world and 
preach the Oospel to every creature.*' The sins of those 
who attain to peace with God, through attention to the law 
written in their hearts by the Holy Spirit, are blotted out 
through the blood of Christ, whether they know it or not ; 
for they are baptized by the Spirit unto him, and accepted 
in him, the Beloved. Nevertheless, it is an unspeakable 
blessing and comfort to have the understanding enlightened 
upon this all-important subject, and to know Him in whom 
we have believed, and to have this knowledge as a powerful 
motive to induce us to comply with those indispensable 
proofs of discipleship, self-denisJ and the bearing of the 
cross daily. I cannot but fear that many who are great 
sticklers for this knowledge, and are ready to Hmit salva- 
tion to the possession of it, are so far from living in accord- 
ance with it, as to fall under the condemnation spoken of by 
the Apostle, when he says: ''Shall not uncircumcision 
which is by nature, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who by 
the letter and circumcision dost transgress the law V^ 

In the evening, a number of the Aborigines joined us, 
when we were seated around some charcoal embers, con- 
tained in an old iron pot, by which the Commandant's hut 
is warmed, and which might endanger the lives of the in- 
habitants, were it not for the free admission of air through 
the crevices of the weatherboard walls. An elderly woman, 
named Boatswain, by the sealers, to whom she had long 
been in bondage, informed us, by means of signs, and a few 

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1832.] BASSES STRAITS. 89 

words in broken English^ of the manner in which these men 
flogged the women who did not pluck Mutton-birds, or do 
other work to their satisfaction. She spread her hands to 
the wall, to shew the manner in which they were tied up, 
said a rope was used to flog them with, and cried out with a 
failing voice till she sank upon the ground, as if exhausted. 
The statements of this woman were confirmed by others, 
several of whom have escaped to the settlement. A M^Lach- 
Ian fell in with Boatswain and a New Holland woman, when 
they had been left on a distant part of the island to hunt, 
and they gladly availed themselves of the opportunity to 
obtain their liberty. The sealers got them back by fedse 
pretences, but Boatswain was afterwards found early in the 
morning, by the Commandant, on Guncarriage Island, where 
she stated, that herself and another woman were hid by the 
sealers, at a former time when one of these men assured him 
they were not there. The cutter's boat happened to go to 
Green Island about a year since, when two women, called 
Isaac and Judy, took the opportunity of escaping by it, while 
the sealers were asleep. — ^Two other women waded and swam 
from Green Island to the Settlement — a distance of three 
miles. Most of these women were originally kidnapped. 
Boatswain says, she got into a boat when a girl, and the 
sealers rowed away with her. These men teach the women 
to manage their boats, and often give them names ordinarily 
belonging the male sex — a circumstance small in itself, but 
connected with reckless depravity. 

15th. Old Boatswain having understood that we wished 
to taste the inner portion of the upper part of the stem of 
the tree-fern, which is used by the natives as an article of 
diet, went several miles for some. It is in substance like a 
Swedish-turnip, but is too astringent in taste to be agreeable, 
and it is not much altered by cooking. They also use the 
root of Pteris esculent a — a fern, much Uke the common Brake 
of England, which they call Tara — a name given to other 
esculent roots, and to rice in the southern hemisphere. In 
hunting to-day, the people took several Wallabies, Porcu- 
pines, and Kangaroo-rats. The Porcupine of this land, 
Echnida HystriVy is a squat species of ant-eater, with short 

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quills among its hair : it conceals itself in die day-time 
among dead timber in the hilly forests. — An eruptive disease 
prevailed among the Aborigines at this period : it was 
attended with fever for about four days^ and was supposed to 
have arisen from feeding too freely on young Mutton-birds. 
One of the men suffering under it, and covered with sores as 
large as a shilling, lay by a fire in one of the breakwinds, 
and was literally *' wallowing in ashes/' having covered 
himself with them from head to foot. This, we were in- 
formed^ was one of their common remedies. 

There being no hospital here, the surgeon took some of 
the sick people into his hut: one of them who recovered after 
being very ill, has shewn many demonstrations of gratitude. 
This virtue is often exhibited among these people. A romantic 
instance of it occurred in one of them, named Roomtya 
or Bet ; she was addressed by a young man, named Trigoomi- 
poonenah or Jackey^ who received a refusal ; but on a certain 
occasion^ the young woman was taken so ill when crossing a 
river, as to be in danger ; Jackey was present, and availed 
himself of the opportunity of proving his attachment, he 
carried her out of the water, and thus saved her life. After 
this^ she accepted his addresses and became his wife, and in 
her turn, she nursed him carefully when he was sick. — ^This 
woman excels in the chase ; and once when the Commandant 
was detained for some days, in Kents Bay, by a storm^ she 
and her husband, left a Wallaby at his house daily lest he 
should come home and not find a supply of food. 

The chief instrument used in the chase by these people^ 
is a Waddy^ a short stick about an inch in thickness^ 
brought suddenly to a conical point at each end^ and at 
one end a Uttle roughened, to keep it from slipping out of the 
hand. This, they throw with a rotatory motion, and with 
great precision. They also use spears made of simple sticks, 
having the thicker end sharpened, and hardened in the fire. 

16th. After receiving a few waddies and some shell neck- 
laces from the natives, and making them presents in return, 
we took leave of them, and went back to the cutter, at Green 
Island, where we went on shore. This island, like most, 
if not all others in this part of the straits, is of granite, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1832.] bass's straits. 91 

and like the majority of them^ it is low. Its circumference 
may be about three miles^ and most of its sur&ce is covered 
wilh thick grass, which is knee-deep, and with nettles, 
sow-thistles, and tree-mallows, breast high, or with spread- 
ing barilla-bushes of three feet. There are also upon it Yel- 
low Everlastings^ which attain to a large size. This luxuriance 
of vegetation is attributable to the accumulation of the dung 
of the Mutton-birds, which is mixed with the Ught soil that 
is perforated in every direction by their burrows. 

Where the barilla affords sufficient shelter, these birds do 
not seem to consider it necessary to form holes, but they de- 
posit their single eggs under the bushes, in hollows on the 
bare ground. Perhaps no bird, except the American Migratory 
Pigeon, is to be met with in flocks equal in magnitude to those 
of the Mutton-bird ; and the latter, like the former, lays only 
a single egg. The Mutton-birds, or Sooty Petrels, are about 
the size of the Wood Pigeon of England ; they are of a dark 
colour, and are called " Yola'^ by the natives. These birds 
are often to be seen ranging over the surface of the Southern 
Ocean, far from land: they visit several of the islands in Bass's 
Straits, in the latter part of the 9th month, when they 
scratch out their holes : they leave again in the beginning of 
the 11th month, and return to lay near the end of the same. 
Each burrow is occupied by a single pair : their egg is as 
lai^e as that of a duck, and is incubated in about a month. 
They leave the islands with their young early in 5th month. 
During the period of their resort to land, they become the 
prey of men and of hawks, of crows and other ravenous birds, 
and of black-snakes. 

But notwithstanding the wholesale carnage committed 
among the Mutton-birds, their number is not perceptibly 
lessened. The greatest quantities are destroyed for the 
sake of their feathers ; two tons and a half of which are 
said to have been sent from this part of the straits in a 
season : these would be the produce of 112,000 birds, twenty 
yielding one pound of feathers. From the great length of 
their wings, these birds cannot rise from a level siu*- 
face. The sealers take advantage of this, and enclose certain 
portions of the islands at night, with converging lines of 

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92 GREEN ISLAND. • [10th mO. 

bushes terminating at a pit^ 6 feet long^ 4 feet broad^ and 
3 feet deep, lined with boards or bark, and having a fence 
2 feet, high at the further side, to prevent the birds taking 
flight, when they come to the edge of the pit. At sunrise, 
when the birds come out of their holes, they are driven 
toward the pit, into which they fall till it is full : a sail or 
thatched hurdle is then thrown over them, and the fences 
are removed, to allow the remainder of the birds to pass oflF 
to the sea. The birds in the pit are suffocated in a few 
minutes, and the native women are set to strip off their 
feathers, which are put into bags for exportation. The 
feathers have an unpleasant smell, but they bring about 6d. 
per pound, in Launceston. 

When fresh^ these birds are pretty good eating, at least 
as a substitute for salt meat. Great numbers of young ones 
are salted and dried, in which state they taste much like 
red-herrings. The eggs are also collected in great quantities; 
the Aborigines at the settlement have been supplied at the 
rate of six eggs a day, each, for upwards of two months 
together: as the young birds all leave the islands at the 
same time, it is not probable that the robbed birds lay a 
second time. The sealers make the young birds disgorge 
oil, by pressing their craws : this they use for their lamps, 
and for various other purposes. 

We remained on the island till dusk, when the air seemed 
alive, with myriads of these birds returning to roost, so that 
in looking up, we were reminded of a shower of large flakes 
of snow. When once on the ground, they tried in vain to fly 
again : when alarmed they shuffled along, by the combined 
effort of their feet and wings, and tried to bite. They were 
easily taken by the point of the wing, being unable with 
their beaks to reach the hand that held them by that 
part. It was difficult to avoid treading upon theni, and 
they were clucking in all directions among the Barilla, 
&c. W. J. Darling once laid down on his back when 
they were returning to roost, and killed twelve with a 
waddy, without moving from the spot. Flinders computed 
one of the flocks that he saw in these seas, to be forty 
miles long, and to contain as many birds as would require 

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an area of sixteen square miles for their nests, at a yard 
asunder. From what is now known of their breeding 
places, they probably occupy a much larger extent of 
ground than sixteen square miles, in the various places of 
their resort. 

18th. Yesterday was stormy, and the wind adverse : W. 
J. Darling brought four Aborigines on board, to accompany 
him to the Hunter Islands. The vessel remaining at anchor 
to-day, we went again upon Green Island, which has several 
small sandy bays. — ^When the Mutton-birds take flight, they 
either rise from elevated places, or firom the edge of the cliff, 
or they run over the beach and upon the water, flapping 
their wings, till at length, after passing two or three con- 
siderable waves, they succeed in gaining sufficient elevation 
to enable them to mount into the air. 

The four Aborigines took tea with us in the cabin: they were 
very cheerful,andused cups and saucers with dexterity. — ^When 
Jumbo first came on board, she was shown a musical box, con- 
structed like a musical snuff-box. Having been brought up 
among Europeans, she did not feign inattention to novelties, 
as is conomon with her country people, but showed pleasure 
and astonishment, in a remarkable degree. Listening with 
intensity^ her ears moved like those of a dog or horse, to 
catch the sound (a circumstance that J. Munro, with whom 
she had lived from childhood, said he had not before noticed) 
and at intervals she laughed immoderately. — ^When on the 
island one of the women threw some sticks at J. Thomloe, 
on his mentioning her son, who is at school at Newtown. 
The mention of an absent relative is considered offensive by 
them, and especially if deceased. 

19th. We sailed from Green Island, and put J. Munro 
on shore on Preservation Island. The tide-ripple, which 
is occasioned by the meeting of different currents, is very 
strong in many parts of the straits ; it threatened to swallow 
up the boat in returning from Preservation. Many voices 
called to the man who was in it, not to be afraid, saying 
there was no danger, while the faces of the same parties 
betrayed their own fears : he, however, succeeded in reaching 
the vessel, amidst tremendous billows, which were so high 

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94 QBORG£ TOWN. [10th lUO. 

that a green light shone through them in a remarkable 
manner. — Some Pelicans and a flock of Cape Barren Oeese 
were on a rock called Rmn Island^ near which we passed. 

20th. The night was boisterous, and many scenes occur- 
red in it, calculated to excite laughter, even in the midst 
of much that was uncomfortable, and that would have been 
very trying, but for hope of a speedy change. At day light, 
we stood for the land, and soon descried it, near the heads 
of the Tamar or Port Dalrymple, — an estuary extending 
to Launceston, — ^and near to the mouth of which, Geoige 
Town is situated. On reaching this place we ^'brought up,^^ 
to take in some stores, and were kindly received by the 
Port Officer, Matthew Curling Friend, late of the Norval, 
in which vessel he brought us some boxes of clothing and 
tracts to Launceston, free of charge, on his own part, as a 
token of his approval of the cause in which we are engaged. 

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George Town. — ^The Tamar River. — Launccston. — Meeting. — Aborigines. — 
Plants. — ^Leeches. — ^Kangaroos. — ^Middle Ann. — Tide Ripple. — N. Coast. — 
Blacks charged with Murder. — ^Mode of transferring fire — Black women res- 
cued. — Circular Head. — ^V. D. Land Company's Establishment. — Islands. — 
Woolnorth. — Rocks. — Cape Grim. — Bird Islands. — Kelp. — Mutton-fish. — Na- 
tiye Doctor. — Seeking a Needle. — ^Decoration. — ^Remembrance of absent 
Friends. — Habitations. — ^Tribes. — ^Burning the dead. 

George Town is a small assemblage of scattered houses^ a 
few of which are of stone^ and the rest of weather-board. 
This place was originally intended to be the chief port 
in the north of V. D. Land ; but Lamiceston took the prece- 
dence^ having greater advantages^ notwithstanding its distance 
is forty miles from the sea; and the poUce^ and other estab- 
lishments were removed thither. In the afternoon^ the wind 
and tide serving, we proceeded up the Tamar, which is 
devious in its course, and opens out into many pretty bays. 
The shores present traces of basalt. The adjacent country is 
hiUy, and wooded down to the water, except in places where 
the land has been cleared; on which com and grass are 
verdant. Some of the habitations of the settlers look com- 
fortable. We completed the last few miles of our voyage in 
the dark, in a boat, and met a hearty welcome at Launceston, 
from Isaac and Katharine Sherwin, a thoughtful young 
couple from whom we had retseived a previous invitation. 

21st. We visited a school that does not belong to any 
particular denomination of Christians, but is supported by 
several, and is in a thriving condition : we also had a meeting 
in a small court-house, at which two hundred persons might be 
present. I went to this meeting feeling poor and empty, but 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

96 LAVNCEBTON. [lOth mo. 

deriving some comfort from the expressions of the apostle 
Paul: ^^I was with you in weakness and in fear, and in 
much trembling/' In this state, I found it my duty to attend 
to the injunction : ^^ Thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine 
head, and wash thy face,'' and to put my trust in the Lord. — 
I had not sat long, before I apprehended it to be right for 
me to .stand up, and explain briefly our views of worship, 
and to point out the necessity of sincerity, and of the sacrifice 
of our own wills, in order to being prepared to obtain the 
blessings of the Gospel. I was led also to speak on other 
points, connected with the glorious plan of redemption 
through faith in Jesus Christ, and on the necessity of good 
works, as the fruit of this faith ; and on the benefit of fre- 
quent and fervent prayer, as well as on communing with our 
own hearts before the Lord, in order to feel our spiritual 
necessities, and tp know what to pray for, &c. Thus, in 
condescending mercy, help was afforded to the weak, and the 
grain of fidth that was exercised, was strengthened. There 
seemed to be an open ear in the congregation. 

22nd. The population of Launceston is about 2,000. 
The streets are regularly laid out. Most of the houses are 
weather-boarded, but there are a few substantial ones, of 
brick. The Episcopal place of worship — the only one here — 
is a neat edifice of stone. The town is situated at the con- 
fluence of the North and South Esk, which here discharge 
themselves into the head of the Tamar. The South Esk 
rushes through a deep, narrow, picturesque, basaltic gorge, 
called The Cataract, distant about half a mile from the town, 
which is pleasantly situated, and has anchorage for ships of 
considerable burden near its quay. 

W. J. Darling had the four natives that he brought with him 
from Flinders Island, dressed in decent clothes, and he took 
them into the town, where their cheerful, intelligent appear- 
ance excited a favourable impression in the minds of many 
who had known little of the Aborigines but as exasperated 
en^nies, charged with treachery and implacable cruelty. — 
We called on Major Fairtlough, the Commandant, who 
received us politely. At his house we learned that the cutter 
was going to sail immediately; we therefore proceeded to 

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1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 97 

the jetty, where we were requested to take seats in the Port 
Officer's boat. A dispute arose between the cockswain and 
the harbour-master^ both of whom, we soon discovered, were 
intoxicated^ and this proved also to be the case with several 
of the crew. The harbour-master remonstrated against the 
boat proceeding, but the cockswain persisted in putting off: 
he soon brought us alongside of a ship lying at anchor, where 
he took in two prisoners to assist in pulling the boat : they 
were not very expert hands ; and when the cockswain 
recovered from the effects of his intemperance, he desired to 
know who they were, and from whence they came, and he 
turned them both on shore ! Committing the steering of the 
boat to G- W. Walker, and himself taking an oar with the 
men, they brought us in safety to the cutter, which had pro- 
ceeded some miles down the Tamar. — When the tide was 
spent, we dropped anchor and went on shore. The natives pur- 
sued some kangaroos, casting off all their clothes in the chase. 
— ^We supped at a public-house by the water-side, where we 
had some conversation with a settler, respecting the atrocities 
committed by some reckless individuals upon the Aborigines; 
these were of such character, as to remove any wonder at the 
determination of these injured people, to try to drive from 
their land a race of men, among whom were persons guilty of 
such deeds. — In our ramble this evening, as well as in one at 
the Cataract, this morning, we noticed several striking shrubs 
in blossom; among them were a Prostanthera^ with long 
spike-like branches of beautiful, purple flowers. Veronica 
formosa — a myrde-like bush with lovely, blue blossoms, and 
Clematis blanda, with a profusion of fragrant, white flowers, 
an inch across. — ^When out this evening. Jumbo turned up 
her heel, and with a laugh, asked what that was, pointing to 
a leech as large as a black snail, that was biting her : she 
plucked it off and threw it away. One of the men pointed 
to the ground, and said in broken English, ^*Two more 
crackne here,^^ i. e. rest, remain, or are here. One of the 
Blacks got the Commandant's hat and decorated it with the 
twining branches of Comesperma volubilis, covered with 
bright blue flowers resembling those of Milkwort. 
23rd. The tide not serving till noon, I took a walk alone. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

98 GEORGE TOWN. [10th DIO. 

and saw some Forester Kangaroos ; these are a large species^ 
which is gregarious. The Brush Kangaroo^ the commonest 
kind in this island^ is rather solitary in its habits. — In the 
evening we reached George Town, where we again received 
much kindness from M. C. Friend and his wife, and from a man 
gistrate named John Clark, whose guest I became till the 29th. 

In this interval we put to sea, but were driven back. This 
gave me an opportunity of speaking to the inhabitants of 
George Town, on their religious state. I also visited some 
prisoners, employed in quarrying and burning lime, up a 
branch of the Tamar, called Middle Arm. The limestone 
is accompanied by silicious sandstone, which, as well as the 
linestone, contains marine fossils, and is in connexion with 
micacious veins of a silvery appearance. 

On the 29th, we got to sea, with a light breeze. At the 
mouth of the Tamar there was a tremendous tide-ripple, 
that occasioned the cutter to pitch violently, and seemed 
ready to swamp the pilot's boat ; the men who were in it 
cried out through fear, notwithstanding the boat was made 
fast to the vessel by a rope. — ^The country on the north 
coast, between Port Dalrymple and Port Sorell is moun- 
tainous, that between Port Sorell and Port Frederick is low 
toward the shore, and has a gentle rise further inland, where 
there is some fine pasture. — On passing one part of the 
coast, two of the Aborigines shewed some uneasiness and 
fear. This, we afterwards found, resulted from circumstances 
connected with the destruction of two settlers, on account 
of which one of these men had been in prison, but had 
been discharged. The other had actually been of the party, 
who put the settlers to death ; but it appeared, that their 
misconduct had been such as, in a civilized country, would 
have rendered the case one of what is termed in law, ^^ Justi- 
fiable homicide :'' but notwithstanding this, and without 
further evidence than that the parties had been killed by 
Blacks, a verdict of wilful murder was given at the inquest, 
and the whole Colony was thrown into excitement through 
fear of the barbarous Aborigines, so that few people thought 
of going from home without guns or pistols. This occurred 
about the time of our arrival in the Colony, when many 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1832.] VAN DIEMEN8 LAND. 99 

persons expressed apprehension at our travelling without 

30th. Some person having suggested that Proper — a 
native of the country near Circular Head — ^would probably 
run away if we put in there, W. J. Darling, who at the time 
was lying on a bed on the cabin floor, inquired what was 
his intention. Proper, with characteristic cheerfulness, 
answered this question by slipping into bed to Darling, and 
thus assuring him that he would not forsake him. — From 
this man, I learned, that the Aborigines of V. D. Land had no 
artificial method of obtaining fire, before their acquaintance 
with Europeans : they say, they obtained it first from the 
sky — ^probably meaning by lightning. They preserved fire 
by carrying ignited sticks, or bark, with them, and if these 
went out, they looked for the smoke of the fire of some other 
party, or of one of the fires that they had left, as these often 
continued to bum for several days. — In the afternoon we 
brought up under Circular-head, where a whale-boat belong- 
bg a sealer, residing on Stack Island, came along side the 
cutter. Seated at the stem, was a native young woman, 
of interesting appearance, neatly dressed, and having her 
hair cut off, according to the common custom among her 
sex in this Land. Tlie mild expression of her features was 
beclouded by sadness. When she spoke, which was rarely, 
it was in a low tone. The sealers appeared to treat her 
kindly, but there was something in their manners that ex- 
cited suspicion. On being asked, if she would like some 
soup, she replied in the affirmative, and was requested to 
come on board for it. Having finished the soup, she sat in 
silence: Jumbo was asked, if she knew the woman. She 
replied. Yes, she is my country woman. Jumbo was then 
inquired of, why she did not talk to her. She replied. She 
wont speak to me. W. J. Darling ordered the two women 
into the cabin, and desired Jumbo to ask Jackey — for this 
was the name that the sealers had given this woman — if 
she would go to Flinders Island, and live with her own 
people there. No, was her answer. He then requested, 
she might be informed, that if she wished to go, he had 
power to take her, and that the sealers should not hurt her. 

H 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

100 CIRCULAR HEAD. [lOth mO* 

Her countenance at once lost its gloom^ and with a burst of 
joy, she said she would go. She now laughed heartily^ and 
entered freely into conversation with Jumbo^ and said the 
sealers had told her not to speak, and that she was afiraid 
of them. — ^Another native woman^ named Maria, was on the 
jetty much of the day, growling (as they term expressing 
displeasure) toward the cutter; but this also proved to be 
assumed by the direction of the sealers ; and she likewise, 
with her baby, was rescued from them. 

On landing at Circular Head, we met with G. A. Robin- 
son, returning from a visit to the west coast, in which he 
had prevailed on more of the natives to join those on 
Flinders Island. We walked with him to the house of 
Edward Curr, the Superintendent of the V. D. Land 
Company's concerns; where we were received with much 
hospitality. At this place^ the large garden, with a fine 
crop of vegetables, the well fenced fields, with luxuriant 
herbage of rye-grass and white-clover, and the beautiful 
cattle and horses, and almost every other object but the 
Oum-trees, resemble England. 

31st. While W. J. Darling and myself were on shore 
this morning, the cutter broke from her mooring. By getting 
promptly imder sail, those on board were able to beat oS from 
the shore, and by the admonition of one of the rescued 
women, they escaped running on a reef. We joined them 
in the West Bay, where they brought up under the lee 
of the land, and where the luggage of 6. W. Walker and 
myself, was speedily transferred into the Company's Cutter^ 
the Fanny, which immediately sailed for Woolnorth^ in 
company with the Charlotte. We passed northward of 
Robbin Island, and of the small islands between it and Three 
Hummock, or the East Hunter Island, and anchored on the 
west of Stack Island^ upon which we heard some dogs^ but 
saw no person. We afterwards learned, however, that a 
native woman was there, who had concealed herself by order 
of the sealers, notwithstanding she would have been glad to 
have escaped from them : they subsequently carried her off 
to Kangaroo Island. 

11th mo. 1st. Leaving the Charlotte at anchor, to take 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 101 

the natives, colleeted by G. A. Robinson, from Barren Island, 
where he had left them, we proceeded by an intricate channel, 
to Woolnorth, where we became the guests of Samuel Reeves, 
the Superintendent of this part of the establishment of the 
V. D. Land Company. Here we were welcomed also by 
their surgeon, James Richardson, who studied his profession 
under a friend of mine in Leeds; and who frequently 
accompanied us in our walks in this neighbourhood. 

There are only a few weather-boarded buildings at Wool- 
north, which is on the north coast, near Moandas Point, 
and not far from Cape Orim. Much of the country in this 
neighbourhood is basaltic, and some of the soil is a fine 
red loam. To the west, the land is low and swampy, but 
a considerable, grassy marsh is under drainage. — ^While walk- 
ing over this marsh, a large leech crawled up my clothes, 
and bled me so quietly, that I was unconscious of its intru- 
sion until it droped oiF. These animals live among the 
roots of long grass, &c. in moist ground: their mouths 
are oval, and they give much less pain in biting than the 
leeches of Europe. — ^There are some large rocks of white 
quartz in this direction; and on the coast, the clay-slate 
formation emerges in a form resembling Turkey-stone, and 
is useful for hones. The low ground near the coast is open, 
grassy forest, of small Gum-trees, Honey-suckles, &c. and 
on the sand-banks, there are large round bushes of a re- 
markable, oval-leaved Carroea. — Short bushes cover some 
parts of the interior land, and the hills of the west coast are 
grassy. On these some Merino sheep are fed, but the 
climate is rather too moist for them. 

At Cape Grim, some of the upper portions of the cliffs, 
are soft sandstone, but their most striking portions are 
basalt, some of which is columnar. In these cliffs there 
are caves, formed of slender columns of basalt, of a bluish 
colour, converging to a sort of keel above and below. — ^At 
the foot of the cliff, there is a rugged flat, over which the 
sea breaks furiously, when the wind lays strong on the shore, 
which is often the case. The whole scenery is in harmony 
with the name of the place. 

The Islands at this extremity of Bass's Straits are 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

102 wooLNORTH. [llthmo. 

numerous, but I only visited two, named Trefoil Island, and 
Pelican Island, both of which are small. The V. D. Land 
Company have some fine Merino sheep upon the former, 
on which there are breeding places of the Mutton-bird. 
Pelicans are said to breed on the latter, as well as some 
smaller birds. The Stormy Petrel and the Blue Petrel, 
colonize the Petrel Islands, and the Wandering Albatross 
rears its young on Albatross Island, where it sits on its 
eggs till knocked down by the sealers for the sake of its 
feathers, which are sold for about 9d. a pomid. A single bird 
will yield about a pound of feathers. Nearly 1,000 Albatrosses 
are said to have been killed on this island, last year. Some- 
times the birds are stunned, plucked, and cruelly left to 
linger; but often, the skin of the neck is taken, as well as the 
feathers ; the down on this part being nearly equal to that 
of the swan. The colonization of many of the Islands in 
Bass's Straits, by different kinds of sea-fowl, is a curious 
subject, probably dependent upon circumstances of peculiar 
character. One of these, is the absence of the carnivorous 
quadrupeds of the larger islands, which, though not destruc- 
tive to man, are so to birds. Another is the structure of 
the coast. The Albatross and Mutton-bird requiring a 
cUff, or sudden rise, to fly from, cannot take up with a 
low, sloping shore. The Penguin, which cannot fly, requires 
an easy ascent from the beach. Perhaps some of the other 
species take up with islands that are imoccupied by the 
myriads of those already named, merely because these Islands 
are left vacant. 

Some of the kelp or sea-weed, Tiv'ashed up on this shore, is 
of gigantic magnitude ; a palmate species has a stem thicker 
than a man's arm, and proportionately long. The flat portion 
between the stem and the ribbon-like appendages, is so large 
as to be converted by the Blacks, into vessels for carrying 
water. For this purpose, they either open an oblong piece, 
so as to form a flat bag, or run a string through holes in the 
margin of a circular piece, so as to form a round one. There 
is also much kelp of smaller dimensions, near the shore: 
among this, there are shells, in considerable variety ; and ad- 
hering to the rocks, Haliotis tuberculata and leviffatOy called in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1832.] VAN DIBMEN8 LAND. 103 

this country Mutton-fish, are met with abundantly. These 
are often taken in deep water by the native women, who dive 
for them, and force them from the rocks by means of a 
wooden chisel. They put them into an oval bag, and bring 
them up suspended round their necks. 

While we were at Woolnorth, a party of the domesticated 
Blacks, who had been with 6. A. Robinson, on the west 
coast, arrived from Barren Island, under charge of Anthony 
Ck>ttrell, G. A. Robinson's assistant. A woman of this party 
was the sole relick of a tribe that inhabited the western side 
of the Huon River, on the south coast I enquired of her what 
became of the people of her country. She answered. They 
all died. I then asked what killed them. An aged man of 
the Bruny Island tribe, who is one of their doctors, and was 
sitting by, replied. The Devil. I desired to know how he 
managed. The woman began to cough violently, to show 
me how they were aiFected, and she said, that when the rest 
were all dead, she made a ^^ catamoran,'^ a sort of raft, and 
crossed IKEntrecasteaux Channel to Bruny Island, and 
joined a tribe there. 

The old Doctor was smeared and streaked with red ochre 
and grease, with which his beard was also dressed: he is 
affected with fits of spasmodic contraction of the muscles of 
one breast, which he attributes, as they do all other diseases, 
to the devil; and he is cunning enough to avail himself of 
the singular effect produced upon him by this malady, to 
impose upon his country people, under the idea of satanic 
inspiration. When it comes on, he seizes a stick out of the 
fire, and brandishes it about him, in the manner that is 
common under circumstances of rage among this people. 
The Doctor had his instruments lying by him, consisting of 
pieces of broken glass, picked up on the shore ; with these 
he cuts deep gashes in any part affected with pain. 

One day, when sitting by the fire of the natives, watching 
a woman making the oval bags of open work, used in fish- 
ing, &c. of the leaves of a sedgy plant, which she split 
with great dexterity, and after having divided them into 
strips of proper width, softened by drawing through the fire, 
I observed another woman looking carefully about among the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

104 WOOLNORTH. [llth lUO. 

grass^ and enquired what she was seeking. Her companions 
replied^ to my surprise^ A needle. To this I answered^ that 
I had often heard hopeless search compared to '^ seeking a 
needle in a bottle of hay/' and A. Cottrell, who sat by, said. 
You will see she will find it : you have no idea how keen 
sighted and persevering they are ; and after some time she 
picked up her needle, which was one of English manufacture, 
and not of large size ! 

These people not only smear their bodies with red ochre 
and grease, but sometimes rouge the prominent parts tastefully 
with the former article, and they draw lines, that by no means 
improve their appearance, with a black, glittering, mineral, 
probably an ore of antimony, above and below their eyes. — 
One day we noticed a woman arranging several stones that 
were flat, oval, and about two inches wide, and marked in 
various directions with black and red lines. These we learned 
represented absent friends, and one larger than the rest, a 
corpulent woman on Flinders Island, known by the name of 
Mother Brown. — ^The arithmetic of the Aborigines is very 
limited, amounting only to one, two, plenty. As they cannot 
state in numbers the amount of persons present on any 
occasion, they give their names. — ^The west coast being very 
humid, those inhabiting it make huts for winter habitations, 
by clearing a circular area in a thicket of slender, young, Tea- 
tree, and drawing the tops of the surrounding bushes toge- 
ther, and thatching these with branches and grass. Some- 
times for temporary shelter, they use large slabs of bark, 
from some of the Gum-trees. 

Each tribe of the Aborigines is divided into several fami- 
lies, and each family, consisting of a few individuals, occupies 
its own fire. Though they rarely remain two days in a place, 
they seldom travel far at a time. Each tribe keeps much to 
its own district — a circumstance that may in some measure 
account for the variety of dialect. The tribe called by the 
settlers, the Ben Lomond tribe, occupied the north-east por- 
tion of V. D. Land ; that called, the Oyster Bay tribe, the 
south-east ; the Stony Creek tribe, the middle portion of the 
country; and the Western tribe, the west coast. Besides 
these, there were also a few smaller sections. Those on the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 105 

west coast differed from those on the east, in some of their 
customs. The former did not mark their bodies with the 
same regularity as the latter: the scars upon those of the 
west coast appeared to have proceeded from irregular surgical 
cuts, and were principally upon the chest, which is very 
liable to be affected by inflanmiation, that often speedily 
issues in death. A large proportion of these people died from 
this cause, in the course of the late inclement season. 

Lately, several of these people were sick upon the West 
Hunter or Barren Island, and one of the women died. The 
men formed a pile of logs, and at, placed the body of 
the woman upon it, supported by small wood, which con- 
cealed her, and formed a pyramid. They then placed their 
sick people aroimd the pile, at a short distance. On A. 
Cottrel, our informant, enquiring the reason of this, they 
told him that the dead woman would come in the night and 
take the devil out of them. At daybreak the pile was set on 
fire, and fresh wood added as any part of the body became 
exposed, till the whole was consumed. The ashes of the 
dead were collected in a piece of Kangaroo-skin, and every 
morning, before sunrise, till they were consumed, a portion of 
them was smeared over the faces of the survivors, and a 
death song sung, with great emotion, tears clearing away 
lines among the ashes. The store of ashes, in the mean 
time, was suspended about one of their necks. The child of 
the deceased was carefully nursed. 

A few days after the decease of this woman, a man, who 
was ill at the time, stated, that he should die when the sun 
went down, and requested the other men would bring wood 
and form a pile. While the work was going forward, he 
rested against some logs that were to form part of it, to see 
them execute the work : he became worse as the day pro- 
gressed, and died before night. 

The practice of burning the dead, is said to have extended 
to the natives of Bruny Island; but those of the east coast 
put the deceased into hollow trees, and fenced them in with 
bushes. — ^They do not consider a person completely dead 
till the sun goes down ! 

The chiefs among these tribes are merely heads of families 

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106 CIRCULAR HEAD. [11th mO. 

of extraordinary prowess. One of these now here, belongin^- 
an eastern tribe, has not the flattened nose common to hii 
countrymen, but is much more like a European in features. 

In the course of our tarriance at Woolnorth, we twice had 
meetings with such of the people as could be assembled. 
These, with a few Aborigines, amounted to forty-five, on one 
occasion, and to fifty-eight on another. The company were 
reverent in their deportment, while we read to them from 
the Scriptures, and spoke to them respecting the way of 
salvation. This was strikingly the case with a few of the 
natives who could understand a Uttle English. The solemn 
feeling that pervaded the mind, especially during intervals of 
silence, was very comforting. The state of the people at 
this settlement was such as greatly needed religious instruc- 

We returned to Circular Head on the 13th of 11th mo. 
by the Fanny, which had on board forty-eight young Merino 
Rams, designed for sale at Launceston, and which had been 
fed upon Trefoil Island. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Circular Head. — Anchorage. — Higbfield Plain. — ^Work People. — Indentured Ser- 
rants. —Flagellation. — Eagles. — Sponges. — Shells. — Crabs. — ^Weather. — ^Ants. 
— Journey. — Rivers. — Grass-trees. — Blandfordia. — Banksia serratifolia. — Hu- 
man Bones. — Scrub and Fern. — Fossil Shells. — Table Cape. — Trees, &c. — Emu 
Bay. — Magnificent Forest. — Oigantic Trees. — Tree-ferns. — Plains. — Aborigi- 
nes. — Boad. — ^Arriral at the Hampshire Hills. 

On arriving at Circular Head^ we found the Conch, bound 
for the Isle of France and the Cape of Good Hope, lying 
at the jetty, where she had taken shelter from adverse winds. 
On landing, a young man was waiting with assistants, to 
convey our luggage to a small cottage, which Edward Curr 
had kindly appropriated to our use, his large family fully 
occupying his own house : he received us kindly, and invited 
us to take our meals at his table during our stay here. 

Circular Head is a basaltic peninsula, on a flat part of the 
coast : it takes its name from a large circular bluff, facing 
the east, and at the south side of which is the anchorage. 
Portions of the peninsula, which contains about 4,000 acres, 
are hilly and clothed with wood : much of the soil is good, 
and notwithstanding some of it is light, it is very productive. 
On the main land, the coast is sandy, or swampy, and further 
in, the forest is dense and lofty. 

The whole grant of the V. D. Land Company here, is 
20,000 acres. The dwellings of persons in their employ- 
ment, are chiefly on the portion of the peninsula called High- 
field Plain, which lies to the north-west of the bluff. We 
had several meetings with the work-people at this place, 
generally in the carpenter^s shop. Their remote situation 
excited our sympathy, and we endeavoured to direct them 

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108 CIRCULAR HEAD. [11th mo. 

to Christ, the Shepherd and Bishop of souls. — Many of the 
people who emigrated hither under the auspices of the V. D. 
Land Company, came out as their indentured servants ; but 
these, finding they had agreed for less wages than they could 
readily obtain in the Colony, took every opportunity to run 
away ; and the Company having in but few instances, agreed 
specifically what rations the people should receive, in addi- 
tion to wages, this also became a fruitful source of dis- 
satisfaction, so that, at present, they have few indentured 
servants left. 

The people here have the advantage of being generally 
secluded from strong drink, but a Colonial vessel putting in 
at the jetty, a few of the prisoners, in defiance of admoni- 
tion, obtained some. I was present when two of these re- 
ceived flagellation, to the amount of twenty-five lashes each^ 
for this offence. Witnessing this punishment tended to 
confirm me in its inefficiency compared with solitary con- 

Pelicans and other wild-fowl, resort to the bays adjacent 
to Circular Head. Eagles also are common here, as well as 
in other parts of the Island. One day, I saw a large Eagle 
sallying over my companion, while he was busily occupied 
in picking up shells. It approached nearer every time it 
swept over him, until, being afraid he should receive a stroke 
from its talons, I called to him, and on his resuming an 
erect posture, it flew away. — On the western shore of Cir- 
cular Head, there is a remarkable bank of sponges, of several 
hundred yards long, and more than a yard thick. There 
are also some others of smaller dimensions. The species 
are numerous and curious. Sponges, as we see them in 
England, are merely skeletons. In their living state, those 
of this coast are filled with a scarlet, crimson, or bright 
yellow pulp, and covered with a thin skin ; they are of great 
beauty, when seen in clear water. 

Shells are also numerous here, we picked up more than a 
hundred species. The sand north of the bluff, was some- 
times covered with myriads of globular crabs, about the 
size of a hazel-nut. On going among them, they made a 
noise Uke a shower of rain, and by a rotatory motion, in a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1832.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 109 

few seconds^ buried themselves in the sand^ the surface of 
which they left covered with pellicles like peas. 

Seals are not now frequent on this part of the coast ; one 
of large size was killed on the beach during our stay ; in the 
course of which the weather was occasionally inclement for 
a few days at a time. Rain was often attended by thunder : 
previous to it, the Ants were busy raising mounds around 
their holes, to prevent inundation. 

12th mo. 13th. Accompanied by Edward Curr, and three 
assigned servants of the Company, we set out for the 
Hampshire HiUs : the weather previously had rendered the 
rivers on the way impassable. We travelled on horse- 
back, and were each equipped with a long bundle, formed 
by a blanket, containing sundry needful articles, and with 
a tin pot, and a tether-rope, attached to the fore part 
of the saddle. We crossed a muddy bay, and rode eight 
miles along a sandy beach, to the Black River, which 
we forded without difiBculty, the tide being low. — On this 
river, there is blue slate, of good quality, limestone, and 
quartz-rock. Continuing on the beach five miles further, 
we crossed Crayfish River, and in four miles more, came 
to the Detention River, which we also passed on the 
bar. Here we halted, on a grassy place, where there 
was a small spring, and made tea, while the horses grazed ; 
they being relieved from their burdens, and tethered to 
the bushes. When the horses were a little rested, we 
ascended the white quartz hills, of Rocky Cape, which 
were but thinly covered with sandy peat. A species of 
Xanihorrhcea, or Grass-tree, is scattered over them, having 
a root-stock of a few inches high, supporting a crest of 
stiff spreading rushy leaves, from the centre of which rises 
a stem from 2 to 5 feet high, thickly covered, excepting a 
few inches at the base, with rough buds, and with flowers 
resembling little white stars. A beautiful Blandfordia was 
also scattered in this district : its stems were 1^ ft. high, 
and supported crests of from 10 to 20 pendulous, red blos- 
soms, maigined with yellow, 1^ inch long, and | inch wide, 
at the mouth. 
Beyond these hills is a level, upon which, and on some 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

110 TABLE CAPE. [11th mo. 

contiguous hills^ Bankria serratifolia is the prevailing tree. 
This, so far as I know, is its only locality in V. D. Land. 
It is equal to a Pear-tree in size, has leaves 3 or 4 inches 
long, and f broad, and strongly toothed : its heads of flowers 
are 6 inches long, and 12 round ; and the seeds are as large 
as almonds. 

The ascent of some of the hills was as steep as a horse 
could climb, and in some places, little but bare rocks. Some 
whitening, human bones lay by the side of one of the paths 
through this dreadful country, in a situation likely for a 
person exhausted by fatigue, to sink down and die. — Some- 
times, we had to lay hold of the manes of the horses, to retain 
our seats, sometimes to leap over logs, in awkward situations, 
and sometimes it was impracticable to ride. In some places, 
the scrub, of Acacia verticellata, was so thick that we could 
not see each other, and when we came upon Table Cape, a 
fern, Pteris esctdenia, was so deep as to obscure us from 
the view of each other. 

In the evening, we descended a steep place, at the foot 
of which, on the coast, there was a grassy level, watered by 
a clear spring. Here we took up our abode for the night, 
and formed beds of dry fern and branches, under the shelter 
of a tarpawling, and a Honey-suckle-tree ; and after another 
meal, of which tea formed a refreshing part, retired to rest, 
two of our attendants having previously returned to Circular 
Head with some cattle. 

14th. Early in the morning we mended our fire, and 
supplied ourselves with water for breakfast, from the roof 
of a cave, in compact silicious rock, imbedding a variety of 
shells, of similar species to the recent ones on the strand 
below. We made a hasty meal of tea with beef-pasties, 
which we took while walking about in the rwn, and listening 
to loud peals of thunder. Lottis atistralis, a bushy plant 
with pretty, pink, pea-flowers, which also occurs at Cape 
Grim, was growing here. — ^The bones of a person supposed 
to have been a soldier, and some of his fishing tackle, &c. 
were some time since, found among the fern, by the sea side, 
at this place, by one of the Company's servants. 

After ascending to the top of Table Cape, we passed over- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1832.] VAN DIBHEN8 LAND. Ill 

some rich^ red loam, clothed with luxuriant vegetation. Fern, 
Prickly Acacia, and Musky Aster, were so thick as to be 
passed with difficulty. Tree-ferns were numerous, and many 
lofty shrubs were overrun with Macquarie Harbour Vine and 
White Clematis. Above the shrubs, rose stately Stringy- 
barks and White Gums, attaining to about 200 feet in 
height. Here and there,' a tree had fallen across the path, 
which was but indistinctly traced in places, and when left 
was not easy to find again. — ^Leaving Table Cape, we crossed 
the Inglis and Camm Rivers, upon the beach, on which we 
rode most of the way to Emu Bay; where the Company 
have a store, for the supply of their establishment, at the 
Hampshire and Surrey Hills. Goods are landed at this 
place, on the basaltic rocks, which rise perpendicularly 
out of the sea in pentagonal columns. 

After a short rest, we set out for the Hampshire Hills, 
distant 20^ miles, through one of the most magnificent of 
forests. For a few miles from the sea, it consists chiefly 
of White Gum and Stringy-bark, of about 200 feet in height, 
with straight trunks, clear of branches for from 100 to 150 
feet; and resembling an assemblage of elegant columns, so 
irregularly placed as to intercept the view, at the distance 
of a few hundred yards. These are elegantly crowned with 
branching tops, of light, willow-like foliage, but at an eleva- 
tion too great to allow the form of the leaves to be dis- 
tinguished, yet throwing a gentle shade on the ground below, 
which is covered with splendid tree-ferns and large shrubs, 
and carpeted with smaller ferns. Some of the larger Stringy- 
barks exceed 200 feet, and rise nearly as high as "the 
Monument'' before branching. Their trunks also will bear 
a comparison with that stately column, both in circumference 
and straightness. — ^The bark of these trees is brown and 
cracked : that of the White Gums is french-grey, and smooth. 

The prostrate trunks of these sylvan giants, in various 
stages of decay, add greatly to the interest of the scene. 
Some of them, lately fallen, have vast masses of the rich 
red earth in which they grew, still clinging to their roots ; 
others, that have been in a state of decay before they 
fell, present singular ruins of shattered limbs and broken 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

112 EMU BAY FOREST. [llthmo. 

boughs ; others, that seem to have been in a state of decom- 
position for ages, have become overgrowTi with various ferns 
and shrubs. 

As the distance from the sea increases, the Australian 
Myrtle and Sasafras, of dark dense foliage, become the 
prevaiUng trees. In these denser forests, tree-ferns form 
nearly the sole undergrowth, except thes mall, starry ferns, 
of low stature, of the genus Lomaria, that cover the ground 
thinly. Some of the tree-ferns have trunks 20 feet high. 
Their leaves are from 8 to 12 feet long, and the new ones^ 
now forming, rise in the centre like elegant croziers. 

This forest is an ascending, undulating ground, and is 
interrupted by a very few, small, grassy plains. One of these 
had recently been burnt by a few Aborigines still remaining 
in this neighbourhood. They bum oflF the old grass, in 
order that the Kangaroos may resort to that which springs 
up green and tender. 

The road which has been cut throng this forest, is so 
much shaded as to be kept constantly moist. It is impas- 
sable, except for pack-horses, for several months in the 
year; and many parts of it may be termed sloughs filled 
with tangled roots. Several brooks that pass through it, are 
crossed on bridges, formed of poles laid closely together, so 
as to make a compact platform. 

On arriving at the Hampshire Hills, we received a warm 
greeting from 6. W. Walker's relations, George and Mary 
Robson ; who were rejoiced to see their relative in this se- 
questered spot, so far from their native land. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Hampshire Hills. — Plants. — ^Boming the Qtwu, &c.-^iirrey HDls. — St Marys 
Plain. — Shmbs. — Ezcortion to Emu Bay.^Rocks. — Gigantic Trees. — Man 
lost. — ^Dense Forest — Aborigines. — St. Valentines Peak. — ^Animals.^ — ^Hostile 
NatiTcs. — Edible Fungi.— Native Potato. — Measurement of Trees. — ^Ex- 
ploratory Ramble. — Skill of Aborigines. — ^Myrtle Forest. — ^Animals. — Com* 
pass.— Attack upon the Aborigines.^-Leeches. — Dense Forest. — Cataracts- 
Free Servants. — Reckless Drunkenness. — Quantity of Rain. — Snow. — ^Bur- 
leigh.— Black Bluff.— Vale of Belvoir.— Epping Forest. — Snakes. — "Great 
Western Road." — Forth and Mersey Rivers. — Circular Pond Marshes. — 
Burning Forest. — Caverns.— Dairy Plains.— Westbury. — ^Depravity. — ^Arrival 
at Launceston. 

The setdement of the Van Diemens Land Company^ at the 
Hampshire Hills^ consisted of a few houses for the officers 
and servants^ built of weather-board^ upon a gentle eminence^ 
among grassy and ferny hills^ interspersed with forest^ and 
watered by clear brooks, bordered with beautiful shrubs. — 
Here we remained seven weeks, using such opportunities as 
occurred for communicating religious instruction to the 
people. While my companion enjoyed the society of his 
relations, I often made excursions into the surrounding 
coimtry ; in company with Joseph Milligan, the surgeon of 
the Company's estabUshment at this place. 

12th mo. 15th. In the course of a walk, we met with the 
V. D. Land Tulip-tree, Telopea truncata, a laurel-like shrub, 
bearing heads four inches across, of brilliant, scarlet, wiry, 
flowers ; we also saw by the side of a brook, a large upright 
Phebalium, a shrub with silvery leaves and small white 
blossoms, and a white flowered Wood Sorrel, OxtaUs Laciea, 
resembling the Wood Sorrel of England. 

I7th. When in the forest, a large Black Snake ap- 
prized me of its proximity by a loud hiss : I struck it, but 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

114 HAMPSHIRE HILLS. [12th mO. 

my stick breakings it escaped. We set fire to some dead 
grass and fern, which burnt rapidly, and ignited some of the 
dead logs with which the ground was encumbered. In this 
way, the land is often advantageously cleared of unproductive 
vegetable matter ; but it requires many burnings to destroy 
the logs, many of which, either partially consumed, or 
entire, are scattered in all directions over this Island. 
In the afternoon we accompanied E. Curr and G. Robson 
to Chilton, a farm house on the Surrey Hills, 19 miles dis- 
tant. Three miles of the road is through dark Myrtle-forest, 
the rest over grassy hills, on which Stringy Bark trees are 
thinly scattererd. The numerous brooks of this part of the 
country are margined with Tea-tree, Sassafras, Blackwood, 
and Telopea ; the flowers of the last abound in honey, which 
we found easy to extract by means of the slender tubular 
stems of grass. 

19th. After visiting a pretty little opening in the forest, 
we returned to the Hampshire Hills, by a place called Long 
Lea, where there is a single hut. 

20th. In company with E. Curr and G. Robson we 
visited an open place in the forest, called St. Marys Plain ; 
not because of being level, but because it is clear of wood, 
except a few clumps of Silver Wattle, on the hills, and lines 
of Tea Tree, on the margins of the brooks by which it is 
intersected. It is bounded by a lofty forest, and is a spot 
of great beauty. One of the brooks tumbles over a basaltic 
rock, and forms a very pretty waterfall, about forty feet 
high, and thirty wide. It is decorated with Tea Tree, at 
the top and sides; and at the bottom, a shrubby Aster, 
with toothed leaves, is loaded so profusely with pure white 
H^lossoms as to bend gracefully in all directions. The grassy 
hills are besprinkled with Buttercups, Blue Speedwell, Flax, 
Stylidium, and httle white flowers resembling English Dai- 
sies. Several Brush Kangaroos sprang from their hiding- 
places as we approached them. — ^The road to this place is 
through a succession of Myrtle and Stringy-bark forest. 
The track up an ascending portion of the former, may be 
compared to a staircase of wreathed roots. 

21st. Edward Curr returning to Circular Head, J. 

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1832.] VAN DIBHBNS LAND. 115 

Milligan and I accompanied him as for as Emu Bay. — On 
an old road called the Lopham-road^ a few miles from 
the Bay, we measured some Stringy-bark trees, taking 
their circumference at about 5 feet from the ground. One 
of these, which was rather hollow at the bottom, and broken 
at the top, was 49 feet round ; another that was solid, and 
supposed to be 200 feet high, was 41 feet round ; and a 
third, supposed to be 250 feet high, was 55^ feet round. As 
this tree spread much at the base, it would be nearly 70 feet 
in circumference at the surface of the ground. My compan- 
ions spoke to each other, when at the opposite side of this 
tree to myself, and their voices sounded so distant that I 
concluded they had inadvertantly left me, to see some other 
object, and immediately called to them. They, in answer, 
remarked the distant sound of my voice, and inquired if I 
were behind the tree ! — When the road through this forest 
was forming, a man who had only about 200 yards to go, 
from one company of the work-people to another, lost himself: 
he called, and was repeatedly answered ; but getting further 
astray, his voice became more indistinct, till it ceased to be 
heard, and he perished. The largest trees do not always 
carry up their width in proportion to their height, but many 
that are mere spars, are 200 feet high. 

The following measurement and eniuneration of trees 
growing on two separate acres of ground in the Emu Bay 
forest, made by the late Henry Hellyer, thfe Surveyor to the 
V. D. Land Company, may give some idea of its density. 


500 Trees under 

12 inches 

I in girth 

992 do. . . 

1 to 2 feet 

do. . 

716 do. . . 

2 to 3 do. 


56 do. . . 

3 to 6 do. 


20 do. .. 

6 to 12 do. 


12 do. . . 

12 to 21 do. 


4 do. .. 

30 do. 


84 Tree Ferns. 

2,384 Total. 

I 2 

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116 EMU BAY. [12th mo 




704 Trees under 

12 inches 

1 in ^rth. 

880 do. .. 

1 to 2 feet 


148 do. . . 

2 to 3 do. 


56 do. . . 

3 to 6 do. 


32 do. . . 

6 to 12 do. 


28 do. . . 

12 to 21 do. 


8 do. . . 

21 to 30 do. 


8 do. . . 

30 feet and upward; 

112 Tree Ferns. 

1,976 Total. 

22nd. We spent the day with a young man who had chai^ 
of the Emu Bay Stores. — In walking on a hill in the forest, 
we fell in with the trunk of a White Gum, nearly 100 feet 
long, and of such even circumference that it was not easy 
to determine which end had grown uppermost: it was 
rather the thickest in the middle. It had been broken off 
at about 15 feet from its base, and precipitated upon its 
top, which had been broken to shivers, and the trunk 
making a somerset, and shooting forward down the hill, had 
made a vista through the scrub. — In the forest here, we 
found a curious epiphyte of the orchis tribe, afterwards 
named Gunnia australis. Epiphytes are so called because 
they grow upon other trees, without becoming incorporated 
with them. This was growing upon the branches of the 
larger shrubs, especially upon Coprosma spinosa, which last 
has small, red and rather insipid berries, that are some- 
limes preserved, under the name of Native Currants. 

In the neighbourhood of Emu Bay, there are rocks of 
felspar, or of quartz, of a reddish colour, and there are 
traces of granite in this vicinity, as well as at the Harnp^ 
shire Hills, but the country is chiefly basaltic. — Sometimes^ 
when large trees are blown over, they bring up portions 
of slender, basaltic columns with their roots. Much of the 
earth in the forests is rich, red, basaltic loam. 

23rd. We assembled the assigned servants, to whom 
J. Milligan read a portion of Scripture, after which I 

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spoke to them on the importance of securing the salva- 
tion of their souls. — This proved an awakening time to a 
poor prisoner^ who died some years after at Launceston, 
in a hopeful state of mind. 

While here, we saw some fires, at a distance, to the east- 
ward, along the coast, which were sup))osed to be those of 
lime-burners ; but I felt no mental attraction toward them, 
at which I was surprised. On afterwards ascertaining 
that they were the fires of a few natives, who showed hos- 
tility, by spearing one of the servants of the Company, I 
could not but regard this as a mercy from Him, who can 
keep his dependent children out of danger, as well as pre- 
serve them when in it. 

24th. We returned to the Hampshire Hills. On the 
way I ascended the trunk of a prostrate Stringy-bark, by 
climbing a small Black-wood tree. . The Stringy-bark 
having laid long on the ground, was covered with moss 
and ferns: it measured 200 feet, to the first branches^ 
where the trunk was about 12 feet in circumference. 
It was amusing to look down from the butt of this tree^ 
upon my friend, who was on horseback below. We also 
measured some White Gums, supposed to be 180 feet 
high, which varied from 30 to 35 feet in circumference. 
While taking tea, our attention was arrested by a noise like 
a peal of thimder, which proved to have been occasioned 
by the fall of a lofty tree, at the distance of half a mile ! 

28th. We came to Chilton last night, and this morning 
ascended the mountain called St. Valentines Peak, which 
is probably 4,000 feet above the level of the sea, the Surrey 
Hills, from which it rises, being upwards of 2,000. It is 
of whitish, silicious conglomerate. The imbedded pebbles 
are small and rounded : some are translucent, and of various 
appearance, from that of semi-opal to flint; others are opaque, 
and white, red, or scarlet. The Myrtle forest extends part of 
the way up one side of the mountain, and is so thick and dif- 
ficult to pass through, that though the distance is only six miles 
from the Hampshire Hills, the road taken to reach it, is sixteen. 
In the line between these places there are some scrubs, so 
tangled that to cross them, a person must travel among their 

I 3 

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branches at many feet above the ground. The sides of the 
Peak are clothed with shrubs^ among which are, a low dense 
species of Bichea and Cystanihe sprengellaides. The upper 
part is scantily covered with herbage, and is rocky : it com- 
mands a very extensive and remarkable view. The north 
coast is visible near Port Sorell. The Cradle Mountain^ 
Bam BlufF, and lower parts of the Western Tier, bound the 
prospect on the east. Numerous mountains are visible to 
the south ; and, on the west, the sea is seen, through a few 
openings among the hills. The whole, except the sea, the 
projecting rocks, and a few small, open tracts of land, such 
as the Hampshire Hills, Goderich Plains, &c. is one vast 
sombre forest ; the open parts of which, having from 10 to 
30 trees per acre, are not distinguishable from those that 
are denser, except in colour. — The dogs belonging to some of 
the company, killed a Black Opossum, and we destroyed two 
small snakes, with minute, venom-fangs. Two Wedge-tailed 
Eagles, called in the colony Eagle Hawks, shewed a dis- 
position to carry off a little dog; but he kept dose to us 
for safety. In approaching the Peak, we crossed some wet 
land, covered with Bog Moss, Sphagnum, of the same kind 
that occurs in England. 

29th. Notwithstanding it is now midsummer, the weather 
is cold with hail and sleet. The climate here is much colder 
than that of the coast. We rode to a plain called. The Race 
Course ; on which there is a hut, from whence one of the native 
Blacks was shot last year, by a young man who, when alone^ 
observed one of them approaching slyly and beckoning to 
his fellows in the adjacent wood. A hut in the neighbour- 
hood had been attacked by them a few days before, and a 
man kUled; several others had also been speared. The 
young man that shot the Black became depressed, almost to 
derangement, at the idea of having prematurely terminated 
the existence of a fellow-creature. 

30th. We remained at Chilton till to-day, for the pur- 
pose of having a meeting with the few servants of the 
Company. In the afternoon, we had also a religious inter- 
view widi three men at a place named Wey-bridge ; after 
which we returned to the Hampshire HiUs. 

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1833.] VAN DIBMBNS LAND. 119 

1st mo. 1st. 1833. I measured a Tea Tree^ Lepiospef" 
warn lamgerum, 7 feet in circmnference, and about 70 feet 
high. This is usually a shrub of about 10 feet in height. 
I afterwards met with one of these trees 80 feet high. A 
Silver Wattle^ Acacia mollis? was 11 feet 2 inches round : 
the area of its branches and its height 60 feet. A Sasafras 
was 6 feet round and 140 feet high. — On a Myrtle, we met 
with a large fungus, such as is eaten by the natives in cases 
of extremity. It is known in the colony by the name of 
Punk, and is white and spongy ; when dried it is commonly 
used instead of tinder. Another edible fungus grows upon 
the Myrtle, in these forests: it is produced in clusters, 
from swollen portions of the branches, and varies from the 
size of a marble to that of a walnut. When young, its 
colour is pale, and it is covered with a thin sldn that is 
easily taken off. Its taste, in this state, is like cold cow-heel. 
When matured, the skin splits, and exhibits a net-work of 
a yellowish colour. It may be considered the best native 
esculent in V. D. Land. 

A White Hawk, and some other birds of the Falcon tribe 
were observed here. — ^Among the few singing birds of this 
country there is one with a slender note, like that of a Red- 
breast; another has a protracted whistle, repeated at inter- 
vals. — ^The shrill chirp of the Mole-cricket has been heard 
during the two last days, and the harsh creaking note of a 
small Tetagoma ? a kind of fly, called the Croaker, is every 
where to be heard among the grass and bushes. 

2nd. Showery with thunder. I dug up a Gastrodium 
sesamoideSy a plant of the orchis tribe, which is brown, leaf- 
less, and \\ feet high, with dingy, whitish, ^tubular flowers. 
It grows among decaying vegetable matter, and has a root 
like a series of kidney potatoes, terminating in a branched^ 
thick mass of coral-like fibres. It is eaten by the Abo- 
rigines, and is sometimes called Native Potato; but the 
tubers are watery and insipid. 

3rd. In company with J. Milligan and Henry Stephen- 
son, a servant of the Company, from near Richmond in 
Yorkshire, we visited a place in the forest, remarkable for 
an assemblage of gigantic Stringy Barks, and not far from 

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the junction of the Emu River with the Loudwater; the 
latter of which takes its name from three falls over basaltic 
rockj at short intervals, the highest of which is 17 feet, — 
Within half a mile we measured standing trees as follows, 
at 4 feet from the ground. Several of them had one large 
excrescence at the base, and one or more far up the trunk. 

No. 1^-45 feet in. circumference, supposed height 180 feet, 
the top was broken, as is the case with most large-trunked 
trees ; the trunk was a little injured by decay, but not hollow. 
This tree had an excresence at the base, 12 feet across, and 
6 feet high, protruding about 3 feet. 

No. 2 — 374 f®®t in circumference, tubercled. 

No. 3 — 35 feet in circumference ; distant frt)m No. 2 
about 80 yards.* 

No. 4 — 38 feet in circumference ; distant from No. 3 
about fifty yards.* 

No. 5 — 28 feet in circumference. 

No. 6 — ^30 feet in circumference. 

No. 7 — ^32 feet in circumference. 

No. 8 — 55 feet in circumference ; supposed to be upwards 
of 200 feet high ; very little injured by decay ; it carried up its 
breadth much better than the large tree on the Lopham 
Road, and did not spread so much at the base. 

No. 9^-40^ feet in circumference ; sound and tall. 

No. 10—48 feet in circumference; tubercled, taU, with some 
cavities at the base, and much of the top gone. A prostrate 
tree near to No. 1, was 35 feet in circumference at the base, 
22 feet, at 66 feet up, 19 feet, at 110 feet up ; there were two 
large branches at 120 feet; the general head branched off at 
150 feet; the elevation of the tree, traceable by the branches 
on the ground, was 213 feet. We ascended this tree on 
an inclined plane, formed by one of its limbs, and walked 
four a breast, with ease, upon its trunk 1 In its Ml, it had 
overturned another, 168 feet high, which had brought up 
with its roots, a ball of earth, 20 feet across. It was so much 
imbedded in the earth that I could not get a string round it 

* These were fine sound trees, upwards of 200 feet high ; they had large» 
single excrescences at the base. 

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1833.] VAN DIEMBNS LAND. 121 

to measure its girth. This is often the case with fallen trees. 
On our return, I measured two Stringy-barks, near the houses 
at the Hampshire Hills, that had been felled for splitting 
into rails, each 180 feet long. Near to these, is a tree that 
has been felled, which is so large that it could not be cut 
into lengths for splitting, and a shed has been erected against 
it; the tree serving for the back ! 

7th. I accompanied J. Milligan in a visit to an open 
plain^ previously unexplored, which we had seen firom an 
eminence, and taken the bearing of, by the compass. We set 
out early and reached the place about noon. It was covered 
with long grass and tall fern, to which we set fire. As evening 
drew on, we made "a break-wind*' of boughs, and thatched 
it with fern, &c, of which we also prepared a bed. Toward 
night, rain fell, but not so as to extinguish our fire, though 
it stopped the burning of the grass and fern. We were 
amused with the note of a little bird, in the wood near which 
we had formed our shelter, that in a shrill whistle, seemed 
to involve the words, " Who are you ? who are you ? Are 
you wet ? are you?*'— In passing through a woody hollow, 
we saw many of the tree-ferns, with the upper portion of 
the trunk spht, and one half turned back. This had 
evidently been done by the Aborigines, to obtain the heart 
for food, but how the process was effected, I could not dis- 
cover; it must certainly have required considerable skill. 
Many small branches of the bushes were broken and left 
hanging : by this means these people had marked their way 
through the untracked thicket. 

8th. The morning being wet, we concluded to return 
to the Hampshire Hills, and having to pass over the burnt 
ground on which the charred stems of the fern were 
standing, we were blackened by them in a high degree ; 
but afterwards, on coming among wet scrub, we were as effec- 
tually washed. We then passed 4^ hours in traversing a 
dreary Myrtle-forest, making frequent use of the compass, 
and sometimes losing sight of each other, by the intervention 
of tree-ferns. We were much impeded by roots of trees 
projecting above the grassless surface of the earth, and by 
fallen and decaying timber. In crossing some of the latter. 

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of large dimensions, a crack would sometimes inspire the 
idea of danger of incarceration, in the trunk of a rotten tree. 
The silence of the forest was only disturbed by a solitary 
Black Cockatoo and a parrot, and by the occasional creak- 
ing of boughs rubbing one against another. Near the Guide 
River, I measured two Myrtles of 32 and 45 feet round : 
these and many others appeared to be aT>out 150 feet high. 
Few Myrtles exceed 30 feet in circumference, and they often 
diminish suddenly at about 10 feet from the ground, losing 
nearly as much in circumference. 

12th. Part of the day was occupied in Natural History 
observations. — In the borders of the forest, which has here 
several trees from 35 to 40 feet in circumference, there are 
tree-ferns of unusual vigour: some of them have 32 old, 
and 26 new fronds, of 9 feet long : the most common num- 
ber is 8 old and 4 new, exclusive of the dead ones. In 
some of the denser parts of the forest, the Celery-topped 
Pine occurs, and attains a stature adapted for masts: its 
fruit is somewhat like that of the Yew. — A laurel-like shrub 
of great beauty, with clusters of white blossoms, half an 
inch across, Anopterus glandvloms, grows by the sides of 
the Emu River, in shady places. 

The Brush Kangaroo is common here, as well as in other 
parts of the Island : it is easily domesticated : one at the 
Hampshire Hills that is half-grown, embraces the hand 
that rubs its breast ; it rambles away and returns at pleasure, 
feeds chiefly in the evening, and has a voice like a deer, but 
more complaining. — Dogs that have become wild, have mul- 
tiplied greatly in this part of the Island, and are very de- 
structive to sheep. The animal, called in this country 
the Pyena and the Tiger, but which differs greatly from 
both, also kills sheep: it is the size of a large dog, has 
a wolf-like head, is striped across the back, and carries its 
young in a pouch. This animal is said sometimes to have 
carried off the children of the natives, when left alone by the 
fire. One is said to have faced a man on horseback, on the 
Emu Bay Road, probably having had its young ones in the 
bush, too large for its pouch. Another animal of the same 
tribe, but black, with a few irregular white spots, having 

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1833.] VAN DIEMBN8 LAND. 123 

short legs, and being about the size of a terrier, is com- 
monly known by the name of, the Devil, or the Bush-Devil: 
it is very destructive to lambs. Smaller species of an allied 
genus, but more resembling the Pole-cat in form, are known 
by the names of Tiger-cat and Native-cat. These are de- 
structive to poultry. The whole group eats insects, parti- 
cularly Grass-hoppers, which are extremely abundant in 
some parts of the Island. Some of the Owls also eat in* 
sects : a number were taken from the stomach of a small 
round-headed species, shot a few evenings ago. There is 
likewise here a beautiful owl, nearly allied to the Bam-Owl 
of England. The Land-lobster, noticed at Port Davey, 
throws up its chimneys also in wet ground at the Hamp- 
shire HiUs. 

14th. I walked with J. Milligan to some wet plains, 
covered with rushy herbage, and passed through some forest 
where a dense, wiry scrub of a white flowered Bauera 
greatly impeded our progress. We got turned round in it, 
and the day being cloudy, we could not correct our course 
by the sun. On discovering that the compass pointed the 
contrary way to what we expected, we had to summon all 
our resolution, to follow its guidance, especially as we had 
heard many tales of its being attracted by ironstone, in this 
country ; but we had cause for thankfulness in being enabled 
to resolve to prove it, for an error here might have placed 
our lives in imminent peril. Though the compass, in some 
instances, may possibly have been attracted, so as not to 
point accurately, I suspect, that in a majority of cases in 
which this is alleged to have taken place, it was not so, 
but that the parties who had become bewildered, having 
lost their confidence in this useful instrument, had wan- 
dered at random, till by some accident, they discovered 
where they were; and then, without proving whether the 
compass was wrong or not, laid the blame upon it, rather 
than acknowledge that themselves had missed the way. 

Q. W. Walker and two of his nephews, felled a Stringy- 
bark, that had been burnt hollow, and on this account had 
been left by the sawyers : it was 10 feet 9 inches in circum- 
ference, at 3 feet up, and 4 feet 3 inches round, at the first 

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124 HAMPSHIRE HILL8. [ist mO. 

branchy which was 143 feet from the ground. The extreme 
height was 215 feet. They brought down another, that was 
12 feet 6 inches, at 3 feet from the ground; 4 feet, at 116 
feet up, where the first branch was inserted; at 164 feet 
from the ground, the line of the trunk branched off, and the 
highest portions of the head were 216 feet. 

18th. I again accompanied J. MiUigan on an explora- 
tory excursion. We visited the remains of a bark hut, in 
which a man who had been a prisoner, and was employed 
by the Aborigines Committee, to capture the natives, fired 
upon a party of them as they sat around their fire, with the 
recklessness that characterizes cowardice. One woman was 
killed, and others were made prisoners. There is reason 
to believe that this outrage, for which the man was dis- 
charged from his employment, led to increased animosity 
toward the white population, that resulted in loss of life 
on both sides. The Aborigines had robbed a hut on Three- 
brook Plain, two miles from the settlement at the Hampshire 
Hills, a short time before. — ^We were annoyed by leeches, 
when stopping to take our meals : they seem to have the 
power of perceiving persons at a distance, and may be seen 
making their way through the grass toward them, two or 
three yards off; we took about a dozen from our clothes, 
but more than that number eluded our vigilance, and ob- 
tained firm hold before being discovered. 

19th. We slept near a brook last night, having previously 
burnt off the grass, and swept the place to clear it of leeches; 
early this morning, we proceeded further into the forest, which 
became extremely thick. On the slope of a hill J. MiUigan 
felled a small tree, to make an opening, to see through, and 
we climbed about 30 feet, up the tnmk of a Musky Aster, 
which had here become arboreous ; but nothing was visible 
except tree tops spreading over hills and valleys. We be- 
came perplexed by missing a river that we expected to have 
come upon, but having confidence in our map and compass, 
pursued our way with more comfort than our prisoner atten- 
dant, who looked downcast, and said, it would be a bad set, 
if we did not get out of the bush to-morrow. When greatly 
fatigued, we heard the sound of a cataract, and determined 

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1833.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 125 

to visit it. The water of what proved to be the union of 
oar lost river with another^ rushed down a rugged^ basaltic 
channel^ fsdling at intervals for about 300 yards ; the whole 
elevation being about lOO.-r-We had had some wine with 
us^ and had taken it mixed with water; but it was exhausted 
some time before reaching this spot; and I was greatly 
surprised^ on eating a morsel of food and drinking a draught 
of tmadulterated water^ to find my strength restored, in such 
a degree as to enable me, with comparative ease, to ascend a 
hill covered with forest, so thick as to resemble hop-poles, 
which often required to be pushed aside, to make a passage. 
After sunset, we discovered some Black-wood trees, and soon 
a few blades of grass; these were cheering as indications of 
the margin of the forest; and shortly after, to our great 
satisfaction, we emerged upon Three-brook Plain. The 
Myrtle forest was excessively dark, and the road through it 
so miry, that we had to use sticks to support ourselves, while 
feeling with our feet for roots to step upon ; but patience 
and perseverance brought us safely to the Hampshire Hills 
by bed time. Some dogs that accompanied us, killed a 
Kangaroo and a Wombat, both of which supplied us with 
food. The latter is sometimes met with in the deepest 
recesses of the forest. 

20th. We assembled for religious purposes, with the 
Officers and Prisoner-servants of the establishment. G. 
W. Walker read the Epistle to the Colossians, and I made 
a few remarks on the efficacy of Divine grace, and of faith 
in the Son of God, as shown in the conversion of Onesimus, 
whom the Apostle commends to the Colossian church, and 
in another epistle, also to Philemon, his master, from whom 
he had run away. I pressed upon the audience the necessity 
of seeking to know the same transforming power to operate 
in themselves, and to bring them from under the dominion 
of Satan, and into communion with God. — Few of the free 
servants have chosen to be present on such occasions : 
several of them were at work this afternoon, contrary to 
orders. Many of them are very reckless, and have little 
command over themselves. One of them, a short time 
since, set out with the overseer of the establishment, for 

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Launceston^ to buy himself a saw, and obtain a work-mate, 
but he stopped at the first public-house he came to, 
spent £18 that he had saved, and ran into debt several 
pounds more. The overseer found him at this place, on his 
return, and brought him back without saw or mate; and 
from the effect of continued inebriation, he was in danger 
of perishing from cold which they had to endure on the 
way. — Cases similar to this are not uncommon in the Aus- 
tralian Colonies. 

22nd. We took leave of our kind friends at the 
Hampshire Hills, and accompanied by O. Robson and J. 
Milligan, proceeded to Chilton. — ^Heavy ndn fell, and the 
cold became so great, that we were glad to retire to bed 
early, for protection from the piercing wind. — By a register 
kept by my friend Joseph Milligan, of the quantity of rain 
that fell at the Hampshire Hills, from 1835, to 1839, the 
mean annual quantity appeared to be upwards of 67 inches. 
In 1837, it exceeded 80 inches. The greatest fall in one 
day in the five years, was upwards of 4 inches. 

23rd. George Robson returned, and the rest of our com- 
pany proceeded to Burleigh, another of the Company's 
stations. Notwithstanding it was summer, and large patches 
of ground were white with the blossoms of Diplarhcena 
Morcea — ^an Iris-like plant, common in the colony, the Bam 
Bluff and other mountains adjacent, were covered with fresh 
snow, and the tops of the potatoes at Chilton were touched 
with frost The land here is high, with marshy flats and 
grassy forest. The trees of the open ground are chiefly 
Stringy-bark 20 to 30 feet in circumference, and 70 to 100 
feet high. The country of the Hampshire and Surrey Hills, 
has proved unfavourable for sheep, but seems adapted for 
homed cattle. 

24th. We crossed the Leven River, travelled through 
some open forest, and over the swampy Black Bluff Moim- 
tains, which are 3,381 feet high, and crossed a fine open 
country, called The Vale of Belvoir, in which there is a sheet 
of water named Patterdale-lake. This vale has numerous 
pits of water and streams, even with the grass, dividing and 
again uniting, so as to make travelling difiicult. There are 

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1833.] VAN DIEMBNS LAND. 127 

also deep fissures in the earth, destitute of water. — We pro- 
ceeded over the Middlesex Plains, one of the grants of the 
V. D. Land Company, which is at present unoccupied, and 
crossed the Iris River three times : we then entered an open 
forest of White and Common Gum, that continued till we 
reached Epping Forest, which is of Stringy-bark, where, 
near a vacant stock yard, we encamped for the night. — 
When crossing one of the brooks on the Vale of Belvoir, a 
snake went into the water from the bank, and passed before 
my horse, which became so much alarmed, that he was very 
reluctant to leap over, or to cross any of the other brooks that 
we came to, in the course of the day. The route we travelled 
was upon what has been designated, The Great Western 
Road ; but in many places in the plains it was quite lost, 
and could only be found again in the margins of the forest, 
by seeking for the marked trees. 

25th. The track was more distinct. On the descent 
to the Forth, which, is about 2,000 feet, there are some 
beautiful views of woody and mountain scenery. The ri- 
ver is wide and rapid, and the sound of the great faU, 
called The Forths Gateway, is very distinguishable from 
the road. Grads Hill lies between this river and the 
Mersey: it is 2,588 feet high, very steep, and cloth- 
ed with lofty forest, in which several of the larger 
shrubs become small trees. — In ascending this hill, a large 
Black Snake crossed the path, and I could not induce my 
horse to pass the place where it had been without leading 
him. On the top of the hill there are some pretty, grassy 
openings, called the Emu Plains; to which, after resting, we 
set fire, in order that the next travellers this way, might 
have fresh grass. — ^The descent of Gads HiU is almost too 
steep for horses : oxen have sometimes fallen over the side 
of the path, and have been lost in the forest below. 

On arriving at the Mersey we found it considerably 
flooded. Here J. Milligan had some provisions deposited 
in a hoUow tree, for himself and his prisoner attendant 
to return to. — After resting a little, we crossed this river, 
which is also wide, and so deep that three out of four of our 
horses, swam a short distance ; but by keeping their heads a 

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little up the stream^ they got footing again before reaching 
the dangerous rapids^ towards which the stream impelled 
them. Passing over a few more hills, we came to some 
small, limestone plains, called the Circular Pond Marshes, 
from a number of circular basons, that seem to have been 
formed by the draining oflF of the waters, with which the 
whole are sometimes covered, into subterraneous channels. 
Some of these ponds are full of water, the outlets below 
being choked with mud, others are empty, and grassy to the 
perforated bottoms. There are also some cavernous places. — 
We fixed our quarters for the night under the shelter of a 
wood, and by the side of a place resembling the bed of a 
deep river, that commenced and terminated abruptly : the 
water, which at some seasons flows through it, evidently 
finds ingress and egress through a bed of loose gravel. 

After burning off the grass, and sweeping the place, a fire 
was kindled against a log, that proved to be rotten inside, and 
became ignited ; the fire spread, and catching the grass, soon 
extended into the forest, which was full of brushwood, that 
did not appear to have been burnt for many years. The 
conflagration was exceedingly grand ; it brought down some 
considerable trees that had been nearly burnt through by 
former fires : such as were hollow, burnt out at the top like 
furnaces. This magnificent spectacle cost us, however, some 
labour, in beating out the fire of the grass, which we burnt oflF 
before us, to keep the fire of the forest from igniting it and 
coming round upon us in the night. We had also some 
anxiety from the tottering state of a tree that burnt furiously, 
and was not far enough from our encampment to clear us, if 
it fell in that direction. From this we were relieved, by its 
fall, before going to sleep; but our rest was nevertheless 
disturbed by the crash of others falling during the night. 

26th. We explored a few of the caverns, the entrances of 
some of which resemble doorways, and open into a grassy 
hollow. At the end of a long subteraneous passage, into 
which I descended with a torch of burning bark, there was 
a fine, clear stream of water, three feet wide and equally 
deep, emerging from one rock and passing away under 
another. The limestone was of a bluish colour, imbedding 

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1833.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 129 

iron pjrrites. — Between the Circular-pond Marshes and the 
Moleside Marshes^ some elevated land occurs. The latter 
takes its name from the Moleside River^ which also becomes 
subterraneous in some places. — ^When we had passed this 
place, we began to see herds of cattle, and a few houses of 
settlers. — After taking a meal by the Lobster Rivulet, 
so caUed troia producing a fresh-water lobster, six to twelve 
inches long, we parted from our kind guide and companion 
J. Milligan, who had devoted much time and labour to 
promote our comfort and accommodation : he and his 
prisoner attendant returned with three horses to the Hamp- 
shire Hills, and we pursued our route to Westbury, with 
one belonging to the Government, which we had under- 
taken to convey to Launceston. At a location on the 
Meander, we met with Ronald Campbell Gunn, the most 
industrious botanist in Van Diemens Land, who wished us 
to join him in a botanical excursion. This we declined, not 
for want of inclination, but because the way was now open 
for us to proceed with more important business, and we 
were desirous of having a meeting with the people of West- 
bury on the morrow. — We crossed the Meander or Western 
River, at Deloraine Bridge, near the first public-house in 
this direction, to which allusion has already been made. — 
Some of the country, passed through to-day, is named 
Dairy Plains, and is open grassy forest. Toward West- 
bury, where we arrived in the evening, the trees were all 
dead from some natural cause, for an extent of several miles. 
In cases of this kind, the trees may possibly have died 
from drought ; the long grass or scrub amongst which they 
grow, having been burnt off, and kept from growing again 
by the browsing of cattle, and the roots having thus become 
more than formerly exposed to the action of the sun. Had 
the trees died from frost or from fire, the roots would have 
pushed up fresh shoots, but this Lb not the case ; and the 
surrounding trees, not absolutely on the level ground, and 
consequently, not having been originally accustomed to much 
moisture, are still living. 

27th. Westbury consists of a small number of weather- 
board houses, two of which are inns : the others belong to the 

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130 WESTBURY. [1st mo. 

military establishment. In one of these we founds as tem- 
porary residents, the family of George P. Ball, an officer 
lately returned from service in India, with whom we had 
previously become acquainted, and by whose assistance, 
several of the inhabitants were collected at the military 
barracks, where I preached to them the Gospel of peace 
through Jesus Christ, and pointed out the necessity of 
repentance, and the danger of impenitence. — Having been 
long in a part of the Island where there are no public- 
houses, and where the evils arising from strong drink are 
little seen, we were forcibly struck with their exhibition at 
Westbury, where intoxication, profeme language, and de- 
pravity of countenance, bespoke in an appalling manner, 
man led captive of the devil at his will. 

28th. Our kind friend 6. P. Ball accompanied us as 
hr as the settlement of P. Ashbumer, a respectable magis- 
trate, also returned from India, to whose family we psid 
a pleasant visit. — Some of the locations of settlers in 
this neighbourhood are upwards of 20,000 acres. — ^Wc 
crossed the South Esk at Entally Ford, and when it 
became dark, got involved among unfinished, post and 
rail fences, which perplexed us greatly. This is a trial of 
patience not unfrequent in a country in which enclosure 
is commencing, and one which we generally avoided by 
travelling on foot. It was late before we reached the town, 
notwithstanding we had been long in sight of it. We found 
comfortable accommodation for the night, at the Launceston 
Hotel. — ^The distance from the Hampshire Hills to Laun- 
ceston is 113 miles. 

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Laimceeton. — ^Foolish Washerwoman. — lisard and Orasshopper. — ^Beligiout 
Meetmgs.~Perth.--Korfo]k Plains.— Wheat Crops.— Rioter.— Lake and Hae- 
qaarie Rivers. — Summer Snow. — Hammocky Hills. — Profanity. — Campbell 

' Town and Ross. — Salt Pan Plains. — Oatlands. — Jericho. — The Jordan. — 
Cross Marsh. — Green Ponds. — Constitution Hill.— Bagdad.— Blistered Feet. 
—Rate of Walking.— Hobart Town. 

On calling upon our friends Isaac and Katharine Sherwin^ 
they pressed us again to take up our quarters at their house, 
to which we consented : we continued their guests till the 
21st of 3rd mo., making in the interval an excursion into 
the country, to the southward. 

2nd mo. 1st. Washing is an expensive item in new colo- 
nies : here we are charged 5s. per doaen articles. To-day^ 
our washerwoman laid out j£3 in a coral necklace for 
herself, and a watchchain for her husband! forgetting, I sup- 
pose, that this foolish indulgence of pride would not alter 
her station in society. 

2nd. The climate here is much warmer and drier than 
that to the westward; the harvest is ripe, and under the 
sickle, and the grass dry and brown upon the ground. 
Large Grasshoppers, with yellow underwings, mai^ned with 
black, are very numerous, as are also several species of 
Lizard. In my walk this morning, I saw a lizard run into 
a hole with one of the grasshoppers in its mouth, and was 
induced to watch another, catching its more active prey. 
The lizard waited till a grasshopper alighted near it, and 
seized the insect with agility : it then broke off the wings, 
which it took up and eat; it afterwards laid hold of the 
grasshopper again, transversely, and by a few movements of 
the jaws, brought the head of the insect into its mouth, and 

K 2 

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132 LAUNCE8TON. [2nd mo. 

by continued efforts it swallowed the whole grasshopper* 
T^e lizard was 8 inches long : it did not use its feet in 
capturing the grasshopper^ which was two inches long, nor 
in arranging it in its mouth. 

drd. Our kind friend I. Sherwin invited a few persons^ 
whom he knew to be piously inclined, to meet us for wor- 
ship at his house. After spending a considerable time with 
them in silence, I called their attention to the greater pro- 
fitableness of feeling our own necessity before the Lord, in 
this state^ and of putting up our petitions to him in secret, 
according to our feeling of need, than of haying the time 
occupied continually in hearing. I stated that I did not 
despise true, gospel ministry, but wished people to learn 
the way to the fountain set open in the blood of Jesus, for 
themselves^ and not to lean unduly upon their fellow men. — 
In the evening, we met a little company, in a very humble 
cottage : they were persons professing with the Wesleyans, 
who at that time had no congregation in Launceston. We 
recommended them to meet regularly for worship, though 
they might be without a preacher, and to seek to know the 
Lord to teach them himself. 

5th. On the way to Perth, we visited a company of pri- 
soners, who were very destitute of religious instruction. — 
The road to this place is through open forest, except where 
there are habitations of settlers. The town of Perth con- 
sists of ten houses, two of which are inns ; it is prettily 
situated on the high banks of the South Esk River, which 
is about 60 yards across, at the ferry. 

From the 6th to the 14 th, we visited the settlers in the 
vicinity of Perth, as well as on Norfolk Plains^ and on the 
Macquarie and Lake Rivers^ and held some meetings among 
tiiem. Many of these people are in good circumstances^ 
and are living in substantial, brick houses. — ^Norfolk Plains 
is a fine agricultural district : the wheat crops are often self- 
sown, and continue for several years in succession, till the 
land becomes almost overrun with Wild Oats; but these 
form useful hay in this dry country. The average yearly 
crops of wheats are estimated at from twelve to fifteen 
bushels per acre ; but this is perhaps from mismanagement^ 

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1833.] VAN DIEMBNS LAND. 133 

and there are places that yield much more abundantly. — 
Many of the original settlers on Norfolk Plains, resided 
previously on Norfolk Island : being generally intemperate^ 
many of them killed themselves, or came to ruin, and their 
property has passed into other hands. — Some of the finest 
land, on the Lake River, belongs to various branches of a 
family of the name of Archer, who have been very success- 
ful, both in agriculture and sheep-farming. 

At the house of Rowland R. Davies, the Episcopal Chap- 
lain of Norfolk Plains, we met with a man who was trans- 
ported from Wiltshire for rioting : he said that he was 
tlioughtful on religious subjects before he left home ; that his 
wife kept a little shop, and that he was a carrier ; that he was 
about his lawful concerns when a mob passed his residence^ 
and compelled him to accompany them ; that he was seen 
among them by some one who knew him, and who appeared 
against him on his trial : he did not however say that he 
was altogether clear of blame ; but he thought he saw the 
hand of the Lord in permitting him to be apprehended; 
for in calling at public-houses, &c. in connexion with his 
business, he had been gradually sliding into habits of in- 
temperance, which he thought might have proved his ruin. 
By means of his apprehension, this snare had been broken ; 
and he now enjoyed more comfort in his bondage, as the 
Lord^s free man, than he did when free in body, but 
Satan's bond servant. He said also, that he was educated 
in a Sabbath-school, and that he now found the benefit of such 
an education, and was, with his master's leave, doing what 
he could in assisting in the Sabbath-schools at Perth and 
Norfolk Plains. Himself and a few others in the lower 
walks of life, meet occasionally for mutual edification. A 
short time ago this man was ill, and appeared as if near his 
end^ and his master told us that he often visited him, not 
so much to give him counsel, as to be edified by his pious 
remarks, to which it was delightful to him to listen. 

The country along the Lake and Macquarie Rivers, is 
generally open forest, except where it has been cleared. 
To the west, it is bounded by a high mountain range, called 
the Western Tier. 


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134 LAUNCE8TON. [2nd mo. 

14th. We returned to Launceston^ where we visited the 
prisoners in the jul^ and penitentiary ; the latter are about 
170 in number; we also held a meeting for worship in 
the Court House, and distributed a considerable number of 

17th. This morning the mountains visible from Laun- 
ceston, to the north-east, were covered with snow. This 
was also the case in the south of the Island, down to 1,000 
feet above the level of the sea. Snow is unusual in summer 
in this country, notwithstanding summer frosts are by no 
means of rare occurrence. 

21st. We set out for Hobart Town, and had a religious 
opportunity with Nottmans Road-party, consisting of 130 
prisoners, several of whom work in chains. They ar^ lodged 
in huts of the humblest character; twenty-one to twenty- 
eight in each hut. They were very still and attentive while 
we revived among them the invitation, *'Let the wicked 
forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts, 
and let him return unto the Lord and he will have mercy 
upon him ; and to our God for he will abundantly pardon.'* 
We became the guests of Theodore B. Hartley, of Kerry 
Lodge, a pious man, who had previously invited us to resort 
to his house when in the neighbourhood. 

22nd. On the way to the Eagle Inn, a solitary house in 
the forest, we passed through Perth, and round one end of 
the Hummocky Hills, which form the only striking ex- 
ception to low country, in this part of the extensive vale of 
the South];Esk and Macquarie Rivers. 

23rd. We proceeded to breakfast to an inn, by the side 
of a rushy lagoon or pool, such as is common in this part 
of the Island, and were grieved on entering it, to hear a 
man cursing and using blasphemous language, because one 
of his horses had strayed, as they often do in a country so 
sparingly intersected by fences. — The conduct of a poor 
black native, who cut tiie feet of seven women, whom he 
attacked as they slept, because his wife had broken a bottle 
that he valued, has been referred to as a proof of savage 
character and want of intellect ; but what is it when com- 
pared with the conduct of persons, who, because offended 

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1833.] VAN DIEMEN8 LAND. 135 

by a feUow-moTtal, or perplexed by the straying of a beast, 
^dll insult the Majesty of Heaven? — ^After breakfieust we 
pursued our route over a second Epping Forest, a sandy 
track more thickly timbered than the generality of this part 
of the country ; and emerging from it near a good looking 
house called Wanstead^ soon arrived at the dwelling of John 
Mc. Leodj a hospitable Scotchman, residing upon the Eliza- 
beth River, near Campbell Town. 

24th. In lihe forenoon, we had a meeting with about two 
hundred persons in the Court House at Campbell Town, a 
place consisting of a Court-house, a small wooden jail, and 
about a score of houses, some of which are of brick. Being 
helped on our way by J. Mc. Leod, who provided us with 
horses, we had a meeting in the evening at Ross, eight miles 
further from Launceston : this, like the one at Campbell Town, 
was a general assembly of the neighbouring settlers and their 
servants, to whom the Grospel was freely proclaimed. — We 
lodged at the house of George Parramore, a venerable and 
pious settler, whom we considered it a privilege to visit. 

25th. We breakfasted at Mona Vale, with William Ker- 
mode, an opulent sheep-fEirmer, who accompanied us across 
Salt Pan Plains, an open grassy district, over which a low, 
drooping species of Ghim-tree is thinly scattered. Upon 
W. Kermode's estate, near the junction of the Blackman 
River with the Macquarie, there is a piece of ground tihat 
yields about forty bushels of wheat per acre, but it is of small 
extent.— Salt Pan Plains are more valued as sheep pasture, 
than for agriculture. These plains are terminated south- 
ward by woody hills, among which is an opening called St. 
Peter's Pass, through which lies the road to Oatlands, a 
town of about twenty houses of freestone, adjoining a rushy 
lagoon, called Lake Frederick. — ^About eight miles further 
is a little scattered settlement named Jeridio, upon a small 
periodical stream, designated The Jordan. Here we found 
comfortable accommodation at a respectable inn. 

26th. We proceeded by another little settlement called The 
Lovely Banks, and by the Cross Marsh, to Green Ponds. The 
Cross Marsh is a rich flat, intersected by the Jordan, which 
in the drier seasons of the year, is reduced to a chain of 

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136 GREEN PONDS. [2nd mo. 

pools. On the mai^n of this river^ there is an elegant 
willow-like Eucalyptm, called the Black 6um^ forming a 
tree of moderate size. Green Ponds is a scattered village^ 
with an Episcopal place of worship^ and a good inn. — In 
the evening we continued our walk^ by moonlight^ along a 
winding woody pass to Constitution Hill, where we lodged 
at an inn. 

27th. Early in the morning, we visited a road-party of 
120 men, and then pursued our route along the vale of 
Bagdad, much of which is enclosed with post and rail fences^, 
and in which there are several decent houses, and a good inn. 
Soon after leaving this vale, the road crosses the Jordan^ 
by a handsome wooden bridge, on stone pillars, over a deep 
ravine ; it then continues over low woody hills till it reaches 
the Derwent, opposite to Bridgewater. — ^We crossed the Der- 
went in a small boat, to the Black Snake Inn, where, being 
very foot sore, we tried the experiment of drawing a double, 
unbleached, linen thread through the blisters, by means of 
a needle, and cutting off the thread so as to leave it pro- 
truding at each side. This allowed the water to pass out 
when the blister pressed the ground, by which means the 
pain was greatly alleviated, and the thread produced no in* 
convenience by remaining tiU the blister was healed. Some* 
times a thread of white worsted is used for the purpose. 
Probably, so long as it is imdyed, the material is not 
of much consequence, but the relief to foot-sore pedestrians 
is very great. We subsequently walked ten miles to Hobart 
Town, at the rate of a mile in sixteen and a half minutes. — 
On the way, we' met several persons with whom we were 
acquainted, and passed two good stage coaches going to New 
Norfolk, which had an enlivening effect at the conclusion 
of this long journey. — ^There was at this time no coach to 
Launceston; but an open four-wheeled carriage performed 
the journey of 120 miles, in two days, not running at night: 
the fare was £5, — On reaching Hobart Town we found our 
friends T. J. and S. Crouch in a larger house, in Bathurst- 
street, where they willingly allowed us again to become 
their lodgers. 

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Hobart Town. — Lientenant^OoTemor. — Penal Discipline. — Reformed Prisonerv* 
— Intemperance and Indiscretion. — Sheriff's Writs. — Timber-fellers.— Meeting" 
room Engaged. — Meeting. — Journey. — ^Anxiety for liberty. — Infidel Prison^ 
ers. — Brushy Plain. — ^Prisoner's View of Transportation. — Prossers River. — 
Spring Bay. — Kangaroo Grass. — Swan Port. — Cultivated Land. — Oyster Bay 
Fine. — ^Road. — ^Kelvedon. — ^Waterloo Foint.-^unnia austraUs. — ^Ministry of 
F. C. — ^Character of the Land.— Shrubs. — Black Swans. — Boomer Kangaroo. 
—St. Patrick's Head.— DweDing.— Timber.— Whales.— Mountains.— Tea.— 
Break o'day Plains. — " Dead Mens Oraves."- Buffalo Plains. -Kindness of 
Aborigines. — Launceston. — Flinders Blacks. — Road Party. — Flagellation. — 
Weather. — ^Diseases. — ^Death of a Prisoner. — Intemperance. — ^Music. — Spring. 
— ^Ben Lomond. — Gums. — Fossil Tree. — Salt Springs. — Eagles. — ^Trees, &c. 

Soon after returning to Hobart Town, where we remained 
nine weeks, we spent an evening with the Lieut. Governor 
and his family, and renewed the Christian intercourse which 
we had often enjoyed in their company. It was gratifying to 
see the anxiety exhibited by Colonel Arthur, to rule on 
Christian principles, and to prosecute the work of reforma- 
tion among the prisoners, according to the same unerring 
standard. — Mankind have too long striven to prevent crime 
by visiting it with vengeance, imder the delusive hope that 
vengeance upon the criminal would deter others. The effect 
of this system was unsuccessful, as the means is unauthorized 
by the Gospel, which says, "Vengeance is mine, I will 
repay, saith the Lord ; therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed 
him; if he thirst, give him drink; for, in so doing, thou 
shalt heap coals of fire upon his head. Be not overcome of 
evil, but overcome evil with good.'' (Rom. xii. 19 — 21.) No 
doubt but these principles, if acted upon, would promote 
reformation and reduce crime, more than any others, whether 
by individuals or by governments; and they would not 

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138 HOBART TOWN. [3rd mo. 

prevent a salutary restraint being placed upon transgressors, 
till these kindly principles could be made to bear elBBcaci- 
ously upon them. 

Several persons called upon us to obtain tracts : some of 
these were reformed prisoners, who were diligent in distri- 
buting them, sticking up in cottages the broad sheets con- 
taining the Ten Commandments^ &c. and in other ways 
endeavouring to do good. — One of them said he had reason 
to bless God, day and night, for having caused him to be sent 
to this colony ; for by this means he had been broken off 
from his evil associates: he attributed his change to the 
labours of Benjamin Carvosso, a Wesleyan minister, whom 
he heard preaching to condemned criminals in Hobart Town 
Jail ; and he said he was much confirmed by reading reli- 
gious tracts. — ^Another told us that he was distinguished as an 
audacious sinner, and a pugilist ; he was awakened to a sense of 
his undone state about a year and a half ago; he is now distin- 
guished among theWesleyans for his great fervency in prayer. 

Intemperance, and a disposition to embark in business 
beyond the capital of the parties engaging in it, are prevail- 
ing evils in V. D. Land. The consequences are such as 
might naturally be expected. In addition to premature 
death, and other awful effects of intemperance, distress and 
ruin in temporal concerns, are of frequent occurrence. Up- 
wards of four hundred writs have passed through the Sheriffs 
Office within the last three months. 

In a walk in the forest embosoming Mount Wellington, I 
was attracted to a timber-feller's hut, by the singing of two 
men, the father of one of whom was a Wesleyan class-leader. 
This young man said he was sure they were not singing 
because they were comfortable, but because, having finished 
their work, they had nothing to do ; they had no books, and 
he assured me that he was very uncomfortable in his mind ; 
he said he had been thinking in the night, how easily one of 
the trees, such as they are surrounded by, might have fallen 
upon their hut, and crushed them to death, and he was sure 
he was not prepared to die. The scrub was burning near 
to the place : their little bark hovel had narrowly escaped 
the flames, which had communicated to the lofty Stringy- 

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1833.] VAN DIBMENS LAND. 139 

bark trees, and charred them to the top. The fire had also 
burnt into the butts of some of them, and had loosened 
them, and in some instances, brought them down. The 
young man repeatedly pointed to these trees, which were a 
hundred and fifty feet high, and some of them nearly thirty 
feet in circumference, and said, '^ You see, sir, we cannot 
tell but at any hour of the day or night, one of these great 
trees may fall upon us, and crush us ; but we are prisoners, 
sent here to work, and cannot help it ^^ he did not complain 
of this as an undue hardship, but spoke of it as giving a 
sense of the necessity of being prepared for death. He told 
me that he had slighted the counsel of his father, but said 
^ Now I begin to think of what my father used to say to 
me.'^ Sometimes his emotion almost choked his utterance. 
I encouraged him to cherish these feelings, and to be willing 
to understand his errors ; to attend to the convictions of the 
Holy Spirit, by which he was given to see his unfitness to 
die, assuring him, that if he kept under this holy influence, 
he would be led to- repentance toward God and feith toward 
the Lord Jesus, by which he would know his sin to be blotted 
out, and ability to be given, to walk in holiness before the 

Our meetings for worship at Hobart Town, were often fe- 
voured with a solemn sense of divine influence, bowing our 
hearts before the Lord ; and sometimes raising a vocal testi- 
mony to his goodness, both from ourselves and from pious per- 
sons who were casually present. The number who r^ularly 
met, became a little augmented. Among these were two per- 
sons from England, members of the Society of Friends ; one 
of whom had been several years in the Colony. A man 
also became one of our congregation, who had had his educa- 
tion among Friends, but had committed a crime for which 
he was transported wlien young, and who in his old age had 
been stirred up to seek the Lord in earnest. With these 
we had a conference, on the subject of continuing to assem- 
ble regularly for worship when we were absent from the 
town ; and they being desirous to do so, a room in a private 
house was hired for the purpose, as they united with us 
in the judgment, that they were not in a state to open a 

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140 HOBART TOWN. [4th mo. 

house for public worship, notwithstanding it might be to 
their edification to meet more retiredly. The room, hired for 
this purpose was in the upper part of Macquarie Street. The 
first meeting was held in it on the 7th of the 4th month. 
The congregation consisted of fifteen persons, including some 
children. On this occasion I had much to express in 
doctrine and exhortation; and especially to point out the 
necessity of the superstructure of a religious profession, 
being raised upon the solid foundation of repentance towards 
God and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ. — In con- 
sequence of several of the children having had but little 
religious instruction, it was determined, temporarily to hold 
a meeting for religious reading in the afternoons ; and on 
this day a chapter of *^Tuke*s Principles of Friends,^' a 
part of ^^Chalkley's Observations on Christ's Sermon on 
the Moimt,'' and a portion of Scripture were read. 

4th mo. 8th. We set out on another long journey among 
the settlers. — Crossing the Derwent to Kangaroo Point, we 
proceeded over a woody steep called Breakneck Hill, to 
Richmond, where we were again kindly welcomed by W. T. 
Parramore and J. H. Butcher. 

9th. W. T. Parramore, furnished us with a guide, who 
took us through among the woody hills, by a narrow winding 
track, called Black Charleys Opening, to the Brushy Plains ; 
where the path joined the cart track from Sorell Town. 
Here we parted from our guide, who was a prisoner in the 
field-police, and was anxiously looking forward toward 
restoration to liberty. This is indeed universally the case, 
except with such prisoners as are sentenced for life, or have 
become reckless. Our guide assured us that many of the 
latter class were infidels, and of this we afterwards had much 
proof. — Brushy Plains is an extensive flat of open forest, 
bearing grass and sedgy herbage, intermingled with scrub, 
and joining some swampy land, called The White Marsh. 
Here, we found a young prisoner, in charge of a settler's hut, 
who said he had seen it asserted in an English newspaper, 
that transportation was no punishment ; but that he felt it 
to be a very severe one; that the best of his days were wast- 
ing, and he doing nothing for himself; that being sent out 

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1833.] VAN DIBMBNS LAND. 141 

for life, it made him dull to think of liberty, as the time 
would be long before he could even obtain any such a miti- 
gation of Sentence, as in this country is called Indulgence; 
and that transportation had taught him a lesson, which 
would make him use his liberty very differently to what he 
had formerly done, if ever he had it again. — A track over a 
series of open, forest hills, brought us to Prossers Plains, an 
extensive grassy opening with a few settlers houses ; in one 
of which, occupied by a person named Richard Crocker, we 
found a hospitable reception. 

10th. We crossed the Thumbs Marsh, a grassy opening 
xmder the Three Thumbs Mountain, and met our friend 
Francis Cotton, who proved a most welcome guide in passing 
through the rugged, woody, ravine of the Prossers River, 
which is ironically called Paradise. We forded the River, 
at a rocky place, and travelled along the side of some 
very rough, steep hills, called the Devils Royals, to the 
sandy beach of Prossers Bay, on which there were the skele- 
tbns of two whales. On again entering the forest, the path 
lay by the side of a rushy lagoon, near which was a bushy 
species of Conospermum, a shrub with narrow, strap-shaped 
leaves, and small white flowers. This was the only place in 
which I met with a plant of this genus in V. D. Land* 
Passing a few grassy hills of open forest, we reached the 
habitation of Patrick McLean, at Spring Bay, by whom we 
were kindly received, and on whose land we viewed with 
satisfaction, the agricultural progress of one who had beaten 
his sword into a ploughshare. 

1 1th. The country which we passed through was a continued 
series of open forest, abounding with Kangaroo-grass, Anthis- 
tvria australis, which affords the best pasturage of any of the 
native grasses of this island, and is less affected by drought 
than those from Europe ; but as there is a tinge of brown 
upon it, even while growing, the grass lands of Tasmania do 
not, at any season of the year, present a lovely green like 
English pastures and meadows. There are a few settlers on 
the best pieces of land near Spring Bay, and we were hos- 
pitably entertained by one named John Hawkins, in Little 
Swan Port, who had also been brought up to a military life. 

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12th. We visited a few huts on the side of the inlet open- 
ing into Oyster Bay, and called The Little Swan Port, which 
is also the name of the district. Upon this inlet there were 
more than a dozen Pelicans. We also walked over the culti- 
vated land of J. Hawkins. The ground adapted for cultiva- 
tion is of limited extent, compared with the estate. This is 
generally the case throughout the Colony. On the first 
settlement of this place, the Aborigines killed one of the men 
near the house. Many other persons lost their lives by 
them, in the Oyster Bay or Swan Port district. 

13th. We visited a free man, living in a miserable hut 
near the Little Swan Port, who had been notorious for the 
use of pro&ne language and for cursing his eyes ; and he 
had become nearly blind, but seemed far from having pro- 
fited by this judgment. We then pursued our way through 
the forest, and reached Kelvedon, the residence of Francis 
and Anna Maria Cotton, and their large family, in which 
George Fordyce Story, M.D., who fills the office of District 
Surgeon, is an inmate. The road, which is impassable for 
carriages from Prossers Plains, lies along a soft salt-marsh at 
the head of the Little Swan Port, and past the habitations of a 
few distantly scattered settlers, and over the Rocky Hills — a 
series of basaltic blufiFs divided by deep ravines, and separat- 
ing the districts of Little and Great Swan Port. The forest 
of this part of the country is distinguishable from that of 
most others, by the prevalence of The Oyster Bay Pine, 
CalHtris pyramidalisy a cypress-like tree, attaining to seventy 
feet in height, and afibrding narrow plank and small timber, 
which is useful in building, but not easy to work, being 
liable to splinter : it has an aromatic smell resembling that 
of the Red Cedar of America. The other trees of these 
forests, are the Blue, the White, and the Black-butted Gum, 
the Silver and the Black Wattle, and the She-Oak. The 
country is favourable for sheep and homed cattle, as well as 
for agriculture ; the proximity of the sea preventing summer 
frosts ; but it often suffers from drought. 

The annexed etching, from a sketch by my friend George 
Washington Walker, represents the dwelling of the femily at 
Kelvedon, which is more commodious than the houses of 

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•' r 

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1833.] VAN DIEMBN8 LAND. 143 

most settlers in this colony. It is fronted by a good garden, 
separated from a field adjoining the sea bank, by a lagoon. 
On this bank there are grass, bushes, and small trees. One 
of the trees, a She-Oak, in a state of decay, is depicted 
standing by a post and rail fence, such as is common in this 
country. The woody, basaltic hills in the back ground form 
a general feature in a Tasmanian landscape. The sandstone 
of the coal formation occurs here between the hills and 
the sea. 

In a guUy among the Rocky Hills behind Kelvedon, 
Chmnia australis was growing upon a variety of trees and 
shrubs. This is the most southerly locality in which I have 
met with an epiphyte of the orchis tribe, growing upon the 
trunks of trees. Gastrodium sesamoideSi supposed to grow 
from the decaying roots of Stringy-bark trees, is found near 
Hobart Town. 

We remained at Kelvedon till the 26th, having, in the 
mean time, religious interviews with the family and assigned 
servants, and with some of the neighbouring settlers, and a 
meeting at Waterloo Point, a village where there are a jail, 
military barracks, and a few cottages. 

We set out on the 26th, to visit the settlers at the 
head of Great Swan Port. — In a religious opportunity with 
the family of one of these, Francis Cotton, who accom- 
panied us, made some observations, under much feeling: 
this proved the commencement of his ministerial labours^ 
which were very comforting to us, and helpful in promoting 
the great object for which we left our native land, — that of 
spreading the knowledge of Christ and of his Gospel. 

Several of the estates in this part of the country, con- 
tain above an average quantity of good land, nevertheless a 
settler does not find it easy to obtain much return for his 
labour in less than four years. — On receding firom the sea, 
the wheat becomes liable to be blighted by summer firost. — 
Some of the best native pasture will keep more than an 
average of one sheep to an acre ; but in many parts of the 
island that is esteemed good land which will maintain one 
sheep to three acres, throughout the year. This does not, 
however, arise altogether firom defect in the quality of the 

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144 GREAT SWAN PORT. [4th mO. 

land, but in a considerable measure, from the scarcity of 
jain on the eastern side of the Colony. 

On the banks of the Swan River, the beautiful, blue, 
shrubby, Veronica formoaa, and the gay, pink, Bauera rubuB- 
folia^ were very abundant, along with some species of Pomader^ 
m, Melaleiica, Hakea, Hovea, Westringiay and other interesting 
shrubs : here is also another species of CaUitrig, resembling a 
Red Cedar, and seldom attaining to ten feet in height. — On a 
branch of an inlet called Moulting Bay, Black Swans were 
very numerous ; I counted nearly eighty, swimming in pairs. 
The large species of Kangaroo, called the Boomer, which, 
when it stretches itself upon its hind feet, is almost as tall 
as a man on horseback, has become scarce, but we saw one 
in passing through a bush. Though harmless when immo- 
lested, it is said to be formidable when hunted, taking to 
the water, and endeavouring to drown its antagonists. 
The stroke of the hind daws, both of this and some 
other species, is destructive, and not unfrequently fatal 
to dogs. 

On the 30th, we set out early from the house of William 
Lyne, who, with his sons, guided us through the forest for 
about ten miles, before the sim rose: his wife loaded us 
with provisions, lest we should suffer from hunger on the 
way, with a liberality, such as we often experienced in the 
Australian Colonies. We came upon the coast at a place 
to the north of a series of grey, granite hills, where a 
low species of Xanthorrhaa was plentiful. We then pro- 
ceeded along the shore for eighteen miles, occasionally cross- 
ing points of land. Upon one part of the beach, sandstone 
and coal were visible ; and in several places, we saw the foot- 
prints of the Tasmanian Tiger, and the Bush Devil, which 
had been in search of fish cast up by the sea. The mouths 
of the rivers were choked with sand, so that they did not 
impede our progress ; sometimes they are dangerous to cross. 
A line of high, woody hills continued parallel with the shore, 
at a little distance inland, until it ran out upon the beach, 
toward the point, called St. Patricks Head. We travelled over 
these hills for about twelve miles further than this point, to 
Falmouth, a small settlement where one of our friends, named 

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1833.] VAN DIEMEXS LAND. 145 

Dayid Steady was overseer^ on an estate belonging to a gen* 
tleman in India. 

The dwelling occupied by D. Stead was superior to many of 
those in out-stations, but inferior to the houses of the gene- 
rality of settlers: it was built of upright split timber, plastered 
inside, and divided to the height of the walls, into four apart^ 
ments, a sitting-room, bed-room, kitchen, and store-room* 
The last only, was secured by a lock. The outer doors had no 
other fastenings than wooden latches, and the windows were 
of canvass stretched in firames in square openings. The 
kitchen was also the sleeping-place of the prisoner-servants. 
A hammock formed the sleeping accommodation of our 
friend. A wooden sofa in the parlour served a passing 
guest ; and in case of more travellers having to be accom- 
modated, the hospitality of a neighbour was claimed. 

The timber on a piece of low ground here, was remarkably 
tall and slender. Trees had been felled, 140 feet of which 
were adapted to being cut into lengths for log-fencing: 
many of them were 200 feet high, and of very even thick- 
ness. — ^From Whales occasionally cast upon these shores, 
the settlers supply themselves with oil. This is not unfre- 
quent on other parts of the coast. They are probably fish 
that escape after being struck by the people from the whaling 
vessels which are stationed in some of the bays, and which 
cruise about the Island. 

After a meeting here, some of the people noticed, that 
it was the first time the Gospel had been preached at this 
place. While ^' neither is he that planteth anything, neither 
he that watereth, but Grod that giveth the increase ;*' it is, 
nevertheless, an honour to bear his message of mercy t}irough 
Christ Jesus, though it be but to a few, remotely scattered. 

5th mo. 2nd. We crossed a series of lofty hills, to Break- 
o'-day Plains. The first of these are granite, and the suc- 
ceeding ones, are argillaceous, and red sandstone. On the 
granite ' is a species of Eucalypttis, not frequent in Tas- 
mania, called Iron-bark, which name is given to more than 
one species of this genus in N. S. Wales, on account of the 
bark being exceedingly coarse, hard, and iron-like. On the 
argillaceous hills, the Peppermint-tree atUdns a considerable 

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146 BRBAK-0*DAY PLAINS. [5th mO. 

size : one on the ground was 147 feet long, another, stand- 
ing was 26^ feet round. Daviesia lat^foUa^ a low shrub 
with bluish leaves, and axillary spikes of small, handsome, 
pea-like flowers, of yellow, shaded into orange in the middle, 
abounds on these hills. This kind of colouring is frequent 
in the numerous little pea-flowered shrubs that decorate the 
^'scrubs," or bushy places of this land. 

Open, grassy lands, watered by rivulets from the moun- 
tains, and thinly settled, succeed to these hills, and are 
bounded on the north, by those of the Ben Lomond range, 
and on the south, by those called the St. Pauls Tier, on 
account of the dome-like appearance of one of them, which 
also bears the name of Tasmans Peak, — At the farm of 
Michael Bates we were kindly welcomed, and enjoyed a 
meal of boiled mutton and tea, notwithstanding, in conse- 
quence of the distance from a shop, the latter had to be made 
in a canister, and when the party became enlarged, in the 
tea-kettle, which very generally supersedes the tear-pot in 
this country. As tea is cheap, the chest, which often stands 
under the table, is frequently resorted to in {dace of a tea- 
caddy ; and the refreshing beverage is sweetened with coarse 
Mauritian sugar, conveyed from the bag into the kettle 
with an iron spoon. 

3rd. We proceeded down the Break-oMay Plains, and past 
the township of Fingal, which is marked only by barracks, 
occupied by five soldiers. We reached the house of a set- 
tler, by moonlight, and were glad of a shelter from the 

4th. We continued our journey through a pass between 
the hills, to Avoca, a small settlement at the confluence of 
the Break-o'day and St. Pauls Rivers with the South ELsk. 
Here we became the guests of Major Grey, a retired military 
man, who was formerly, for some time, in Western Africa. 

In the course of the three following days we visited the 
settlers on St Pauls Plains, another series of grassy vales, run- 
ning to the east. — In one part of this district, where the soil is 
sandy, Stenanthera pinifoUa, a pretty heath-like shrub, is 
found : it is common in N. S. Wales, but this is the only 
place in which we saw it in V. D. Land. In another part, 

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1833.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 147 

the soil is strongs and stands in remarkable ridges^ called in 
this country, " Dead-mens-graves.^' These occur, also, on 
the Macquarie River and in other places, and are, beyond 
doubt, of natural origin ; nevertheless, the manner in which 
they have been formed is not easy to determine. 

On the 8th, we reached John Batman's, on Bufialo Plains, 
under Ben Lomond. These plains are so named from homed 
cattle, imported from India, which obtained the name of 
Buffidoes in V. D. Land, and were fed here. J. Batman was 
formerly employed by the Government to take the Aborigines, 
by capture, if practicable, but by destruction, where they could 
not be captured ! This was at a time when they had killed 
many white people. Under these instructions, about thirty 
were destroyed, and eleven captured! Those captured be- 
came reconciled, and highly useful in the peaceable arrange- 
ments, successfully made of latter time, by George Augustus 
Robinson and Anthony Cottrell. The last time A. Cottrell 
passed down the west coast, he had a friendly interview 
with a tribe, near the Arthur River, that a few months prior, 
attempted the destruction of G. A. Robinson. 

Previously to this, two white men, of A. Cottrell's party, 
were lost in crossing a river on a raft, before the tide was 
out. When some of the native women saw them in danger, 
they swam to the raft, and begged the men to get upon 
their backs, and they would convey them to the shore ; but 
the poor men refused, being overcome by fear. These kind- 
hearted women were greatly affected by this accident. 

9th. When walking with J. Batman, in his garden, he 
pointed out the grave of a child of one of the Blacks, that 
died at his house. When it expired, the mother and other 
native women made great lamentation, and the morning 
after it was buried, happening to walk round his garden 
before sun-rise, he found its mother weeping over its grave: 
yet it is asserted by some, that these people are without 
natural affection. 

10th. We visited John Glover, a celebrated painter, 
who came to this country when advanced in life, to depict 
the novel scenery : his aged wife has been so tried with 
the convict, female servants, that she has herself undertaken 

L 2 

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148 LAUNCE8TOX. [5th mo. 

the house-work. We generally find that females prefer 
England to Tasmania^ on account of this annoyance. 

13th. We reached Liaunceston^ after visiting a few setders 
on the Nile^ and on the South Esk^ into which the fornix 

At Launceston, we found an interesting letter from W. J. 
Darling, from Flinders Island, dated Establishment for the 
Aborigines, formerly Pea- Jacket, now Wybalenna, 6th April, 
1833. The following are extracts from it: — 

''We have been removed since the 1st February, down 
to this place, which is a paradise compared with the other, 
and which I have named Wybalenna, or Black Man's 
Houses, in honest English. We have abundance of water, 
an excellent garden, and every comfort a rational man can 
want. If you were gratified with the establishment before, 
you would be doubly so now, and would find a vast im* 
provement among the people since your last visit: their 
habitations are in progress, four of them being nearly com- 
pleted. I think you would approve of them. They consist 
of low cottages, twenty-eight feet by fourteen, with a double 
fire-place in the centre, and a partition; each apartment 
calculated to contain six persons. They are built of wattles, 
plastered and whitewashed ; the wattles and grass for thatch* 
ing, — of which a great quantity is required for each buildings 
— have been brought in entirely by the natives, and the 
delight they show in the anticipation of their new houses, 
is highly gratifying. They are of course to be furnished 
with bed-places, tables, stools, &c. and each house will have 
a good-sized garden in front of it. By next spring there will 
not be a prettier, or more interesting place in the colony 
of V. D. Land. The women now wash their own clothes 
and those of their husbands, as well as any white women 
would do. We are not now half so naked as when you were 
last here, but have neat and substantial clothing.'^ — In a 
letter of later date, after the Aborigines had got into their 
houses, W. J. Darling says, ''Their houses are swept out 
every morning, their things all hung up and in order, and 
this is without a word being spoken to them. They all 
know, and make a distinction on the Sunday; the women 

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1833.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 149 

having washed their clothes on the Saturday; this too 
springs entirely from themselves. The men dress every 
Sunday morning in clean, duck frocks and trowsers, and 
every one of them washes himself. ^^ 

We remained in Launceston a month ; in the course of 
which we held some religious meetings with the inhabitants, 
and with the prisoners in the Penitentiary, and had also a 
meeting for the promotion of temperance. We likewise visited 
the inhabitants of Patersons Plains, an open grassy district, 
on the North Esk, to the eastward of Launceston. 

During this period, the weather was frosty at night, the 
thermometer frequently falling to 25°. From the adjacent 
hills, the town, in a morning, often appeared as if it were 
based on clouds, as the fog, to which it is liable, dispersed. 
The days were generally clear and warm. 

On the 11th of 6th month, we set out on a more extended 
visit than the former, to the settlers on Norfolk Plains and 
the Macquarie River, which occupied us tiU the 1st of 7th 
month, when we returned again to Launceston. 

In the course of this journey, we visited an interesting 
boarding-school for girls, at Ellenthorpe Hall ; and one for 
boys, on Norfolk Plains; and also inspected one of four 
Government day-schools, under the care of R. R. Davies, 
the Episcopal chaplain at Longford. 

While in Launceston, we joined several other persons 
in organizing a Temperance Society, which was attended 
with good results, notwithstanding, several who originally 
imited in it, relapsed into drinking practices, and one of 
them fell into the commission of a crime, through the influ- 
ence of strong drink, for which he forfeited his life. — ^We 
also paid some attention to the state of the prisoners in the 
Penitentiary, and other places where they were under the 
charge of the Government. On one occasion, I saw four- 
teen men sent into the Penitentiary, from Nottmans Road 
Party, to be flogged, for not executing their full quota of 

We left Launceston again on the 13th of 7th month, and 
went by Patersons Plains, the Cocked Hat Hill, Perth, the 
South Esk, Campbell Town, Ross, Oatlands, Jericho, the 


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Lovely Banks^ Bothwell, Hamilton^ the Dee River^ and New 
Norfolk to Hobart Town; where we arrived on the 9th 
of 8th month ; having held religious meetings, and meetings 
for the promotion of temperance at the several towns ; and 
religious meetings almost every evening, at the houses of 
the settlers, who kindly allowed us to invite the neighbouring 
fiamilies to their dwellings. 

The weather at this period was tolerably mild, and gen- 
erally remarkably fine for the season; we had seldom to 
use umbrellas as a defence against rain, and the tracked 
roads were but little cut up. The tops of the mountains, 
adjacent to the low country in which we were travelling, 
were often covered with snow, and there, the weather seemed 
to be wild and stormy. We felt that we had cause, grate- 
fully to acknowledge the merciful guidance of the good Spirit 
of our Lord and Master, by which we were led to visit the 
interior this winter, during which it was pleasant travelling 
on foot, and to go to places accessible by sea, last winter, 
when the wet would have rendered travelling in the inte- 
rior very unpleasant. 

We found some fiamilies affected with a low fever, which 
occasionally occurs in this country, but is seldom fiatal. The 
most direful diseases in the Colony, are the result of the 
free use of intoxicating liquors. Delirium tremens, under 
its varied forms of horror, is one of these. Apoplexy is 
also common: an instance of it occurred in one of the 
prisoners, that came out in the Science, who died lately in 
a public-house at New Norfolk, in an awfully hopeless state. 
He fell lifeless from his seat, as he declared, with a horrid 
imprecation, that he would never forgive the landlady, be- 
cause she refused to supply him with more rum, when his 
money was spent. 

tVhile waiting in the Police Office at Campbell Town, for 
a person, temporarily acting as Police or Paid Magistrate, 
who kindly accompanied us in calling upon the neighbouring 
settiers, some pensioners made application for the office of 
constable, stating themselves to be from forty to fifty years of 
age ; but their appearance was more like that of men of from 
sixty to seventy. This was attributable, in, great degree, to 

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1835.] VAN DIBMEN8 LAND. 151 

the use of strong drink. — ^The police clerk spoke to us 
courteously: we were about to invite the people of the 
neighbourhood to a temperance meeting, and when we re- 
tumed, he was ill, from the practice of dram drinking : he 
died in the night, and was a corpse upon the premises at the 
time the meeting was held ! 

In the houses of most of the prosperous settlers, from what- 
ever rank they may have risen, piano-fortes are to be seen. 
Next to drinking and smoking, they seem to be resorted to, 
to relieve the mind from that sense of vacuity, which ought 
to lead it to seek to be filled with heavenly good ; and thus 
these instruments of music are made a means of truly 
injurious dissipation. 

Spring commences early in Tasmania, and is marked by 
the opening of many pretty flowers, and the blossoming of 
the trees and shrubs ; but as the latter are universally ever- 
greens, it is not marked by the change so strildng in 
England, except in gardens, in which the fruit-trees from 
Europe, rest more regularly than in Oreat Britain, and do 
not appear to be disposed to grow till spring is fully set in. 
The advance of spring was, however, very pleasant on our 
journey ; in which we had now and then, fine and extended 
views, that were rendered the more interesting by the con- 
tinuity of the forest, generally limiting observation to a small 
space. One of the objects occasionally visible, from the 
South Esk to St. Peters Pass, was Ben Lomond, which 
presents a remarkably castellated bluff to the south, and is 
represented in the annexed sketch, taken near the residence 
of James Crear, on the South Esk. This mountain is said 
to be volcanic, and to have a lake, in an extinguished crater, 
at the top. 

Considerable quantities of gum have been exported from 
V. D. Land. One kind resembling Kino, is the produce of 
various species of Eucalypttts ; the best is from the White 
Gum, which is probably E, remiifera : it is collected for a 
shilling a pound in the colony. A species of Acacia, called 
the Black Wattle, probably Acacia affiniSy produces, a gum in- 
ferior to Gum Arabic, but which is said to be used in sizing 
silk goods : it is collected for three-pence a pound. Some- 

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times we found the gum of the Acacia serviceable in allaying^ 

When at Macquarie Plains^ upon the Derwent, we visited 
a fossil tree^ which is imbedded in basalt, in the point of a 
hill^ near a cascade^ in a creek that empties itself into the 
river. The tree is erects and may possibly prove to be 
standing where it has grown. About ten feet of its height 
are laid bare by removing the basalt, which is here porous and 
cracked. The tree is about ten feet in circumference at the 
lowest part that is bare. Some of the exterior portion has 
become like horn-coloured flint : much of the internal part 
is opaque^ white^ and fibrous: some portions of it split 
like laths^ others into pieces like matches, and others are 
reducible to a substance resembling fibrous asbestos. The 
grain of the wood and of the bark is very distinguishable. 
Fragments of limbs of the same kind, have been found con- 
tiguous to the tree ; and pieces of petrified wood of similar 
appearance are abundantly scattered over the neighbourhood, 
llie structure of this tree is such as is considered to belong to 
coniferous trees ; the only one of which, now found in this 
Island, of size equal to this petrefaction, is the Huon Pine. 

In the neighbourhood of Ross, as well as near Bothwell, 
there are salt springs ; and in some of these places there is 
fresh water, nearer the surface than the salt. On Salt Pan 
Plains, there is a small, salt lagoon, that dries up in sum- 
mer, when the salt is collected, by the shepherds in the 
vicinity, and sold for about a hal^nny a pound. Several 
tnarine plants grow around this lagoon. When visiting it, 
we saw 4ve Eagles soaring over some flocks pf sheep. We 
also fell in with a young lamb that had had its eyes picked 
out by a crow. This is a circumstance of common occur- 
rence, and the eagles carry off the lambs that have been 
killed by this means, as well as living ones. Probably 
similar circumstances occurring in Palestine, might give rise 
to the denunciation in the book of Proverbs, ^'The eye that 
mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey his mother, 
the ravens of the valley shall pick it out, and the young 
eagles shall eat it.'^ 

On speaking to one of our acquaintance, from near 

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1833.] " VAN DIBMBN8 LAND. 153 

Hamilton, of the ferocity of the Tasmanian eagles, she in- 
formed us, that she was once chased by one of these birds for 
some distance, and obliged to run to her house for shelter. 
A similar occurrence also happened to a person on Mac- 
quarie Plains, and the wife of a settler told us, that she 
one day observed a horse galloping backward and forward, 
whilst two eagles were chasing it ; one of which was driving it 
in one direction, and the other in the other. At length the 
horse fell, and one of them pounced upon its head ; she then 
called some of the men, who immediately drove off the 
ravenous birds : the poor beast soon regained its feet, and 
was thus delivered from its destroyers. The horse being 
in an enclosure, had not the opportunity of escaping. 

Many shrubs and plants were in flower on the banks 
of the Derwent and the adjacent hills. The most striking 
were Acacia moOis, veriicillata and MelanowyUm, Aster den- 
taius, Banksia australis, Pomaderris elliptica, Goodema cvata. 
Indigofera australiSy PimeUa incanuy Tetratheca glandido8a, 
Euphrasia speciosa, and Kermedia prostrata, 

A single Lemon tree exists in a garden at New Nor- 
folk, and another at O^Briens Bridge, but the climate is 
not warm enough for them, and they are protected dur- 
ing the winter. Cape Pelargoniums (the Geraniums of 
English Greenhouses) endure the winter at Hobart Town, 
but they are killed by frost at New Norfolk, and at other 
places in the Interior. 

During this journey, of two months, our wants were so 
hospitably supplied by the settlers, that we only spent 
twenty-five shillings, which were chiefly laid out in washing 
and postage. 

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Meeting for Discipline Eetabliihed* — ^Meetings for Worship. — ^Tempersnce Iise- 
ture. — Flagellation. — Causes of Crime. — Judicial Oaths. — Peculiarities of 
Friends. — Chain Gang. — Unsteady Emigrant. — Ascent of Mount Wellington. 
— ^Notice of a Pious Prisoner. 

On retuming to Hobart Tovn^ we found the little congre* 
gation with which we had become associated^ in a state 
requiring care: a conference was therefore held with the 
two persons^ who^ with ourselves^ were members of the 
Society of Friends in England^ and it was concluded to or- 
ganize a meeting for discipline^ for the purpose of preserving 
good order^ keeping records^ discharging r^^ularly the ex- 
penses attendant upon the occupation of the room in which 
the meetings for worship were held^ and maintaining a 
general care respecting such other matters^ as might be con- 
nected with the welfare of those professing with the Society 
of Friends, in this Colony, 

At the first of these meetings, which was held on the 
20th of 9th month, 1833, the certificates of George Washing- 
ton Walker and tnyself, sanctioning our visit to the Southern 
Hemisphere, were read. — ^Appendix A. — ^A certificate of 
the membership of another individual, who had brought 
this document with him from England, was also read, and 
a record was made of the membership of two other Friends, 
with a notice of the respective Monthly Meetings in England, 
to which they belonged. A list of the names of other per- 
sons attending the meetings of Friends in Hobart Town, 
and of those professing an attachment to the principles of 
the Society in other parts of the Island, was likewise entered 
on minute. 

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1835.] VAN DIEMBNS LAND. 155 

We continued in Hobart Town at this time for twelve 
weeks, in the course of which, a few more meetings for 
discipline were held, two persons were admitted into mem- 
bership, and it was concluded to hold one of these meet- 
ings monthly, under the appellation of ^^ Hobart Town 
Monthly Meeting of Friends/^ 

Meetings for worship continued to be regularly held on 
First day mornings, and reading meetings in the afternoons. 
A meeting for worship was also settled on Fifth-day even- 
ings, not because the evening was preferred, for the meetings 
held at that time were often heavy, from the exhausted state of 
those who composed them, but because we could only have 
the use of the room in which we met, in an evening, as it 
was used for a school, in the day-time, on week-days. 

We also invited the inhabitants of Hobart Town to a 
meeting for Public Worship, and to another for the pro- 
motion of Temperance ; both of these were held in the 
Court House, the use of which was kindly granted for 
these purposes, on various occasions. On going to the 
former of these meetings I felt a perfect blank, as regarded 
anything to communicate, but was preserved quiet, trusting 
in the Lord, in whose counsel, I apprehended, I had re- 
quested the meeting to be convened. The passage of Scrip- 
ture, ^' It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the 
living God,'^ impressed my mind soon after sitting down, 
along with the belief that it was my duty to rise, and quote 
it, and to make some comments upon the cause of this fear- 
fulness, as well as upon the plan of salvation by Jesus Christ; 
inviting all to come unto God by him, and to abide in him, 
and to prove this abiding, by walking as he also walked. 
The congregation was attentive, and a preciously solemn 
feeling pervaded the meeting toward the close, in which 
prayer was put up for an increase in the knowledge of the 
tilings belonging to salvation, and of a disposition to practice 

The Lieutenant Governor and several other persons of 
note attended the Temperance Lecture; in which, after 
explaining the origin and progress of Temperance Societies, 
and conveying much general information, I invited a more 

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156 HOBART TOWN. [10th mo* 

extensive co-operation with them. I was induced to give 
this lecture from a sense of duty ; and I had great occasion 
to render God hearty thanks, for enabling me to unfold 
to the company something of the working of the mystery 
of iniquity, as connected with the use of strong drink, and 
to do it in such a way as to keep hold of their kindly 
feelings, whilst attacking unsparingly the habits and in- 
dulgences of many present. 

10th mo. 4th. I read, "Three Months in Jamaica, ^^ by 
Henry Whitely. What a picture does it present of colonial 
slavery, and human depravity ! Severe as is the discipline 
of the prisoners in this colony, it is not to be compared with 
the tyrannical barbarity exercised upon the poor Negroes ; 
yet I think the vengeful part of the former, both degrading 
and demoralizing. A Magistrate who formerly thought the 
flagellation of prisoners necessary, said, a short time ago, 
when conversing with us on the subject, that he was now 
convinced that it was an ineffectual punishment, universally 
degrading in its consequences. This is an increasing con- 
viction among men who have gained some degree of victory 
over themselves: those who are in bondage to their own 
evil passions are attached to the system, by which a man 
may receive far beyond "forty stripes save one,^' — ^upon 
complaint before a magistrate. It may, however, generally 
be observed, that those who plead for flogging, practice 
swearing, whether magistrates or others : and their own 
overbearing manner is often the exciting cause of the inso- 
lence in the. prisoner, which occasions him to be brought 
before a magistrate and to receive flagellation. 

Had justice toward offenders been more duly considered the 
legislature would probably, long ere this, have been induced 
to inquire more seriously than it has done, into the causes 
of crime, with a view to remedying them. This considera- 
tion is especially due to prisoners, when it appears, that the 
use of ardent spirits is the chief cause of crime, and that, 
by legalizing the sale of this article, and by the countenance 
given to its use by the community, they and the Government 
are the chief patrons of crime. 

Want of education being another fertile source of vice, 

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1833.] VAN DIEMEN8 ]>AND. 15/ 

consideration ought to be had for those who are ignoranl^ 
and through this cause go astraj^. It is not genendly with 
themselves that the fault of the want of better education 
Ues. Again^ the immoral example of persons of the upper 
and middle classes, and often of the professed teachers of 
religion, has, beyond a doubt, a great place in the en- 
couragement of crime. By far the greater proportion of 
prisoners is from the lower class ; and it wiU be found, that 
most of the crimes which they have committed, were com- 
mitted under the excitement of ardent spirits; and that, 
apart from this excitement, they are not commonly more 
depraved than the generality of their countrymen. Also, 
that most of their robberies were committed to enable them 
to obtain money to pay for indulgence in vice ; and that the 
example of similar indulgence by persons above them in cir- 
cumstances, was a great means of destroying in their minds 
the barrier of that moral principle, which would have made 
them fear such indulgence. Those who expect the punishment 
of crime to prevent its commission, whilst such fertile sources 
of its propagation remain, will certainly be disappointed. The 
removal of persons who have become contaminated, will no 
doubt, prevent crime increasing as it would do, were their 
influence continued on the British population; but unless 
the incentives to crime be removed, punishing it will only 
be like trying to pump out a river that threatens inunds^ 
tion to a country, whilst the remedy of stopping the springs 
that supply it, is neglected. 

About this time I wrote a small tract, entitlec^ ^^ A Concise 
Apology for the Peculiarities of the Society of Friends, com- 
monly called Quakers, in their Language, Costume, and Man- 
ners.^' These peculiarities having often been the subjects of 
so much inquiry and objection, as to limit our opportunities 
of explaining our views of the Oospel in regard to more 
fundamental points, and especially, to that immediate teach- 
ing of the Divine Spirit, which, when fully followed, we 
believe, leads into the practice we have adopted. — ^Appen- 
dix B. 

In the 10th month, a young woman, professing with the 
Independents, refused to take an oath, as witness, in the 

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158 HOBART TOWN. [10th mo. 

Supreme Court. She was called upon to state her reasons for 
this refusal^ which she did in a clear and concise manner, 
urging the command of Christ as the ground of her objec- 
tion. According to existing regulations, the Judge must 
have committed her to prison for contempt of court, had 
the matter been pressed 1 but to avoid this, the Counsel 
withdrew her evidence. 

This circumstance increased an exercise that my mind 
had been under, respecting the practice of judicial swearing, 
and this feeling was further increased, by learning that 
a discourse had been delivered in the Independent chapel, 
attempting to defend the practice; and believing that it 
would conduce to my peace to throw something before ihe 
public on the subject, I wrote an essay, entitled, ^^The 
Question, are Judicial Oaths Liawfol? answered; with some 
Observations on the Moral Influence of Oaths.^^ In this 
tract the fallacy of the ai^uments brought forward in 
support of the practice of Judicial Swearing was proved on 
Scriptural grounds. — ^Appendix C. 

10th mo. 16th. We had a religious interview with the 
Hulk Chain-gang, in a long shed, in which they regularly 
assemble for worship, on First and Fourth days. The dis- 
cipline of this gang is very strict ; and finom its local situation, 
the men are effectually kept from strong drink. The hulks, 
on board of which they sleep, are kept clean, and are well 
ventilated : they are moored close alongside of the jwrd in 
which the men muster. These prisoners are employed in 
public work^f improvement on the side of SuUvans Cove, and 
are kept constantly under an overseer and a military guard. 
This gang, which forms an important link in the chain of 
the prison-discipline of the colony, is depicted, in the an- 
nexed etching, copied from a work called '^Ross's Hobart 
Town Annual.^^ 

10th mo. 24th. A young Irishman called upon me, who 
came to V. D. Land, a few months ago, with a small sum 
of money, and soon after his arrival got into a situation ; 
but giving way to dissipated habits, and making a mock, 
as he said, of temperance, he found many of his own 
stamp, who were willing to seek his firiendship while his 

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U^.fL-M.^., I*-. 

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1833.] VAN DTBHENS LAND* 159 

money lasted. This was not long ; and as he soon incapaci* 
tated himself by intemperance, he lost his situation. When 
his money was gone, his friends were gone also ; and some 
that he had helped, were miwilling to help him in return, 
and he was at his wif s end to know what to do. Many 
young men who come out with fiur prospects, ruin them- 
selves in this way, and then find fault with the Colony. 
Without persons have capital, and conduct to take care of 
it, they should not emigrate to the Australian Colonies. If 
they have stability, and their capital be in their physical 
powers, and they have ability to employ it efiiciently, in 
mechanical occupations, or in agricultural labour, it may be 
of good service. 

10th mo. 25th. We ascended Mount Wellington. At 
the base, sandstone and limestone, form low hills ; further 
up, compact argillaceous rock rises into higher hills, which 
abound in marine fossils. The height of the mountain is 
four thousand feet. Near the top, basalt shows itself in 
some places, in columnar cliffs. The trees, for two-thirds 
of its height, are Stringy-bark, White and Blue Oum, Pep- 
permint, &c. A species of EuccdyptuSy unknown in the 
lower part of the forest, is frequent at an elevation of three 
diousand feet. Another is found on the top of the moun- 
tain. The different species of Eucalyptus are very common, 
and form at least seven-eighths of the vast forests of 
Tasmania. In the middle region of the mountain, the 
climate and soil are humid. Hie Tasmanian Myrtle, Fagus 
Cmmnghanm, here forms trees of moderate size ; the Aus- 
tralian Pepper-tree, Tasmania fragransy is frequent; the 
Broad-leaved Grass-tree, Richea DracophyUay forms a strik- 
ing object; it is very abundant, and on an average, from ten 
to fifteen feet high ; it is much branched, and has broad, 
grassy foliage. The branches are terminated by spike-like 
panicles of white flowers, intermingled with broad, bracteal 
leaves, tinged with pink. Cutcitium salicifoliumy Hakea Usso» 
spemuiy Telopea truncatay^ Corraaferrugineay GauUheria fnspi- 
day Prostanthera lasianthosy Friesia peduncularisy and many 
other shrubs, are met with in the middle region of the moun- 
tain. For a considerable part of the way up, we availed 

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ourselves of a path that is nearly obliterated^ which was used 
by the workmen^ when laying a watercourse from the breast of 
the mountain, for the purpose of supplying Hobart Town 
with water. This path led through a forest of Tree-ferns, 
surmounted by Myrtle, &c. Nearer the top, we had to pass 
a large tract of tumbled basalt. The upper parts of many of 
the stones were split oflF, probably by the alternations of frost 
and heat. A few patches of snow were still remaining. 

The top of the mountain is rather hollow, sloping toward 
Birches Bay, in the direction of which, a stream of excellent 
water flows. The ground is swampy, with rocks and stony 
hills. Aatelia alpina, Glichenia alpifMy Drosera arcturi, 
several remarkable shrubby Asters, a prostrate species of 
Leptospermum, Exocarpos humijustts, a dense bushy Richea, 
and several mountain shrubs, of the Epcuris tribe, are scat- 
tered in the swamps, and among the rocks. Two Snipes 
flew up from a marsh, in which there was a frog with a voice 
much like that of the English Red Grouse. 

We ascended the highest portions of the mountain on the 
west and south, from which the view is extremely fine. It 
commands the whole of the south-east portion of V. D. 
Land, with its numerous bays, peninsulas, and adjacent, 
small islands, the singular outlines of which may be seen 
upon one of the maps at the end of this volume. The 
ocean forms the horizon, from the westward of the mouth 
of D'Entrecasteaux Channel, and to the southward, and 
as far to the north-east as about St. Patricks Head. The 
atmosphere was rather milky to the north, so as not to 
leave the horizon very distinct in that direction. To the 
westward we thought we could recognise the Peak of Tene- 
rifie, and some of the mountains near Macquarie Harbour, 
Port Davey, and the South Cape. Hobart Town, Sorell 
Town, and the cultivated lands, with the houses of the settlers 
about Richmond, New Norfolk, and Hamilton, along with 
the courses of the rivers Derwent and Huon, were striking 
objects. The green patches of cultivated land on Browns 
River, and in various other places, in the recesses of the 
''bush,'^ proved interestingly, the powers of industry in 
subduing the forest. 

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1833.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 161 

In descending, we got into a thick part of the forest, 
through which we had sometimes to force our way among 
deep cutting-grass^ and tangled Bauera ; and sometimes we 
had to travel on fallen trees, at an elevation above ^^ terra 
firma,^' much greater than was agreeable. We were glad 
to reach a known tracks in the foot of the mountain while 
twilight lasted, having effected the descent in 3^ hours. 

While we were at Hobart Town, at this time a prisoner, 
named Robert King, died in the HospitaL We had long 
felt much interest respecting him, on account of his simple 
piety. He gave me the following account of his life, which 
I have interspersed with a few remarks upon his situation 
as a prisoner, and his state as a practical Christian. 

Robert King, was the son of persons in respectable cir- 
cumstances, who resided in London : they gave him a good 
education^ but at an early age he fell into much evil, under 
the influence of bad company: he became exceedingly 
intemperate, and immoral in other respects ; and at length, 
his conduct was unbearable to his relations, and they closed 
their doors against him, so that he became, in the true 
sense of the word, an Outcast. He joined himself to a 
gang of thieves in Tothill-fields ; who supported themselves 
in their profligacy, by picking pockets, and committing 
other kinds of robbery. He adopted infidel principles, 
on similar grounds to those on which, there is reason to be- 
lieve, many other infidels have also adopted them ; and who 
are, nevertheless, very ready to ridicule the truths of Chris- 
tianity, with a pretence of being very knowing about them : 
— ^^ Not,'^ said R. King, " because I had carefully examined 
the subject and found any reasoiuiUe objection to the truths 
of Holy Scripture ; but because I wished to be an infidel, 
and hoped there was no future state ; for, I knew, if there 
was, I had no prospect of happiness in it.^^ 

But though R. King had joined with those fools, who, 
in their folly, deny the being of a God, and who make a 
mock of sin, yet God, who is long-suflering, and rich in 
mercy, still followed him for good ; and, in the dispensation 
of his providence, the transgressor was arrested by the 
strong arm of the law, when sinning with a high hand, 


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162 HOBART TOWN. [9th mo. 

and wa« tried^ found guilty^ and sentenced to be trans- 

Having forfeited^ by his crimes^ that fireedom to which, 
as an Englishman, he was bom, his ankles were loaded 
with chains, and he was subjected to the rigid discipline 
of a convict, on a voyage of sixteen thousand miles from 
his native land — that land to which he was never more 
to return — and on arriving at Hobart Town, he, and his 
numerous shipmates, imder like circumstances, were assigned 
into bond service. This service differs little from slavery, 
except that the prisoner remains the property of the Govern* 
ment, and consequently cannot be sold by his master. The 
master agrees with the Government to comply with certain 
terms in regard to the food, clothing, and labour of the 
assigned servant; and the servant may complain to a magi»* 
trate if his master fail to do justly in these respects. But 
the prisoner is liable, on the complaint of his master, to 
be flogged or sent to work in chains, for insubordination 
and other offences; and his insubordination may often be 
little more than irritation of temper, excited by an un- 
reasonable master. 

The convict, like a slave, may happen to be the servant 
of a kind or of a hard-hearted master; and if he should 
be the servant of a hard master, he must bear it, for he 
cannot change at pleasure, because he is in bondage— galling 
bondage ! a state from which even those who have the best 
of masters, are glad to be delivered. 

On arriving in Van Diemens Land, R. King saw several 
young men, whom he had known in England, such as him- 
self, but who, in the day of their trouble had sought the 
Lord, and had come under the power of religion ; and the 
change in them was so great, that he began to think there 
was more in religion than he had been willing to admit. 
Happily for him, he was assigned to a kind and pious 
master, whose wife was of similar character ; and their ex- 
ample helped to deepen those favourable impressions which 
he had received, in regard to religion, at a time when his 
heart was softened by the affliction that he had brought 
upon himself by his sins. His mind now became open to 

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1833.]' VAN DIBMSNB LAND. 163 

iSbe convictionfl of the Holy Spirit as a reprover of evil; 
he saw the sinfolness of sin^ and felt the terror of the Lord 
in his sool, because of his transgression ; and^ in repentance, 
he began to cry for mercy, to that God whom he had 
despised; for he now no longer doubted the existence of 
tiiat Almighty Being, whose hand lay heavy npon him in 
judgment. He lamented his folly, abhorring himself in 
deep humiliation; and the Lord was pleased to open his 
understanding, to look upon Jesus, as the Lamb of God, 
who taketh away the sin of the world ; and to give him an 
evidence by the Spirit, of the pardon of his sins, through 
£Bdth in that atoning blood which was shed upon the cross^ 
for the redemption of sinners. 

The sense of the love of God, who had been thus merciful 
to him, contrited him greatly, and he earnestly desired to 
live to his glory; but he found that the natural depravity 
of his own heart had been so greatly increased by indulgence 
in sin, that he was very easily ensnared. He now experi- 
mentally learned, that he could only stand against temptation 
by watchfulness and prayer to God, who alone was able to 
deUver him. In these exercises he persevered, and God was 
honoured by his upright conduct, which gained him also the 
fieivour of pious persons, who became acquainted with him, 
and who esteemed him as a brother in Christ, notwith- 
standing, he was still a prisoner. His master was interested 
in the management of ^^a Sabbath school ;^^ and in this, 
R. King gladly rendered assistance, from a desire to do what 
he could, toward training up children in the fear of the Lord, 
in the hope that they might be preserved from the snares into 
which he had fEdlen. 

As he grew in grace, he felt more strongly his own un- 
worthiness and helplessness, and understood better than 
when he was first awakened from sleep in sin, that it is 
for Christ's sake alone, and through his intercession, that 
mankind have access to the throne of grace ; and he became 
diligent in waiting upon God, with his mind stayed upon 
Him, and in lifting up his heart in prayer, according to 
the sense of his necessity, given him at the time. 

After having maintained a Chjistian character for a 


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164 HOB ART TOWN. [9th mo. 

considerable period^ he was attacked by a fever ; and though 
he recovered from it so as to be able to walk out, and enjoy 
the fresh air^ yet the effects of his former depravity upon 
his constitution prevented him from regaining his strength^ 
and he died while yet but a young man. Disease^ for a 
short time, rather beclouded his mind; and he expressed 
a fear respecting the sincerity of his love to God : but tbe 
fruits meet for repentance^ that he had continued to bring 
forth from the time of his awakenings left no room to doubt 
his sincerity^ but afforded ground to beUeve^ that^ as he had 
penitently sought the forgiveness of his sins^ through Jesus 
Christy and the help of God^ to turn away from his wicked- 
ness, and to do that which was lawful and right, he was 
mercifully prepared to join the glorious company^ "who 
have washed their robes and made them white in the blood 
of the Lamb.""* 

* This account of B. King, with a few additional remarks, is published by 
" The York Friends* Tract Association," under the title of " The Van Diemens 
Land Convict." 

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Second Visii to FUndcn Island. — ^West Coast Aborigines. — ^Dislike to Fat. — 

Emigrants. — Bruny Island. — Port Arthur. — Quardof Dogs, See, — ^Discipline. 

Diving of Native Women. — Shamrock Stranded. — ^FUnders Island. — ^Planting 
Potatoes. — ^Difference. — Civilisation. — Qrass-tree Plains. — Prime Seal Island. 
— Spears. — Climbing Trees. — Comparative Skill — ^Mustering. — Cleanliness. — 
Catechist. — Light-house. — ^Bash*rangers. — ^Launceston. 

Some disagreement having arisen between a person em- 
ployed as Catechist^ at the Establishment for the Aborigines^ 
on Flinders Island^ and the officers there, which the Com- 
mandant had su^ested we might be helpful in reconciling, 
the Lieut. Governor applied to us on the subject, and after 
serious consideration, we believed it right to accept his 
invitation again to visit the Island. The Shamrock cutter 
was put under our direction for the voyage, and we sailed 
firom Hobart Town on the 22nd of 11th month, Richard H. 
Davies, being in command of the vessel. 

We had on board a party of sixteen Aborigines, who 
had joined G. A. Robinson, on the west coast. When we 
were first introduced to them, they were smeared from head 
to foot with red ochre and grease $ and, to add to their 
adornment, some of them had blackened a space of about 
a hand's breadth, on each side of their faces, their eyes 
being nearly in the centre of each black mark ! Some of 
the elderly women were as far removed from handsome as 
human beings could well be. As they sat naked upon the 
ground, with their knees up, and their heads bare, their 
resemblance to Oran-outangs was such as to afford some 
apology for those who have represented them as allied to 
those animals. Some of the younger women were of a 


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more agreeable appeaitufice ; a man in the company was 
tall^ and of features so patriarchal and Jewish^ as strongly 
to resemble pictures designed to represent Abraham. He 
was blind of one eye^ which we understood he had lost 
some years ago^ by a shot from a white man. 

I am not aware of any custom of the Aborigines of V, 
D. Land; common with the Jews^ except it be of not eating 
fat. This they so much abhor as even to reject breads cut 
with a buttery knife. On my companion offering some soup 
to a poor emaciated woman, on board the cutter^ who had a 
baby that looked half-starved^ she tried to take it^ seeing it 
was offered in good will ; but having a little fat upon it, she 
recoiled from it with nausea. John R. Bateman^ master of 
the brig Tamar^ once had some soup made for a party of 
these people^ whom he was taking to Flinders Island : they 
looked upon it complacently, skimmed off the floating fat 
with their hands, and smeared their hair with it, but would 
not drink the soup ! 

The wind being unfavourable, we anchored at the mouth 
of IKEntrecasteaux Channel, where the Government brig 
Isabella, with English emigrants for Launceston, and the 
Adelaide, a vessel in the Sperm Whale fishery, were lying. 
— ^A great number of emigrants have lately arrived from 
England. Many of them are mechanics, who cannot find 
employment in Hobart Town, in consequence of the number 
that have preceded them. As this class of emigrants is 
wanted in Launceston, the Government has undertaken to 
convey them thither. Persons wanting places as clerks, find 
great difficulty in obtaining situations in new colonies. — ^We 
went on shore at Kelleys Farm^ on Bruny Island ; where 
vessels are fr^uently fiimished with potatoes, eggs, fowls^ 
&c. The land is of fair quality, but the adjacent hills are 
sandy, and thin of soil and herbage. This island is nearly 
covered with wood Uke that of the main land, and has a few 
Austral Grass*trees interspersed among them. 

11th mo. 23rd. Very wet; the wind contrary. The decks 
were so leaky that it was difficult to find a dry place to sit in^ 
in the cabin ; happily, no wet of any consequence came into 
our berths. The poor Aborigines had to sleep under a tent. 

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1853.] VAN DIBMBN8 LAND* 167 

farmed of a sail^ on dedi, the hold being occupied with pro- 
Tisions^ which it was hoped would have been delivered at 
Port Arthur yesterday. They seemed^ nevertheless^ con- 
tented and cheerful. 

25tfa. We reached Port Arthur^ which is greatly improved 
since we were here before^ though much still requires to be 
done before it can be fully effective for the purpose of a 
PesDsl Settlement. A good penitentiary, and a place of 
worship are much wanted. The Penitentiary in use consists 
only of bark huts, surrounded with a high, stockade fence. 
One hut is appropriated to educated prisoners, who are now, 
in many instances, sent here on their arrival in the Colony, 
being considered as having abused their advantages more 
than the uneducated. This class of prisoners feel their 
degradation greatly : they are occupied in manual labour in 
the settlement gardens. The other prisoners are divided 
into a chain-gang, and a first and second class, distinguished 
by the kind of labour allotted them, by their clothing, and 
by the second class having an allowance of tea and sugar, 
lliis classification produces a good effect. Captain Charles 
O'Hara Booth, the Commandant, has succeeded in estabHsh- 
ing a more strict discipline than his predecessors, and in 
some respects, than that pursued at Macquarie Harbour : he 
has abolished the use of that great desideratum with pri- 
soners — tobacco. The health of the prisoners is generally 
good, though cases of scurvy have of late increased. In the 
afternoon we walked with Capt. Booth to the signal-stadon, 
two miles and a half distant, through forests of Stringy-bark, 
Blue-gum, White-gum, Myrtle, Sasafras, Tree-fern, &c. an 
assemblage proving the cUmate to be somewhat humid ; it is, 
however, much drier than that of Macquarie Harbour. 

26th. We accompanied Captain Booth to Eagle Hawk 
Neck, the isthmus separating Tasmans Peninsula, on which 
Port Arthur is situat^, from Forestiers Peninsula, which is 
connected with the main land. The distance, after leaving a 
boat at the head of LongBay, was about eleven miles, which 
we walked in a soaking rain. — ^A guard of soldiers is stationed 
at Eagle Hawk Neck, which is only 120 yards across, at hi^ 
tide ; and to make the barrier more secure, nine watch dogs 

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168 PORT ARTHUR. [llth mo. 

are placed at intervals^ with nine lamps between them. 
Constables are also stationed at several outposts. By these 
means escape from the Penal Settlement is rendered very 
difficult Tlie dogs soon give notice of the approach of any 
person. Some of the hills on Tasmans Peninsula may be 
about 1^000 feet high, and much of the forest with which it 
is covered, is very dense. 

28th. We visited a company of prisoner brick-makers, 
and proceeded to the coast, betwixt Cape Roaul and the 
entrance to Port Arthur, to see a remarkable chasm in the 
basalt. It is about 127 feet deep, and very narrow. The 
sea may be heard rushing up it. In the course of our walk, 
we had much conversation with Captain Booth, of a satis- 
factory character. From what we see and learn, we are dis- 
posed to consider that the punishment of Port Arthur, consists 
in its restraint, rather than in any excessive degree of labour 
that is exacted. The prisoners work with reluctance. The 
privations of liberty and society, with the vigilant superin- 
tendence, are keenly felt. The generality of prisoners look 
upon themselves as the aggrieved parties, which is much to 
be regretted : when they take an opposite view it is to be 
regarded as a token of reformation. No prisoners are now 
allowed private gardens ; none but the boat's crew are allowed 
to fish, and none are allowed to hunt. 

29th. We anchored in Safety Cove, the wind being 
contrary. 6. W. Walker and myself went on shore, and 
walked to the coast, in the direction of Cape Roaul, on a 
steep sandy part of which, the white variety of HeUchrymm 
bracteatum is found; also Hierochloe australis, a fragrant 
grass. In the afternoon we went on shore on a fishing 
excursion, and obtained a plentiful supply of Muttton-fish, 
Haliot%8 keviffatOy from the rocks, at low-water. They were 
mostly under the kelp, immersed in the sea, and were dis- 
lodged by means of sharp-pointed sticks. Some of the 
women went into the water among the large sea-tangle, to 
take Cray-fish. These women seem quite at home in the 
water, and frequently immerse their faces to enable them 
to see objects at the bottom. When they discover the 
object of their search, they dive, often using the long 

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1833.] VAN DIEMEN8 LAND. 169 

stems of the kelp to enable them to reach the bottom; 
these they handle as dexterously in descending, as a sailor 
woidd a rope, in ascending. 

We sailed from Port Arthur on the 30th of 11th mo. 
After rounding Cape PiUar, the swell, which had been left by a 
recent gale, was very trying. We passed to the eastward of 
Maria Island, and sighted Cape Barren Island, in Banks's Strait, 
at daylight, on the 2nd of 12th mo. — Sailing west of Preser- 
vation Island, we anchored imder Green Island, at high tide ; 
and a gale from the south-east occasioned the vessel to drive, 
so that it was left dry at low water, lying down to one side 
very uncomfortably, but without further damage. — In con- 
sequence of this accident, the Aborigines were put on shore 
on Green Island, where they had a feast of Mutton Birds 
and their eggs, and smeared themselves from head to foot 
with red ochre and grease. The multitude of birds returning 
to the island in the evening was so great that it was difficult 
to conceive how each pair would find a burrow. The Abori- 
gines from Flinders Island had been here, and we learned 
that they had collected 8,000 eggs : countless numbers were, 
however, still left : they had also destroyed great numbers of 
birds, which were scattered in all directions over the island. 

12th mo. 3rd. Being landed by a whale-boat, at the 
Lagoons, the site of the old settlement on Flinders Island, 
we made our way along the beach, and through the bush, to 
Wybal'enna, where we received a hearty welcome from both 
the Black and the White Inhabitants; and were much pleased 
with the improvements, since we were here fourteen months 
ago. A number of neat huts have been erected, and some 
land has been converted into gardens. One piece, of more 
than an acre and a half, has been broken up, fenced, and 
planted with potatoes, by the Aborigines. 

The Aborigines of V. D. Land soon learned to distinguish 
between free people and prisoners, and shewed a contempt 
for the latter. The prisoners have adopted the expression, 
^*to plant'^ a thing, to signify, to hide or conceal it, especially 
in regard to things stolen. On a Black, on Flinders Island, 
being asked, if he would like to have some potatoes to plant, 
he replied. No, with disdain, supposing it was meant to 

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170 FLINDBES ISLAND. [12th mO« 

conceal dishonesdy ; but said he^ I should like to have some 
to put into the ground^ that I might see them jump up. 

4th. We had a conference with the parties at variance, 
and endeavoured to soften down die asperities that had 
arisen between them, in consequence of a conscientious man 
having expected too much from others, not awakened like 
himself to the importance of acting in all things on religious 
principle, and having imbibed some prejudice against them, 
which had excited disgust on their part. 

A large company of the native women took tea with us, at 
the Commandant's: they conducted themselves in a very 
orderly manner, and after washing up the tea-things, put 
them in their places, and showed other indications of ad- 
vancement in civilization. They are gaining a taste for 
European provisions, particularly for milk and mutton. 

5th. Another party of Aborigines breakfasted with us. 
We distributed among them some cotton handkerchiefs, and 
some tobacco, an article of which they are exceedingly fond, 
but the use of which they have learned from Europeans. 
Some of the women immediately commenced hemming the 
handkerchiefs, having learned this art from the wife of the 
Catechist. They presented us with some spears and shell 
necklaces in return. The Surgeon brought the new comers in 
a boat from Green Island, having first successfully assisted 
in getting the Shamrock off the sands, into deep water. — On 
the arrival of the new party, it was found that the husband 
of one, and the father of another, who had come hither 
before them, were deceased; but this did not, in these 
instances, produce much emotion. — ^Accompanied by the 
Commandant of the Settlement, the Master of the Shamrock, 
and an intelligent native, we visited the Grass-tree plains 
that extend toward the east coast. The soil is sandy and 
poor, and clothed with thin rigid herbage, and scattered, low 
Gum-trees, low scrub, and large Grass-trees, Xanthorrhaa om^ 
traUs? Some of the last are fromS to 7 feet high,and as many in 
circumference ; they have leaves 3 to 4 feet long, and flower- 
spikes 5 to 10 feet high, thickly clothed with hard scales, 
and small, white, star-like flowers, except for about 1^ feet 
at the base, which is bare. All the trunks are charred from 

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Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

. N -\.* 


■' • ri I ' 1 ' , v .1 

I *' " 

1*1 ;S« T I '■ I- J. 

1 1 --.'l> *•• 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1833.] bass's straits. I7I 

the burning off of the scrub. Abundance of red resin^ 
capable of being used in the manufacture of sealing wax and 
French-polish^ is exuded by them. This substance fills up 
the places left by the decay of the flower-stems of former 
years, and by injuries $ it is also lodged abundantly around 
the base of the trunk, which is thus defended from an excess 
of moisture. The blanched base of the leaves, which our 
swarthy companion obtained for us, by beating off the head 
of a Grass-tree that had not thrown up a flower-stem, is 
pleasant eating, and has a nutty flavour. A species of 
Isopogon occurs on these plains. This is probably the most 
southern locality of the genus. 

The Grass-tree plains, which are represented in the accom- 
panying etching, are separated frx>m the west coast, by a 
range of granite hills, covered with Common and Blue Gum- 
trees, Oyster Bay Kne, &c. 

The low ground about the Settlement, is clothed with 
long grass, and with Leucopogon Gnidmm and Fabricia myr- 
tifoliay handsome, white-flowered shrubs, here attaining to 
20 feet high, and with a few bushy species of Acacia, &c. 
These are decorated by the lovely cUmbers Clematis aristata 
and Comesperma voiubiUs ; the former of delicate white and 
the latter of lively blue. 

6th. We visited Prime Seal Island, distant about eight 
miles* This also is a granite island. Black fibrous Schorl, 
here called Jet, is imbedded in the rock, in the cavities of 
which, large crystals are also met with. — In the low part 
of the Island, there were patches of an imrecorded species 
of Lasiopetakim^vnth purple flowers. Croton rosmarir^foliutny 
a pretty, privet-like bush, forms thickets, both here and on 
Flinders, where it is also interspersed with She-oak. — ^The 
Wallaby aboimds here. Several were killed by the natives 
who accompanied us. Some of these people only eat the 
male animals, others only the females. We were unable to 
learn the reason of this, but they so strictly adhere to the 
practice, that it is said, hunger will not drive them to de- 
viate from it. This island did not prove favourable for 
sheep. It was formerly the resort of vast herds of Fur 
Seals; but they have nearly forsaken both it and many of 

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172 FLINDERS ISLAND. [12th mO. 

the neighbouring ones^ in consequence of the slaughter com- 
mitted among them by the seiders. We saw a few on an 
adjacent rock. 

7th. Some of the male Aborigines amused themselves 
with throwing waddies and spears at grass-tree stems^ set 
up as marks^ which they firequently hit. They still strip 
off their clothes when engaged in this amusement ; but in 
wearing decent coYcring at other times^ as well as in many 
other respects^ they shew decided marks of advancing civi- 
lization. — In dressing their spears, they use a sharp flint 
or a knife : in using the latter for this purpose, they hold 
it by the end of the blade. They straighten their spears 
till they balance as accurately as a well prepared fishing-rod, 
performing this operation with their teeth. The simplicity 
of the weapons of these people, has been urged as a proof 
of their defect of intellect, but it is much more a proof of their 
dexterity, in being able, with such simple implements, to 
procure game, &c. for food. A shower of their spears, 
which they send through the air with a quivering motion, 
would be terribly destructive. 

The climbing of the lofty, smooth-trunked gum-trees, by 
the women, to obtain opossums, which lodge in the hollows 
of decayed branches, is one of the most remarkable feats 
I ever witnessed. This is effected without making any holes 
for the thumbs or great toes, as is common among the 
natives of N. S. Wales, except where the bark is rough 
and loose, at the base of the tree. In this a few notches 
are cut by means of a sharp flint, or a hatchet ; the latter 
being preferred- A rope, twice as long as is necessary to 
encompass the tree, is then thrown around it. In former 
times, this was made of tough grass, or strips of Kangaroo 
skin, but one of hemp is now generally used. The left 
hand is twisted firmly into one end of the rope, the middle 
of which is tightly grasped by the right, the hatchet is 
placed on the bare, closely-cropped head, and the feet are 
placed against the tree: a step or two is then advanced, 
and the body, at the same time, is brought into a posture 
so nearly erect as to admit the rope, by a compound motion, 
to be slackened, and at the same moment hitched a little 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1833.] bass'b straits. 17S 

further up the tree. — By this means a woman will ascend 
a lofty tree with a smooth trunks ahnost as quickly as a 
man would go up a ladder. Should a piece of loose bark 
impede the ascent of the rope^ the portion of the rope held 
in the right hand^ is taken between the teeth^ or swung 
behind the right leg^ and caught between the great and the 
fore toe^ and fixed against the tree. One hand is thus 
fireed^ to take the hatchet from the head^ and with it to 
dislodge the loose bark. — On arriving at a large limb^ the 
middle of the rope is also secured in the left hand^ and 
the loose end is thrown over the limb by the right hand^ 
by which also the end is caught, and the middle grasped^ 
till the left hand is cleared. This is then wrapped into 
the middle of the rope, and the feet are brought up to the 
wrinkles of the bark, which exist below the large limbs. 
One end of the rope is then ptdled downward, and this 
causes the other to ascend, so that, by an effort of the 
feet, the body is turned on to the upper side of the limb 
of the tree. — In descending, the woman places one arm on 
each side of the limb of the tree, and swings the rope with 
one hand till she catches it with the other : she then turns 
off the limb, and swings underneath it, till she succeeds 
in steadying herself with her feet against the trunk, around 
which she then throws the loose end of the rope. Having 
secured this, she lets go the portion by which she was sus- 
pended under the limb, and descends in the manner in 
which she ascended. — ^Although this is done with ease by 
women in vigour, one who had been out of health, but 
seemed recovered, could not get many steps off the ground, 
so that not only skill, but a considerable measure of strength, 
appears necessary to ascend the gigantic gum-trees. 

Alter having seen something of the natives of V. D. Land, 
the conviction was forced upon my mind, that they ex- 
ceeded Europeans in skill, in those things to which their 
attention had been directed from childhood, just as much 
as Europeans exceeded them, in the points to which the 
attention of the former had been turned, under the culture 
of civilization. There is similar variety of talent and of 
temper among the Tasmanian Aborigines, to what is to be 

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174 FLINDERS I8LANP. [I2th mO. 

found among other branches of the human bmily; and it 
would not be more erroneous in one of these people, to 
look upon an English woman as defective in capacity, because 
she could neither dive into the deep and bring up cray-fish,nor 
ascend the lofty gum-trees to catch opossums for her family, 
than it would be for an English woman to look upon the 
Tasmanian as defective in capacity, because she could nei- 
ther sew nor read, nor perform the duties of civil, domestic 
life. Were the two to change stations, it is not too much 
to assume, that the untutored native of the woods would 
much sooner learn to obtain her food, by acquiring the arts 
of civilization, than the woman from civilised society would, 
by acquiring the arts belonging to savage life. 

8th. The Aborigines, having noticed that the few soldiers 
at this station, who were placed as a guard against the 
Sealers, were mustered on First-day mornings, to see that 
they had made themsdves property dean, voluntarily com- 
menced mustering in a similar way : they ako brought out 
the wares with which they had been entrusted, to have them 
inspected. The Commandant took advantage of this, and 
encouraged them to do so weekly. This morning they pre- 
sented their tin pots and plates, knives and spoons, bright 
and clean, and except three men, were dean in thdr appard. 
These men complained, that the women had not washed 
their dothes, and threatened to wash them themselves, if 
they should again be so neglected ! The men were dressed 
in duck frocks and trowsers, and had handkerchiefs about 
their necks. The women had on stuff under-garments, and 
diecked bedgowns, and had handkerchiefs on their heads 
and around their shoulders. Many of their countenances 
were fine and expressive. It was surprising to see how 
much improved some of the most unsightly of the women 
had become by being decently dad: they scarcely looked 
like the same race of beings. They afterwards assembled in 
a very orderly manner, with the white people, in the rude 
shelter of boughs, used as a chapel. On this occasion a 
portion of Scripture was read by G. W. Walker; after which 
I had a little to communicate in the line of ministry. — 
There was something peculiarly moving, in seeing nearly the 

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18S3.] bass's straits. 175 

whole of the remaining Aborigines of Van Diemens Land^ 
now a mere handfdl of people, seated on the^ ground, listen- 
ing with much attention to the truths of the gospel, however 
little they might be able to understand what was said, and 
conducting themselves with equal gravity in the times of 

dth. Several of the Aborigines were out himting : they 
obtained little but a Tasmanian Porcupine* The Wallaby 
and Brush ICangaroo are become scarce on Flinders Is- 
land, in consequence of the improvidence of the people 
in killing all they can, when they have opportunity, and 
often more than their wants require* Snakes are common 
on these islands. Three kinds have come under our notice 
— the large black species, the one with red sides. Coluber 
porphyryacetis, and a smsdler species called here, the Dia- 
mond Snake — all of which are dangerously venomous. Some 
lai^ ticks were sticking to the sides of one of the red 

10th. We dined with the Catechist, who has taken con- 
siderable pains to instruct the Aborigines, and to acquire 
their language : he has translated the first three chapters of 
Genesis into one of their dialects. — lading that the cutter 
must proceed to Launceston for supplies, we concluded to 
accompany it, and sailed this evening. 

11th. After a fine voyage, we entered the Tamar early, 
the eastern headland of which is rendered much more dis- 
tinguishable by a newly-erected lighthouse. On bringing up 
at George Town, we found the inhabitants in great alarm : 
they had been keeping guard all night, in consequence of a 
party of bush-rangers having entered one of their houses, the 
preceding evening, and robbed it, after binding the master. 
Circumstances of this kind are of rare occurrence at the 
present day. 

12th. We had a pleasant sail, with the help of the tide, 
to near Laimceston, where we arrived in the course of the 
day, and met with warm greetings from our acquaintance. 

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Launceston. — ^Meetings. — Pious Prisoner. — Improvements. — Aborigines' Mer- 
chandise.— Meeting at George Town. — ^Rambles. — ^York Town. — ^Trout. — ^Voy- 
age. — Flinders Island. — Kangaroo Apple. — Greeting. — ^Distribution of Cloth- 
ing. — ^Native Chief. — Fire. — Notions of Supernatural Influence, and a Future 
Existence. — ^Departure from Flinders Island. — Intemperance. — Cutter driven 
upon the Rocks. — Recklessness. — Dangerous Situation. — Arrival at Kelvedon. 

Since our former visit to Launceston^ considerable im- 
provements have been made in the place. A bridge across 
the North Esk is in a considerable state of advancement, 
and a Penitentiary for females is nearly completed. The 
latter is to supersede one at George Town^ which is in a 
ruinous state^ and to which the transfer of the prisoner- 
women, in boats, is highly objectionable. 

The Aborigines now residing on Flinders Island have a 
small flock of sheep, that were given them by a benevolent 
individual in the Colony. These are fed upon Green Island; 
isind the wool which they have produced, was committed to 
my charge, to dispose of, for the owners. The proceeds 
were to be applied in the purchase of hardware and cloth- 
ing; this was effected accordingly^ and some of the inha- 
bitants of Launceston^ liberally added to the stock of goods, 
in a variety of useful articles that were not very saleable in their 
shops^ and of partially worn garments, so that on returning 
to Flinders Island^ we had some considerable packages of 
goods for the Blacks. 

12th mo. 15th. We had two meetings in the Court- 
house, at Launceston^ which were attended by a consider- 
able number of people. To me, they were seasons of labo- 
rious exercise, under a sense of great weakness of flesh and 
of spirit : I was enabled, however, to hold up the standard of 

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the Truth as it is in Jesus^ and to show that the salvation 
proposed in the Gospel, is not only the foi^veness of past 
sins, through faith in the atoning blood of Christ, but de- 
liyerance from the power of Satan, by the effectual opera- 
tion of the Holy Spirit ; by which the sincere disciples of 
a crucified Lord are created in him unto good works, in 
which God hath ordained that we should walk* I had also 
to point out the great benefit of waiting on the Lord in 
silence, with the attention turned to the teaching of the 
Spirit^ by which a true sense is given of the state of the 
soul, and thus a right preparation is received, to ask in 
the name of Jesus, the supply of our spiritual necessities. 
There was a degree of solemnity pervading my own mind 
in the times of silence, in which the creature, bowed be- 
fore the Lord, felt its own nothingness, and was sensible 
that God was all in all ; in which there was not only the 
silence of all flesh, but something also of a reverent silence 
of spirit. 

16th. In a religious interview with a few persons, who 
have manifested an attachment to the principles of Friends, 
and three of whom have occasionally met on First-days, for 
the purpose of worshipping God xmitedly, I expressed a few 
words, to encourage them not to be cast down, when in their 
silent waiting, they might be sensible, only of their own empti- 
ness, and of the natural depravity of their own hearts. I also 
pointed out the importance of our learning these things, in 
order that we may be himibled, and be taught not to trust in 
ourselves, but in the Lord alone. After this, one of them, 
in a weighty manner, related a little of his own experience, 
both in his early life, before he came under the power of 
reUgion, and of his comforts and conflicts since that time. 
This was followed by similar commimications from the 
rest. One of them mentioned, that the first recollection 
of condemnation which he had, was on an occasion on 
which his father had given him three half-pence, in mistake 
for a penny, when he was very young : he kept the whole 
sum, notwithstanding powerful convictions that he was doing 
wrong in not returning the half-penny; and, from that 
time, he added sin to sin, until it brought him under the 

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178 OBORGK TOWN. [12th mo. 

■entence of the law. He also noticed his awakening, when a 
prisoner; losing ground by unwatchfulness on his passage 
out^ and giving way to the gratification of pride in his dress 
after his arrival in this country, by which he had been 
brought under great condemnation ; his renewed convictions 
and conflicts ; his sense of pardon through tiie atoning blood 
of Jesus, and his comfort imder the remembrance of the 
declaration, that nothing should be able to separate us firom 
the love of Ood. He has adopted the plain language, ha- 
bits, and manners common among Friends, and appears to 
maintain a deep exercise of soul before the Lord. 

21st. We embarked again on board the Shamrock, and 
drifted a few miles down the Tamar with the tide. The 
settiements on the banks of the river, appear much im- 
proved within the last fourteen months, and present an 
enlivening interruption to the continuous forest. 

22nd. A favourable breeze brought us to George Town, 
early. On arriving, we made arrangements to hold a meet- 
ing with the inhabitants, at five o'clock in the evening, 
and occupied the forenoon in giving notice to such people 
as were not at their place of worship, which is very thinly 
attended, except by persons, such as prisoners, who have 
no option in regard to staying away. George Town is 
going fast to decay ; the whole population now amoimts to 
only a small number. It was, however, a satisfaction to 
have this meeting with them, which was well attended. I 
had been impressed with a belief that we should be with 
them to-day; but yesterday, when the wind was contrary, 
and we made little progress, I was ready to think this im- 
pression was only from the activity of my own imagination. 

Contrary winds delayed the Shamrock a few days at George 
Town. — ^We had now added to our company James Allen, from 
Tyrone, in Ireland, who was on his way to Flinders Island, 
to succeed A. Mc. Lachlan in the office of Surgeon to the 
Establishment for the Aborigines. We found this young 
man a pleasant companion in our rambles in the neighbour- 
hood. — We visited tiie light-house, on the eastern head of 
the Tamar ; near to which there is a lagoon of nearly fresh 
water, just within the shore, a circumstance common on 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1833«] VAN DIEMBN8 LAND. l79 

low parts of these coasts. — In this direction Ccrrma 9pecio$a 
is foimd^ which though abundant in some parts of N. 8. 
Wales^ is scarcely known in V. D. Land. Cornea alba, 
the Cape Barren tea, becomes a large bush, and covers the 
sand hOls of the western head of the Tamar. Shrubs of 
this genus, as well as of some others in this country, shed 
their seeds while the seed-vessels remain green, the seeds are 
consequently, difficult to collect. — ^We also visited the re- 
mains of York Town, which was one of the first settle- 
ments in this island. The country around it looked tempt- 
ingly green, but this greenness proved to be rigid herbage, 
unfit for cattle, consisting chiefly of a stemless XatUhorrhaa, 
or Grass-tree; and the place was consequently abandoned, 
except one or two cottages, to which labour has added 
productive gardens, well stocked with apple, pear, and 
chorry trees, gooseberries and vegetables. The cherries 
and gooseberries were now ripe, the former sold at Is. per 
pound, and the latter at Is. 6d. per quart. — ^Near this 
place, a beautiful Bauera, with pink blossoms, as large as a 
shilling, was in flower. — ^The hills in this neighbourhood 
are very arid, but covered with wood; they abound in 
iron ore, and asbestos, which last is here called '^Cotton 
Stone.^^ Some of the pools near George Town produce a 
small speckled fish, which is named Trout, but is far infe- 
rior to the Trout of Europe ; yet it is a pleasant fish for the 
table. Many European names have been given to things 
here, at the antipodes of Europe, which have very little 
resemblance to the originals. 

On the 27th, we put to sea, but made little progress. 
At night we were off the seal rock, called Barren Joey, or 
Eleventh Island ; and, on the night of the 28th, off Twenty- 
day Island. A westerly breeze sprung up before sunset. 
My mind had been imder great exercise for the last two 
days, from a strong sense of temptation, and of the danger 
of falling away. The mercy of God in Christ Jesus was 
the ground of my hope, and my prayer was that he might 
cut the thread of my life rather than permit me to bring 
dishonour upon his holy cause. Still I felt an appalling 
sense of my own weakness and danger, and of the necessity 


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180 WYBALBNNA. [1833. 

to watch and pray^ lest I shoxdd enter into temptation. 
My trust was in the Lord for strength, and my desire that 
his strength might be made perfect in my weakness, and 
that he alone might have the glory. So far as I coxdd dis- 
cover I was in my right place, and the Lord was pleased, 
in great mercy, to confirm this feeling, by some precious 
and clearly perceptible intimations of his Spirit. 

29th. We were favoured again to come safely to anchor, 
under Green Island, after a gale in the night, in which the 
cutter was driven through a channel between two Islands, 
the depth of which was imknown to those on board ; but 
the mate, by keeping a good look out from the mast head, 
was enabled to direct the course of the vessel, so as to avoid 
the shallows. 

30th. The wind having moderated, we were again put 
on shore on Flinders Island. — ^While waiting at a creek, for 
the ebbing of the tide, we cooked some Mutton-birds for 
dinner, and having no salt, dipped the morsels in salt water 
as we eat them, which made them palatable. The fr^sh 
water at the Lagoons, to the south of which we landed, 
being dried up, we could obtain no drink till evening, but 
we got a few Kangaroo-apples, which resemble potato-apples 
in form, but are slightly acid, and rather mealy though not dry. 
We reached Wybalenna soon after sunset On approaching 
this place, we were discovered by some women who were 
cutting wood : they now recognized us as old acquaintance, 
and gave us a clamorous greeting, which brought all the 
people and dogs out of their huts, with such a noise as, 
had we not known that it was the expression of friendship 
on the part of the people, would have been truly appalling. 

1st mo. 3rd, 1834. The weather having become moderate, 
the Shamrock came to the settlement and dischaiged her 
cargo ; and we had the pleasure of distributing among the 
Aborigines the various articles purchased with their wool, 
and contributed by their friends at Launceston. The dress- 
ing of many of them in clothes, such as they had not been 
accustomed to wear, was not a little amusing, but all were 
made to fit. One of their chiefs took a great fancy to a 
japanned comb, such as he saw a woman use, that had been 

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1834.] FLINDERS ISLAND. 181 

among the sealers ; but when he obtained one^ he was much 
disappointed to find that he could not get it through his 
tangled hair^ which had among it, knots of dried ochre and 
grease^ notwithstanding he had ceased for sometime to use 
these articles, and had tried to wash them out. In this dilem- 
ma he applied to me ; and being desirous to please him^ I did 
my best, but was obliged to hold the hair back with one hand^ 
and pull with the comb with the other. From this he did 
not shrink, but encouraged me in my work, saying frequently, 
'* Narra coopa*' — very good. And when the work was ac- 
complished, he looked at himself in a glass, with no small 
degree of pleasure. He was a man of an intelligent mind, 
who made rapid advances in civilization, and was very help- 
ful in the preservation of good order at the Settlement. 
In former days, when the Aborigines committed depre- 
dations upon the settlers, he lost one hand by a steel trap 
that was concealed in a cask of flour, in a cottage, near 
Ldttle Swan Port. 

5th. In the forenoon, we had another religious interview 
with the people of the establishment, in their chapel of 
boughs. In the afternoon, we were occupied in assisting 
to extinguish a fire, that threatened the destruction of the 
Settlement, and which had caught the long grass on the 
adjacent hill. This fire burnt furiously before a strong wind, 
but was brought under, by beating it out with green, gum- 
tree boughs. In this work the Aborigines joined and shewed 
great dexterity. — ^These people have received a few faint 
ideas of the existence and superintending providence of 
God; but they still attribute the strong emotions of their 
minds to the devil, who, they say, tells them this or that, 
and to whom they attribute the power of prophetic commu- 
nication. It is not clear that by the devil, they mean, 
anything more than a spirit ; but they say, he lives in their 
breasts, on which account they shrink from having the breast 
touched. One of their names for a white man signifies^ a 
white devil, or spirit; this has probably arisen from their 
mistaking white men at first for spiritual beings. They have 
also some vague ideas of a future existence, as may be 
inferred from their remarks respecting the deceased woman 


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182 OREBN ISLAND. [ist mO. 

on the Hunter Islands^ before noticed. They also say they 
suppose that when they die^ they shall go to some of the 
islands in the Straits^ and jump up white men ; but the latter 
notion may be of modem date. 

6th. Having accomplished the object of our visit, so far 
as to effect a reconciliation between the parties^ who were 
at variance^ which did not, however, prevent the ultimate 
removal of the worthy Catechist, we again embarked on 
board the Shamrock. A large party of the Blacks accom- 
panied us to the shore, and we took leave of them under 
feelings of much interest, excited by their kind, affectionate 
and cheerful dispositions, and by the circumstances under 
which they have left their native land for the convenience 
of strangers. 

7th. We beat up to Green Island, through a narrow and 
shallow channel, among some small islands. Some of the 
men had got liquor clandestinely, and were excited by it. 
The mate became exasperated, and set them to some 
additional but unnecessary work, as a punishment. At this 
juncture, a current rendered the cutter unmanageable, and 
it drifted rapidly toward the rocks under Chapel Island. 
At length, an effort to put about, proved successful, and we 
again came to anchor under Green Island. 

8th. The wind blew from the east, and increased into 
a gale, which soon raised a heavy sea. Our anchors dragged^ 
and the cutter went on shore : she beat upon the sand from 
nine o^clock in the evening till two, in the morning, and 
then settled. 

9th. The morning's tide again floated the Shamrock, but 
the storm continuing, she drove upon a bank of soft, cal- 
careous rock, upon which she settled within a few yards 
of a place where this rock joins the granite. The rud- 
der was hawled up to save it from injury, and the ebb of 
the tide left the vessel dry and uninjured, standing with 
her coppered keel imbedded in the soft rock. In the 
evening the wind shifted, and a heavy rain stilled the 
sea so quickly, that the effect was almost like awaking from 
dreaming of a storm and finding a calm. The same rain 
also extinguished the fire at the settlement on Flinders 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1834.] bass's straits. 183 

Island^ which by the columns of smoke, we could discover 
had been rekindled. — ^After the rock had been cut away by 
means of felling axes, so as to allow the rudder to be 
restored to its place, a kedge anchor, with a warp, or slender 
hempen cable was carried out by a boat, and fixed in a con- 
venient place ; and as soon as the rising tide began again 
to float tlie vessel, the warp was plied, and we were favoured 
by eleven in the evening, to be again riding at anchor in 
deep and still water. 

The time the vessel lay upon the rocks, was to me, one of 

deep humiliation before the Lord, who condescended to 

be very merciful to us. On the first night, being exhausted 

and weary, and not seeing any immediate danger, I retired 

to my berth, under the impression, that if anything were 

to be done, I should be more equal to it after some rest; 

and though I was sometimes awaked by a heavy shock of 

the vessel on the sand, I could thankfully adopt the language 

of the Psalmist: '^I laid me down and slept: I awaked 

for the Lord sustained me.'' During the following day, 

we could pitch a stone from the deck upon the granite 

rocks ; the vessel was sure to break up, if she went upon 

them, and the change of wind was in the direction to set 

her that way, unless advantage could be taken by the 

warp of every inch she floated. Under these circumstances, 

it appeared a serious thing, when we were safe on land, 

again to climb up the side of the cutter, and await the 

rising of the tide; but feeling peaceful before the Lord, 

on looking this way, and not equally so on looking the other, 

I followed tiie direction of my own feelings, without making 

any remark, even to my companion. All the rest of the 

company returned on board, which proved to be for the 

best, as we were thus able to help in pulling at the warp, 

and were on board at a time when hands could have been ill 

spared to bring us from the shore. — ^It was, however, awfiil, 

in this season of suspense, to hear the seamen with reckless 

thoughtlessness, swearing more than usual. My companion 

watched an opportunity to remonstrate against this insult to 

the Majesty of Heaven ; and his rebuke was well received, 

as from a well-intentioned man, but without any appearance 

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184 OTSTBR BAT. [Ist.mO. 

of humiliation before God. Circumstances like these often 
prove who are on the Lord's side and who are not : they 
are strong trials both of principle^ and of faith. 

10th. When off the Peaks of Cape Barren^ and going about 
eight knots an hour^ with the wind from the west^ it changed 
for a few minutes^ and blew so suddenly from the norths 
that it caught the cutter on her broad side^ and bore her so 
much down, that it was necessary to let the squar&-sail fly, 
and drop the peak of the main sail, to allow her to right 
again. The lurch was so sudden as to occasion me to fall 
upon the top of the cabin, which was raised and had a gang- 
way round it, and I was obliged to hold on with my face 
downward towards the sea, till the vessel righted again ; for 
she was too far gone to allow me to recover myself, until 
her own side rose out of the water. 

11th, Off the coast of V. D. Land. The wind was 
adverse, and the swell such as to occasion great sickness. 

12th. A gentle and favourable breeze brought us through 
Schoutens Passage about noon ; it then increased so as to 
bear us much down on one side, and to impel us rapidly 
across Oyster Bay, to Kelvedon, where our dear friends, 
Francis Cotton and his family, awaited our arrival on the 
beach. We gladly took leave of the Shamrock and were 
conveyed through the surf by the intrepid mate, who was 
soon after lost, by the upsetting of a small vessel in a gale 
of wind. In the haste, of our departure, the plug-hole 
of the boat was left open, and the state of the sea admitted 
of no delay, to remedy this inconvenience, I therefore 
stopped the hole with my thiunb, and we were favoured 
to reach the land in safety, the men jumping out of the 
boat, and running it quickly through the surf. — ^Thus, 
through the mercy of our Heavenly Father, was this 
tedious voyage terminated, under feelings of thankfulness, 
in the remembrance of o\xr many deliverances, and with the 
desire, that if any good had been effected, the Lord might 
have all the glory, for to him alone all glory belongeth. 

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Kelvedon. — ^Meetingt. — Soldier Injured. — Papal Penance.—- Animalfl Poisoned.-— 
Instinct. — ^Use of Spirits in Whaling, &c. — ^Toad-fish. — The Saddle. — ^Eastern 
Marshes. — ^Dead Trees. — ^Fann. — Settler and his Flock. — Sheep Lands. — 
Opossums. — Meetings at Oatlands and Jericho. — Sheep and Wool. — ^Native 
'Cat. — ^Dairy Farm. — ^Yale of the Jordan. — ^Platypus. — ^Black Brush. — ^The 
Carlton. — ^Visitors. — Inns. — Temperance Beformation. — Richmond. — Jemsa- 
lem. — ^Drought. — Parrots. — Green Ponds. — Settlers. — ^Invalid Boad Party. — 
ICiU. — ^New Norfolk. — ^Meetings. — Forlorn Prisoner. — Pions Settler. — ^Prison- 
ers at Bridgewater. — ^Return to Hobart Town. — Indisposition. 

Wb remained a few weeks with our friends at Kelvedon. 
In the course of this time^ my strength^ which had been 
much reduced by the previous exertion^ excitement, and 
sea^sickness^ was considerably restored. — In this neigh- 
bourhood we had several religious meetings^ in some of 
which we were comforted by the exhortations of Dn Story, 
who had yielded to the convictions of the Holy Spirit, and 
had seen it his place to adopt and advocate the principles of 

YiThile we were in Gh'eat Swan Port, a soldier at Waterloo 
Point received a serious injury, by swimming upon a log of 
wood, which is an accident that may easily occur in this coun- 
try, where most of the timber is so heavy as to sink in water. 
When accompanying Dr. Story, in a visit to this man, I saw 
an Irish soldier doing penance, by kneeling with his bare 
knees on some rough gravel. It is lamentable to behold 
practices so repugnant to the spirit of the Oospel, imposed 
by any church upon those convinced of sin, and by which 
their attention is diverted from that ^'repentance toward 
God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ,'^ which the 
Apostie preached as the way of salvation. 

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186 SWAN PORT. [2nd mo. 

At Kelvedon^ my attention was called to the circum- 
stance^ of the flesh of cattle that had died in the bush^ 
having become poisonous. Several pigs^ geese^ and fowls 
died^ from having eaten of the flesh of a dead bullock^ or 
pecked about the carcase. A person in this neighbourhood 
had boiled some of the flesh of a cow^ found dead in the 
bush^ and had given it to his dogs and pigs^ which were 
made so sick that he thought they also would have died. It 
is possible that these cattle might have died from the bite of 
serpents^ and that the poison might have become propagated 
in their carcases ; but from whatever cause they may become 
poisonous^ the instinct of wild animals protects them from 
suffering by it ; for the carcases of such cattle often remain 
imtouched either by birds or beasts of prey. 

2nd mo. I7th. Accompanied by Francis Cotton, we set 
out to visit the central part of the Island, on oiir way back 
to Hobart Town, and proceeded to the mouth of the Little 
Swan Port River. Here a person was making an attempt to 
dry fish for distant markets. This we were satisfied could 
not succeed, because of the quantity of rum allowed' to the 
men employed, and it was soon given up. The use of 
spirituous liquors, is equally injurious in whale-fishing, not- 
withstanding much is sometimes said in its favour. I once 
asked a seaman, a native of Sydney, who had been brought 
up in this occupation, what was his opinion on the subject : 
he replied, ^^ I will tell you, sir, how Y^e used to do when we 
went to catch sperm-whales. We always left Sydney with 
a good stock of spirits on board ; and as soon as we got clear 
of the Heads of Port Jackson, we fell to work, the captain 
and all hands, to drink : we kept it up till the grog was 
done, and then we were ill two or three weeks, after which 
we began to catch whales 1 Once, we came upon a shoal of 
sperm-whales, when we were all so drunk that we could 
hardly see, and we manned the boats and ran upon them in 
such a way, that it was a wonder we were not all lost. Now, 
sir, you may form your own judgment of the use of spirits 
in whaling.^' 

18th. We crossed the Little Swan Port River, in which 
were a considerable number of poisonous, smooth-skinned 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1834.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 187 

fish^ the Toad-fish of this country. Three persons in a family 
near Hobart Town^ in 1831^ lost their lives, by eating fish of 
this kind. — ^The evening was spent with a settler, who has 
exercised a considerable degree of moral and religious care 
over his assigned servants, with very satisfactory results. 

19th. Taking a westerly course, we travelled through 
several miles of trackless forest, and over some lofty hills. 
In one place, a deep, woody ravine is crossed by a remarkable 
natural causeway; which, being a little depressed in the 
middle, is called The Saddle : its breadth is scarcely more 
than would admit a good road, and its sides are almost 
perpendicular. It is the only known pass out of the central 
part of Oyster Bay. Beyond the Saddle, the land joins the 
side of a remarkable peak, called The Sugar Loaf, the further 
side of which descends steeply to the Eastern Marshes. 
The southern entrance to Oyster Bay is equally impassable 
for carriages, and the northern one is exceedingly rugged, 
but carts are dragged over it. The district is only accessible 
for goods, by sea. On the Eastern Marshes, nearly all the 
Gum-trees are dead. We were hospitably entertained by a 
settler, who was disposing of his cattle, and endeavouring to 
let his farm, of 2,000 acres, 400 of which are enclosed, and 
50 in cultivation, for £150 a-year. There are upon it a 
plain, stone house, and a few out-buildings. Kangaroos are 
numerous in this part of the country. 

20th. The country toward Oatlands, where we arrived in 
the evening, is of hills, of small elevation, thinly wooded 
with Black and Weeping Gum-trees, and interspersed with 
level grounds, marshy in winter, but very dry in summer. — 
We called upon a respectable settler, who, in consequence 
of the dishonesty of his assigned servants, had been induced 
to act as his own shepherd. Though this is a great incon* 
venience to a person having all his other affidrs to superin- 
tend, yet it has preserved his flocks from depredations, such 
as have greatly reduced many others. — Prom Oatlands we 
proceeded to Ansty Barton, the hospitable mansion of 
Thomas and Mary Ansty, from whom, on a former visit, 
as well as at the present time, we received great kindness. 

The domain of Thomas Ansty, consists of upwards of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

188 AN8TY BARTON. [Ist mO. 

20^000 acres^ much of which is of thinly wooded^ grassy 
hills, adapted for sheep; but in the dry climate of this 
part of v. D. Land^ it will not, on an average, maintain one 
sheep to two acres during the year. — Opossums are exceed- 
ingly numerous in this neighbourhood : they are to be seen 
in almost every gum-tree, by moonlight. 

We remained at Ansty Barton till the 25th, and in the 
mean time, held religious meetings, and meetings for the 
promotion of temperance, at Oatlands and Jericho. At 
the latter place, William Pike, the Episcopal Chaplain, and 
his family, were kindly helpful to us. From their house, 
Francis Cotton returned to Swanport. 

26th. We proceeded over some fine sheep-hills, to the 
house of John Bisdee, a prosperous settler, located in a 
pleasant vale, surrounded by fine, thinly-wooded sheep-hills : 
his estate which has the benefit of a few springs that supply 
water during this dry season, includes 5,000 acres, that, on 
an average, wiU maintain about two sheep to three acres : it 
extends to the Black Marsh, upon the Jordan, which is 
now a chain of large, deep poob. The Common Pheasant 
has been introduced upon this estate ; and in order to pre- 
serve it, his men have been encouraged to destroy the Native 
Cats, by receiving eight-pence for each of their skins. These 
animals are so numerous, that at one time the people 
brought in six hundred skins. 

3rd mo. 2nd. In the course of the last three days, we 
visited the settlers at the Lovely Banks, the Cross Marsh, 
the Hunting Ground, and Green Ponds, and held some 
meetings among them. At Green Ponds we called upon a 
respectable family, in which an aged woman, who had been 
remarkable for steady piety was declining imder paralytic 
disease. On being enquired of, as to how she was, she re- 
plied, ^'Very happy in body and mind.^' How encourag- 
ing is the calm sunshine of the close of the day, in such 
persons ! 

3rd. Accompanied by George Gorringe, a medical man, 
filling also the office of Catechist, we proceeded to the 
Broad Marsh, and had a meeting with the neighbouring fami- 
lies, at the house of Peter Murdoch. This person has the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1834.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 189 

finest dairy-jform^ in V. D. Land. It is situated on a fertile 
levels on the Jordan^ and is advantageously stocked with 
Aldemey cows. 

4th. We proceeded along the course of the Jordan^ to 
the Black Brushy passing the houses and enclosures of se- 
veral settlers. The vale of the Jordan, with its boundary 
of hiUs, reminded me of Bilsdale, in Yorkshire; but the 
climate is much milder than that of England, though liable 
to occasional summer frosts. Platypuses are not uncommon 
in the pools of the Jordan, in which, as well as in the other 
rivers of Tasmania, and on the seancoast. Black Shaggs are 
often seen fishing. 

At the Black Brush several young men, who emigrated 
from Birmingham, have opened a store, which has paid 
them well. They erected a house, in which they are re- 
siding, though it has yet only shutters to close the places 
intended for windows. In the evening, we collected the 
establishment, and some of their neighbours, and had a 
religious opportunity with them. An adjacent settler, who 
appeared to be a very decent man, was one of the congre- 
gation. He was formerly a prisoner, having been trans- 
ported for seven years, for a very trifling offence. 

5th. We passed roimd the end of a lofty tier of hQls, 
into the vale of Bagdad, and went by the Tear-tree Brush, to 
Richmond* On the 6th we continued our joiuney to Sorell 
Town or Pitt Water, and on the 7^^ proceeded to the 
Carlton, a small settlement on a creek opening into Frede- 
rick Henry Bay. Here the Government has placed a school- 
master, a native of Scarborough, who has been most of his 
life a seafaring man, and who seems to be a man of much 
simple, religious feeling: he reads the prayers, &c. of the 
Episcopal Church every First day; but this sort of me- 
chanical religious service does not seem to be very attractive 
to the people, either here or in other places. The old man 
was much pleased with our visit. We had a meeting with 
some of his neighbours and scholars ; at the close of which, 
in the true spirit of a village school-master, he requested 
his pupils to repeat the Evening Hymn, and then pro- 
nounced the "Apostolic benediction.*' He appears to try 

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190 THE CARLTON. [2nd mo. 

to impress upon their minds the spiritual signification of the 
hymns which he teaches them. 

The wife of a settler in this neighbourhood^ to whom we 
made some remarks on the loneliness of their situation^ said^ 
that as there was no inn nearer than Sorell Town^ they were 
seldom many days without visiters ; and that, at one period, 
they were not more than three days at a time, for six months, 
without some person, who was travelling to look for land 
to settle upon, or under some other pretext claiming their 
hospitality. This is a common circumstance in aU parts 
of the Colony. — Having become accustomed to travelling in 
the bush, and the evening being starlight, we made our way 
back to Sorell Town, though not without some difficulty* 

8th. Arriving late last night, we went to an inn, kept 
by a person named Leigh, which we found remarkably clean 
and comfortable. Inns in this country are often rendered 
very uncomfortable by vermin* Part oi the day was spent 
with our fellow-passenger from England, Frances Halls, at 
whose house a neighbouring settler called, who informed 
us, that when the views of the Temperance Society were 
first promulgated in this colony, he thought them foolish ; 
but that he was now convinced of their soundness, and was 
astonished at their influence in discountenancing spirit 

11th. On the 9th and 10th we had religious meetings 
with the inhabitants of Sorell Town and Richmond, and 
with about one hundred prisoners employed in the public 
works. Richmond is nearly doubled in size since we visited 
it a few months ago.-*-Accompanied by our kind friend J. 
H. Butcher, we again visited some of the settlers on the 
Coal River, and were hospitably entertained by one, who 
having capital, and paying attention to the improvement t)f 
his estate, has been remarkably prosperous. 

12th. We proceeded to Jerusalem, ten miles further up 
the Coal River. Where we held a meeting with some free 
people, and a number of prisoners in the public works, who 
are at present employed in building a gaol. Drought has 
continued so long that most of the miUs in the Island, are 
unable to grind. The family with whom we lodged were 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1834.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 191 

nearly out of bread, and had so little prospect of soon being 
able to renew their stock, that it was trying to us to think 
of partaking with them, notwithstanding they entertained 
us cheerfully. — Green Parrots are very, numerous in this 
neighbourhood, a flock of about a hundred, flew up from 
a stubble, as we passed. 

13th. Taking a westerly direction, firom the upper part 
of Jerusalem, we passed over some lofty tiers of hills, 
to Green Ponds. Part of the way was very steep; the 
whole of it a trackless forest. Some of the thick scrub 
Among these hills had lately been burnt. The groimd in 
these places was covered with ashes and black sticks, that 
made travelling unpleasant. We crossed several deep gullies 
in our descent, and in five hours and a half from leaving 
Jerusalem, emerged from among the hills, close to the house 
of an elderly man, whom we much wished to see, and by 
whom we were courteously received. This person was 
formerly a prisoner, and came out with Governor Collins. 
Being industrious, and of more sober habits than many of 
his cotemporaries, he has prospered greatly since he became 
firee : he is now possessed of five thousand acres of land, 
capable of maintaining two thousand sheep, and some homed 
cattle. He has taught himself to read and write, and his 
Bible has the appearance of being well read. His wife, 
who was also formerly a prisoner, prepared tea for us, and 
waited on us very kindly. They both seemed grateful for 
our visit; and for the religious instruction conveyed to 
their fiamily. 

17th. In the course of the last three days, we had meet- 
ings at Green Ponds, Constitution Hill, and Brighton; at 
the last two of which, a large nxunber of prisoners were 
present We became the guests of a settler, who had a 
value for religion, but like many others, enjoyed but lit- 
tle of clearness or comfort in it, for want of submitting 
to the baptisms of the Holy Spirit, by which the true 
disciples of Christ are crucified to the world and the world 
to them, and know that they abide in him, by the Spirit 
which he hath given them. — ^To-day, we had a religious inter- 
view with a road-party of the halt and maimed. Though 

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192 NEW NORFOLK. [2nd mo. 

many of them were grown old in sin^ there was a remarkable 
sense of divine influence over our minds whilst assembled 
with them^ and we had no doubt but it was^ to some of 
them, a time of renewed, merciful visitation. — ^We afterwards 
went along the north bank of the Derwent, to New Norfolk, 
and coming opposite to the mill of John Terry, a boat was 
sent across for us, and we spent the evening under his 
hospitable roof. This mill is now working night and day; 
notwithstanding most of the miUs to the northward and 
westward are stopped for want of water. Many families 
have to send their com more than fifty miles to grind. 
J. Terry's mill is turned by a streamlet from the mountains, 
called the Thames, a tributary of the Derwent. The fall 
accommodates three water-wheels, one above another. 

19th. We had a meeting in the hospital with the patients 
and the prisoners in the public works; a few other per- 
sons also attended. Most of the congregation stood, the 
room being incapable of containing them if seated. I felt 
empty of all qualification to labour, till after entering the 
room, but looked to tiie Lord for help to do his holy will. 
A feeling of solemnity came over my mind, and under it, I 
was enabled to extend the gospel message to sinners, to 
repent and believe in Jesus, for the remission of sins, that 
through him, they might receive the washing of regeneration, 
and the renewing of the Holy Ohost, and thus be enabled 
to work righteousness. They were referred to the conviction 
of sin in their own minds, as the drawing of the Father, 
seeking to lead them to repentance, and to faith in Christ, 
and to bring them to wait and pray, daily, for the help of 
the Holy Spirit, to enable them to walk before God, and 
be perfect. 

20th. We spent a little time at the bedside of a man 
in the hospital, who had expressed a wish to see me, and who 
was in a deplorable state, in consequence of early instability. 
According to his own account, he had often called upon the 
Lord in time of trouble, and again forgotten him when his 
trouble ceased. Now, when racked with pain, and without 
hope of being raised up, he often feared that he was too 
great a sinner to be pardoned. I entreated him to cherish 

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1834.1 VAN DIEMEN8 LAND. 193 

■^ m 

the feeling of condemnation for sin^ ftnd to wait on the 
Lord in the way of his judgments^ and to seek a true re- 
pentance and unfeigned faith in Christy ^^ who bore our sins 
in his own body on the tree:^^ remembering that God is 
almighty to save, both by pardoning sin for Christ's sake^ 
and through him, working in us that which is well pleasing 
in his sight. Sin had a dreadful hold of this man, who 
seemed unable to keep his mind turned toward the Lord. 

22nd. In the afternoon we visited a person, who was 
brought up in the Episcopal Church, with whom we had 
much conversation on the simplicity and the spirituality of 
the Gospel. She said, she perceived that religion was a very 
different thing from what she had been taught to think it ; 
and that it did not consist in forms and ceremonies, but in 
an exercise of soul before God. 

23rd. We had a large meeting in the forenoon, in the 
loft of a building erected for a store. In the afternoon 
another was held in a room in the hospital. Both were 
seasons of Divine favour, in which ability was afforded to 
warn sinners of their danger, and to invite them to turn to 
the Lord and live. The privilege of the true Christian, 
in holding communion with the Father and the Son, under 
the influence of the Holy Spirit, sensibly manifested as 
the Comforter, and the Spirit of Truth, was also pointed 

26th. Our kind friend Robert OflScer, in whose family 
we were inmates for a few days, drove us to the residence 
of an aged and pious, man, of the name of Geiss, who had 
long served the Lord, and walked in peacefiilness before 
him. The influence of his bright example of piety, is per- 
ceptible on those around him. From this place, we walked 
to Bridgewater, where we had an interview with the chain- 
gang, in a rude, dry-stone building. The Wesleyans have 
for some time past, gratuitously afforded religious instruc- 
tion, every First-day, to these poor outcasts, and there 
seems a decided relaxation, in the ferocity of their counte- 
nances, since they have received this attention. 

27th. We reached Hobart Town, and attended the lit- 
tle week-day meeting, of those in religious fellowship with 

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194 HOBART TOWN. [3rd mo. 

us^ with whom we sat in silence, but in the enjoyment of 
the folfihnent of that promise of Christ; ^^ Where two or 
three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the 
midst of them/^ 

On the way to Hobart Town at this time, I was attacked 
with an affection of the heart, by which my life seemed 
often in great jeopardy, but it did not confine me to the 
house, notwithstanding I suffered much from it for several 
weeks ; when thus, continually admonished of the uncertainty 
of surviving from one day, and sometimes from one hour, 
to another, I was often favoured with such a sense of the 
divine presence, as was very confirming to my faith, and 
enabled me to speak more experimentidly than before, on 
the benefit of holding communion in spirit with the Lord, 
and of neither neglecting the things that belong to salvation, 
nor resting in speculative opinions. 

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Hobart Town. — ^Meeting Places. — ^DiBcontinoance of Reading Meetings. — Week- 
day Meetings. — ^Ministers. — ^Meetings to which the Public were invited.— 
Prayer. — Principles of Friends. — Base-line. — Perjury. — Prisoner Boy. — Grass- 
tree Hill. — Esculent Vegetables. — Silent Meetings. — ^Flagellation. — ^Monthly 
Meetings. — Beflections. — ^Report on Chain-gangs and Boad Parties. — Traffic 
of the Blacks. — " Guide to True Peace." — Colonial Hospital. — J. Johnson. — 
Orphan School. — Penitentiary. 

We remained in Hobart Town, with little exception, from 
the 27th of 3rd month, to the 22nd of 8th month. During 
this period, and for some time afterwards, our meetings for 
worship were held in the cottage of William Holdship, on 
the Newtown Road. This individual had had his attention 
drawn to the principles of Friends, by reading a tract, on 
the Glory of the True Church, by Francis Howgill,* and 
another entitled "The Ancient Christianas Principle, &c/' 
by Hugh Turford. Friends being under the necessity of re- 
moving their meetings from the house in which they had 
been held in Macquarie Street, in consequence of another 
tenant occupying it, they were held a few times in the 
houses of William Rayner and another individual, but 
neither of these proving convenient places, W. Holdship 
offered the use of a room in his cottage, saying he should 
count it a privilege to have the opportunity of sitting with 
Friends in their meetings, notwithstanding they were often 
held in silence. 

At one of our Monthly Meetings for Discipline, it was 

• A revised edition of this tract, has lately heen printed hy the York Friends' 
Tract Association, under the title of, " A Testimony against Ecclesiastical 

O 2 

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196 HOB ART TOWN. [3rd mo. 

concluded to discontinue the meeting for reading the Scrip- 
tures and the writings of Friends, on First-day afternoons, 
and to hold meetings for worship instead. The persons who 
attended our meetings being now in the practice of reading 
their Bibles and religious biography, &c. diligently at home, 
meetings for religious instruction by these means, appeared 
to be no longer necessary. The room in which we now 
met, being at liberty also on week-days, it was agreed to hold 
a meeting for worship, at 10 o^clock, on fifth-day forenoons, 
instead of at half-past six in the evening. This sacrifice 
of a portion of the best part of a day, to the Lord in the 
middle of the week, evidently received his blessing, as has 
very imiversally been the case in the Society of Friends, 
where the sacrifice has been made in sincerity. Several 
fresh members were also added to our little company, and 
two men, who had for some time spoken in our congregations, 
to the edification of their brethren, were recorded as approved 
ministers. The meeting also came to the settled judgment, 
that the communications of another individual, were not 
generally to edification, how well soever they might be in- 
tended; and in the spirit of love, he was requested to 
withhold the expression of any mere cogitations of the 
mind, such, not being accompanied by the baptizing power 
of the Holy Spirit, without which no ministry can be of 
any practically good effect. 

When we first arrived in Hobart Town, the meeting- 
houses of the Independents and Wesleyans were freely 
offered for our use, in case we should wish to invite the 
inhabitants to assemble with us At that time, it did not 
appear to be our duty to enter upon such a service j but 
now, believing it required of us, we held meetings for public 
worship in both of these places, to which the inhabitants 
generally, were invited. In one of the meetings in the 
Independent chapel, some remarks were made upon the evil 
resulting from the mind being kept in a state of excitement, 
such as is common in the world, almost from the cradle 
to the grave, and which is transferred also into performances 
designed to be religious, often keeping the mind much 
diverted from that attention to its own condition before 

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1854.] VAN DIBMBNS LAND. 197 

the Lord^ which is essential to spiritual worship. The 
great benefit of retirement of mind from this excitement, 
and of commmiion of soul with the Most High in silence^ 
was pointed out, and the people were directed to the teach- 
ing of the Holy Spirit, inwardly revealed, as essentially 
necessary to a saving knowledge of Christ. 

After we had remained in silence about an hour, in the 
meeting, in the Wesleyan Chapel, a young man, originally 
sent to the colony as a convict, of whose repentance and 
reformation we had had many proofs, commended the at- 
tention of the audience, in a few sentences, to the inspeaking 
voice of Christ, the Good Shepherd; whose sheep know 
his voice and follow him, and receive of him eternal life. 
This opened my way to comment largely on the declaration, 
'^ The wages of sin is death ; but the gift of God is eternal 
life through Jesus Christ our Lord.'^ 

We had likewise^ a meeting in the Supreme Court Boom, 
in which silence prevailed for nearly an hour and a half, 
under a precious feeling of heavenly solemnity. The advan- 
tage of having the mind so stayed upon God, as to worship 
him in spirit and in truth, without being dependent on the 
stimulus of vocal exercises, was afterwards commented upon, 
as well as the loss sustained by many, who, after having 
attained to repentance, and to a sense of justification from 
past sin^ through faith in Christ, instead of walking by faith 
according to the continued manifestations of the Holy Spirit, 
depend greatly upofi the excitement of such vocal exercises 
as are popularly styled *^ means of grace,^^ to enable them 
to hold on their heavenward course, and thus have their 
expectation divided between God, and these things; by which 
means they often fall away, or become weak and dwarfish in 
religious attainments. The desirableness of that state was 
shown, in which the mind, reverently bowed before God, 
is prepared either to be edified in silence, or by words 
spoken under the influence of the Holy Spirit, and which is 
nevertheless, not dependent on vocal teaching. 

4th mo. 12th. We proceeded to the east side of the 
Derwent, by a steam-packet that has lately been established, 
to take passengers, &c. from Hobart Town to Kangaroo 


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198 liAUDERDALE. [4tih mo. 

Pointy and by which the danger of this ferry is materially 
reduced, and the fare is lessened one-half. We afterwards 
walked to Lauderdale on Muddy Plains^ making a few calls 
on the way. The evening was spent pleasantly in the fan 
mily of a pious settler. After the reading of the Scriptures^ 
a long silence ensued, which was concluded by my stating 
to the company, that I did not apprehend it was my place^ 
at that time^ to express any thing in the way of exhortation 
or prayer. On my doing this, the master of the house 
knelt down with his family, and uttered some petitions. We 
thought it our place, on this occasion, to keep our seats^ 
and thus to bear a testimony against that disposition which 
determines^ on such occasions, to utter something in the 
way of prayer^ and which has, by this means, a strong 
tendency to draw the mind away from inward prayer, and 
to cherish a feeling, as if prayer must necessarily be vocal^ 
and might be performed by proxy. We afterwards had some 
satisfactory conversation, on this subject, and on the advan- 
tage of cultivating in silence, an individual^ inward exercise^ 
and of not engaging vocally in prayer, except when the mind 
is brought under the feeling of duty in the matter. My mind 
was subsequently drawn towards the prisoner-servants, and 
we had an open opportunity with them^ both in testimony 
and in prayer. A son of our host^ who voluntarily accom- 
panied us to visit the prisoners, became awakened to the 
importance of eternal things at this time : he, and most of 
the other members of the family, afterwards adopted the 
principles of Friends, under a conviction of their Scriptural 
soundness, and a clear perception, of the operation of divine 
power upon the mind, known in their practical adoption. 

13th. We travelled to the Hollow-tree, where we had a 
small but satisfactory meeting. Much of the way to this 
place, lay through a narrow avenue of some miles in lengthy 
cut through the bush, for the purpose of measuring a base- 
line, for a trigonometrical survey, which is going forward 
in the Island. 

14th. We visited a party, of a hundred and fifty pri- 
soners^ employed in cutting a road across Grass-tree Hill, 
by which the distance between Hobart Town and Richmond 

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1834.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 199 

will be materially shortened. In this company I recognized 
a man from York, transported on the charge of perjury. This 
crime, whether in this instance, well substantiated or not, is 
exceedingly common among the convict population. Another 
prisoner was a yguth who was the cabin boy on board 
the Charlotte cutter, in our first voyage, in Basses Straits : he 
had been trained in vice from infancy, and had passed from 
the milder to the severer form of punishment, in con- 
sequence of his waywardness, since he was transported. 
When on board the cutter, the following conversation passed 
between him and the mate: — Mate: '^ Tommy! where do 
you come from V' Boy : '^ Liverpool, sir.^' Mate : ^^ What 
is your father ?*' Boy : '^ I have none, sir.^' Mate: "What 
was heP Boy: *' Nothing, sir.^^ Mate: ^'What is your 
mother?'' Boy: "She is dead, sir." Mate: "Who do 
you live with, at home ?'' Boy : " My sister, sir.'' Mate : 
"What is your sister?" Boy: "Nothing, sir." Mate: 
"What did you do for a living?" Boy: "They used to 
put me in at the windows to open doors, sir." — In this way, 
it is to be feared, that many are trained to crime, and 
become the pests of society from the influence of an evil 
education; and that the parties stated to be "nothing," 
which is a common description in such cases, have lived 
by vicious means. 

The rocks that are cut through, in forming the road over 
Ghrass-tree Hill, are argiUaceous, embedding shells. Sand- 
stone, with a calcareous admixture, also occurs in some 
places. The Grass-trees are not so large as those on Flin- 
ders Island, nor as some on the north end of Bruny Island, 
but they are of the same species. 

15th. We returned to Hobart Town yesterday, and to- 
day, I spent some time in writing an account of the esculent, 
vegetable productions of this island for Dr. Ross, which 
was printed in his Annual for 1834. This article, amended 
by my friend, R. C. Qunn, is presented to the reader in 
Appendix D. In the evening we had a long conversation 
with a person of religious character, who admits that silent 
retirement in private, is a state most favourable to devotion, 
but he does not seem to be able to enter into the views of 

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200 HOBART TOWN. [4th mo. 

Friends in regard to public worship, at least, as respects the 
silent part of it, and he cannot understand why meetings should 
sometimes be held wholly in silence. I believe these things 
are a mystery to many other good men ; and unless the 
Lord open their understandings, to see the advantage of 
this united retirement of soul before him, I have no ex- 
pectation that they will understand it by argument. Never- 
theless, the matter is so plain to those who have felt 
the benefit of this mode of worship, that we rarely find 
they can be satisfied with any other. In dwelling under the 
baptizing influence of the Holy Spirit, in reverent stillness 
before the Lord, a sense is given us of our imworthiness^ 
also of acceptance in the Beloved, who died for us: 
we feel that we become his adopted members, and are 
bowed in a reverent fear before him ; so that we are brought 
to watch and wait before the Lord, in meetings and out 
of them, and to revert to this state of expectation from 
him alone, whenever we find ourselves carried away from 
a sense of his presence being with us. 

30th. I witnessed the infliction of the punishment of 
flagellation, in the Penitentiary-yard, upon a prisoner belong- 
ing the Hulk Chain-gang, who was a very refractory man. 
The scars upon his back bore testimony to frequent previous 
inflictions of this degrading punishment. The Superin- 
tendent of Convicts said this man had been more frequently 
flogged, than almost any other in the Colony : he writhed 
and cried out greatly under the strokes of a '^ cat^' of knotted 
cords, which raised red wheals, and drew some blood : his 
sentence was to receive fifty lashes. 

5th mo. 1st. At our Monthly Meeting, it was proposed to 
hold these meetings alternately, at Hobart Town and Kelve- 
don, and to transmit the minutes from the one place to the 
other for confirmation, in order to secure the strength and 
judgment of the whole of the members of the little body, 
professing with Friends, in this land ; the distance between 
Hobart Town and Kelvedon being too great to admit of the 
members at the one place, frequently meeting with those at 
the other. This proposition was subsequently adopted with 

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4th. In reflecting upon the command^ ^^ Go throtigh the 
breadth of the land/^ which I believed to be of the Lord, 
when it was impressed on my mind, in the 3rd mo. 1832, 
and which we have now nearly fulfilled, I have felt much 
peace. As I have meditated upon this command, at various 
times, there has been a renewal of a measure of the feeling of 
sweetness and authority that accompanied it at the first. This 
I esteem a condescending mercy, to an unprofitable servant 
deeply sensible of many defects, who truly feels, that not unto 
himself, but to the Lord alone, belongs the glory of any good 
that may have been effected through his means. 

7th. Occupied with a Report to the Lieut. Governor, on 
the state of the Chain-gangs and Road-parties of the Colony; 
nearly all of which we have now visited. Their state has 
claimed our sympathy, and we have thought it right to make 
several suggestions for the improvement of their discipline. — 
An extract from this Report is introduced into this volume, 
in Appendix. E. 

8th. The upper and middle portions of Mount Welling- 
ton are covered with snow. This may be regarded as the 
commencement of winter in this region ; and equivalent to 
the 8th of the 11th month in England. 

9th. A hundred dried Brush Kangaroo skins were sent to 
my charge, by W. J. Darling, to dispose of for the Aborigines 
on Flinders Island. For these I obtained seven-pence each. 
With the money, several useful articles were purchased for the 
people who had collected them ; and the stock returned was 
augmented by contributions from a number of benevolent 
persons in Hobart Town. The attempt to induce the Abori- 
gines to preserve skins, and other articles of traffic, was 
afterwards carried out more extensively, and with success, by 
G. A. Robinson. A few more of the native Blacks lately 
joined this individual, on the west coast ; and ultimately, they 
were all prevailed upon to leave the main land, and join their 
countrymen on Flinders Island. 

11th. We had a meeting in the Wesleyan chapel at 
CyBriens Bridge, in which the people were reminded of the 
time, when, by attending to the convictions of the Holy 
Spirit upon their own consciences^ they perceived their lost 

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802 HOBART TOWN. [5th mo. 

state^ and that their hearts were occupied by sin^ when they 
were also brought to repentance, and found peace, through 
faith in Christ, made a profession of religion, and brought 
forth fruits of righteousness. This process was then compared 
with that of their taking possession of the land they are 
occupying, and clearing it, by felling and burning oflF the 
timber and the scrub — the natural and unprofitable produce 
of the earth — and fencing and cultivating the land. They 
were then desired to reflect upon the condition to which 
such land soon returns, if neglected ; and to consider how 
soon, according to their own knowledge, it again becomes 
covered with forest and scrub, so as only to be distinguishable 
from " the wild bush'' by the remains of the fence. From 
this they were urged to remember, that without a constant 
care to keep their own hearts under the influence of the 
Holy Spirit, they, in a similar way, would soon again become 
unprofitable and overgrown with sin, notwithstanding they 
might retain the appearance of a fence against evil, in some 
remaining profession of religion. This appeal was not with- 
out efi*ect. One man acknowledged to us, that he was already 
sensible of some measure of relapse, into the sinful state that 
had been spoken of. 

17th. We revised a treatise entitled "A Guide to True 
Peace,'' which, we concluded to print as a tract, and to circulate 
chiefly among persons stirred up to some degree of religious 
feeling, but who do not get sufiiciently deep in inward 
exercise, and in consequence remain weak Christians. 

19th. In company with James Scott, the Colonial Sur- 
geon, a man from whom we have received much kindness, 
and some other persons, we visited the Colonial Hospital, 
which seems to be a well-managed institution, and acconmio- 
dates a hundred patients. — In the afternoon, accompanied by 
T. J. Crouch, we walked to Glenorchy, to see John Johnson, 
an aged man, who in 1800, was transported for seven 
years, from the vicinity of Leicester, for robbing a fish- 
pond. He told us that he was formerly a great poacher, 
and did not complain of the severity of his hard sen- 
tence, which separated him from his wife, who is since 
deceased, and from four children, then young. Since he 

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1834.] VAN DIEMENB LAND. 203 

became free^ he has never had the means to return^ so 
that transportation for seven years has been to him^ as 
it has been to many others, exile for life. By his own 
account, the increased exposure to vice, to which he was 
subjected, in New South Wales, and subsequently on Nor- 
folk Island, until his removal to Van Diemens Land, drove 
him further into sin. Notwithstanding this, he often remem- 
bered his degraded condition, and longed for deliverance. 
The ministry of a woman Friend, in England, appears to have 
been, under the divine blessing, the means of kindUng these 
desires after salvation, which the floods of iniquity were 
never permitted entirely to extinguish. 

About two years ago, a Wesleyan tract-distributor found 
this man ^^three-parts drunk,'' one First-day morning, in a 
room where several others were in bed, completely intoxicated. 
Some of them had been fighting in the night, and the floor 
was besmeared with their blood. Hopeless as this state of 
things was, the man left them some tracts, which Johnson 
was induced to read, and which incUned him to go to hear 
the Wesleyans, who began about that time, to preach in the 
neighbourhood. Himself and one of his companions, became 
deeply awakened to a sense of their sinful state, and groaned 
under its burden. In confidence in the declaration, that 
^' the efiectual fervent prayer of the righteous man availeth 
much," his burdened friend and he, set out to Hobart Town, 
one evening, and went to a Wesleyan meeting, where they 
stated the object of their coming, and desired the prayers of 
the congregation. By their own account and that of others, 
it appears to have been a time of great excitement ; but the 
Lord, who condescends to the weakness of the upright in 
heart, was pleased to grant an answer of peace to their fer- 
vent and vociferous supplications; and these two pilgrims 
returned home under a sense of the pardoning mercy offered 
to mankind in and through Jesus the Saviour. Their subse- 
quent walk has proved, that, great as was the excitement that 
prevailed on the occasion, it was not the mere illusion of a 
heated imagination, which made the difference that these two 
men felt in themselves ; they remain established, quiet Chris- 
tians. Through the continued labours of the Wesleyans, light 

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204 HOBART TOWN. [5th IDO. 

has gradually diffiised itself around them; so that, to these first- 
firuits, have been gathered from the drunken and dissolute^ 
a number of others, who form the little congregation at 
O'Briens Bridge; whose influence, notwithstanding some 
grievous instances of backsliding, has greatly altered for the 
better, the population of the neighbourhood. 

27th. We accompanied George Everitt, the Secretary 
of the Orphan School at New Town, in a visit to that laige 
and useful establishment, which is now removed to a com- 
modious new building. Some of the boys are instructed 
in tailoring, shoe mending, and other handicraft occupa- 
tions, as well as in the common branches of school educa- 
tion. Among the pupils are five sons of the Abori^nes, 
who are making as good progress in their learning, as boys 
of European extraction. 

29th. We visited the Penitentiary for Females, which 
has lately received the addition of another court-yard, and 
two double tiers of cells. There is much difficulty in find- 
ing employment for the prisoners, notwithstanding they wash 
for the Hospital, and some other public establishments. 
There has not been sufficient religious interest excited on 
behalf of this class of prisoners, in any place in this country, 
to maintain a visiting committee of their own sex. 

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Browns Bivcr. — Potatoes.-^Cordage-trces. — Hobart Town JaU. — Meetings. — 
Baptism. — Condemned CriminalB. — Ministry. — Comparison of the Stock- 
keepers with the sons of Jacob. — ^Musk Bat. — Convincement by reading 
« Barclay's Apology." — Ministry. — Kangaroo Hunter. — ^Naming of Places 
in y. P. Land. — Penguins. — Albatross. — Morepork. — ^Delay. — ^Ministry of 
G. W. W. — Penitent Prisoner. — Trying Occurrences. — Seyen-mile Beach. — 
Holothurids. — ^Drunken Prisoners, &c. — Awkward TraTelling. — ^Arriyal at 
KeWedon. — Fruit Trees. — Black Swans. — ^Arrival of D. and C. Wheeler. — 
Goralines, &c. — Cranes. — ^Track Lost. — Betum to Hobart Town. 

5tli mo. 30th. We walked to Browns River^ a small settle- 
ment on the side of the Derwent. It is accessible by carts^ but 
sends sawn and split timber and potatoes^ by water^ to Hobart 
Town, which is seven miles distant. Potatoes grow here to 
great perfection, on light loam bordering a riyulet, which rises 
on Mount Wellington. — Sprengellia incamata, a heath-like 
shrub, was in flower in some marshy ground on the road ; and 
in the gullies about Sandy Bay, PUigianthus discolor^ a shrub 
of the Mallow tribe, bearing clusters of small, white blos- 
soms, was beautifully in flower. There are other species of 
this genus in the colony, all of which are called Ciirri- 
jong. This name is also given in the Australian territories, 
to all other shrubs, having bark sufficientiy tenacious to be 
used instead of cordage. 

31st. We accompanied Thomas Bannister, the Sherifi^, 
over the Jail at Hobart Town, which is a very defective 
building, and often much crowded, but it is kept clean, and 
appears to be made the best of. 

6th mo. 1st. We returned to Browns River, where, in 
a tidy, weather-boarded bam, we met a decent-looking con- 
gregation of about thirty persons. After spending some 

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206 BROWNS RIVER. [6th mo. 

time in silence^ I had a little to say to them^ but there did 
not seem to be much way open for expression^ nor was there 
much before my mind to communicate. Nevertheless, I 
thought there was with us, a comforting sense of the Lord^s 
presence. We left this hitherto much-neglected spot, with 
the hope that an interest on religious subjects, that seemed to 
be awakened in several minds, was an omen for good. We 
returned along the ridge of a tier of woody hills, of which 
Mount Nelson is one, on which there is a signal station, 
answering to that at Hobart Town. From this station we 
again enjoyed a fine view of the latter place, and of the exten- 
sive bays of the Derwent, as well as of the surrounding 
country, which rises in almost every direction, into hills, 
covered with sombre forest, here and there invaded by 
the hand of culture, which has introduced green fields, 
that make a lively contrast with the dark olive of the 
widely-spread bush. — From Mount Nelson, we descended 
to Sandy Bay, and met another congregation, of about forty 
persons. After a season of silence, I was enabled clearly to 
point out the evil of sin, and the way to escape from 
it, through repentance towards God and faith towards 
our Lord Jesus Christ. We parted under solemn feeling, 
after prayer had been vocally put up, on behalf of this 

3rd. We had a long discussion with some of our ac- 
quaintance, on water-baptism, a subject upon which we arc 
often called to explain our views. We rarely meet with 
people so free from educational prejudice, as to be willing 
to look upon the commands of Christ to his disciples, to 
baptize, as. separable from the idea of water, and in tiieir 
proper connexion witii spiritual influence; or who are suf- 
ficiently enlightened, to discern the liberty of Christians to 
abandon all those things, that in their nature accord with 
the dispensation of types and shadows, ratiier than with the 
spirituality of the Gospel. 

Persons often tell us, tiiat they see the accordance of the 
principles of Friends with the Gospel, except in r^ard to 
Baptism, and what is called the Lord^s Supper; but that 
on account of our disuse of these, tiiey cannot join us. I 

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1834.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 207 

believe, however, that most of these persons deceive them- 
selves, as to their reason for not joining us ; and that the 
truth of the matter is, that they have not yet apprehended 
the nature of the simple teaching of the Divine Spirit, as 
true Friends have been privileged experimentally to receive 
it. The cross of sitting down in silence to wait upon the 
Lord, in order to be taught of him, and of bearing to be 
humbled under a sense of helplessness, is also too great 
for this description of people. We have noticed, that when 
any attain to this humbled, teachable, state, they generally 
become satisfied of the propriety of ceasing to use cere- 
monial rites, and feel the importance of bearing those tes- 
timonies to the simphcity, peaceableness, and spirituality 
of the Gospel, which Friends maintain to be its true cha- 
racteristics, and in which, the faithful among them, endea- 
vour to walk; and in so walking, know their communion 
to be with the Father and witih his Son Jesus Christ, under 
the baptizing influence of the Holy Spirit. 

8th. Our meetings were not particularly lively ; but I had a 
few words to express, near the close of that in the afternoon ; 
at which nineteen persons were present. An individual who, 
when resident in London, occasionally attended Gracechurch 
Street Meeting, now frequently meets with us : he acknow- 
ledges himself to be more folly convinced of the accordance 
of the principles of Friends with the Gospel, than formerly ; 
especially in regard to the doctrines of the imiversal offer of 
Divine grace to man, and of the perceptible teaching of the 
Holy Spirit to the attentive mind. 

15th. After dinner Abraham C. Flower came to our lodg- 
ing, and signified that he felt an impression of duty to visit three 
men in gaol, ordered to be executed, to-morrow, for murder. 
G. W. Walker conferred with William Bedford, the Colonial 
Chaplain, on the subject, who said that he had no objection 
whatever to the visit being paid. Observing, from the Act, 
that die Sheriff possessed power to grant liberty for such a 
visit, we went to him, and he, with his wonted benevolence 
and urbanity, immediately granted this liberty, subject only 
to its being agreeable to the poor culprits to see us. The 
keeper of the gaol accompanied us into tiie cell, where there 

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208 HOBART TOWN. [6th mo. 

was also a fourth prisoner, under similar sentence. Though 
the murder, to which these men confess, was one of the most 
deliberate kind, the bond of hardness of heart under which 
it was committed, now appeared to be broken, and they 
seemed to be in a tender frame of mind. They were fiar 
from being men of ferocious countenances. We each had a 
little to communicate to them, encouraging them to yield to 
iheir convictions of sin, and to seek pardon, in unfeigned 
repentance, through faith in the atoning blood of Christ, in 
the hope that they might find mercy with God, with whom 
''one day is as a thousand years,'* and who will forgive the 
sincerely penitent. The poor men expressed much thankful- 
ness for our visit ; toward the conclusion of which, prayer 
was put up on their behalf. 

20th. The Lieutenant Governor having invited us to 
prepare a report upon the state of the Prisoners and Penal 
Discipline, of Van Diemens Land ; with observations on the 
general state of the Colony, we drew one up, and presented 
it to him. — ^This document is introduced to the reader in 
Appendix. F. 

7th mo. 3rd. Our week-day meeting was small, but it 
was one of remarkable exercise. A well-disposed young man 
was present^ who had come from the country to endeavour 
to obtain an appointment to the office of Catechist. A 
Friend, who was quite ignorant of such a person being in 
town, was led, in commenting upon some passages of Scrip- 
ture, to point out with remarkable deamess, the mistakes of 
those who thought themselves advancing the Lord's work, 
by entering in their own wills, upon formal services, and thus 
holding up imitations of religion, in the place of religion 
itself. He also showed how, in this way, they wasted their 
own strength, when, if they would have remained patiently 
under the baptizing power of the Holy Spirit, self would 
have been subdued in them, and a concern on behalf of others 
excited by this holy influence ; which concern, as it was given 
way to in simplicity, would have edified others, and have 
been attended with peace to the labourers, even though they 
might appear to themselves to do but little. More to the 
same import was added by G. W. Walker and myself, under 

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1834.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 209 

what we apprehended to he a right exercise, but which might 
have been more liable to be called in question, as we were 
aware of the views of the individual. He received the whole 
weU, and appeared thankful that he had been placed in the 
way of such counsel. — In our meetings, we have of late had 
much evidence, that the simple-hearted are often baptized 
one for another. — Circumstances needing religious counsel,' 
have in this way been spoken to, by parties who had no out- 
ward knowledge of them, but who gave way to express the 
exercises that settled upon their own minds, often in the 
feeling of much weakness and fear. 

4th. In referring to the circumstance of an individual, 
formerly a prisoner at Macquarie Harbour, having been 
lately recorded as an approved minister, by Hobart Town 
Monthly Meeting of Friends, a person of our acquain- 
tance, belonging to another body of Christians, writes : 
— "The intelligence conveyed in yours, is exceedingly gra- 
tifying to me. That one of the despised, hated, and per- 
secuted little band at Macquarie Harbour, should become 
an accredited minister of a body of Christians, whose steady 
piety and arduous labours are heard of through the world, 
and acknowledged as extensively as they are known, cannot 
but be considered as one of those glorious triumphs of 
grace, which cause the saints to rejoice, to adore, and to 
love the Saviour with increasing ardour. To me, who have 
seen something of the trials and difficulties of that penal 
abode, it appears truly wonderful. But why should I won^ 
der ? Does it not often please the Great Disposei^,of events, 
to prepare his choicest instruments in the hottest fire ? I 
fervently pray that * * * may continue a faithful standard- 
bearer in the cause of Truth, until his earthly pilgrimage 
shall close.^^ 

6th. In reading the book of Genesis lately, I have ))een 
much struck with the similarity of character exhibited 
among the sons of Jacob, to that which is to be found 
among the stock-keepers of Tasmania, and among some 
of the settlers. Similar occasions of "evil report,** and 
exhibitions of hardness of heart, such as induced them to deal 
hardly with Joseph their brother, and other descriptions of 

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210 HOBART TOWN. [7th mO. 

profligacy^ are here found to prevail, and are reported to 
have prevailed formerly, in a much greater degree, especially 
where, from remoteness of situation, there was not much 
probability that the hand of justice would interfere. This 
seems to prove human nature to be the same in this age, 
as it was in that of the patriarchs, by showing its similarity 
under similar circumstances. It is true that its malignant 
features are aggravated in this day, by the use of spirituous 
liquors; but this evil is now becoming generally acknow- 
ledged, and is likely to be abandoned. Appdling as the 
picture is, to me, there is some encouragement in it, for the 
sons of Jacob, when brought under the government of 
Joseph, and influenced increasingly, as they advanced in 
years, by the example of their pious father, appear to have 
become greatly improved, and similar efiects are visible from 
similar causes, in this land. The improved government of 
the last nine years, and the increase of moral and religious 
example and instruction, are imiversally admitted to have 
restrained much of the evil propensity of human nature, 
which was formerly given way to, and to have drawn out 
some of the better feelings of the human heart. Much, 
however, remains to be done, but the improvement already 
visible, ought to operate as an encouragement to the use of 
such efficacious means. 

7th. In a walk, I observed some of the early indications 
of Spring. Accuna Oxycedrus^ Boronia variabilis, Epacris 
impressa, Eriostemon obovatum, and a few other pretty shrubs 
are in flower. I have lately obtained skins of several of the 
birds of this Colony, among them are species of Bittern, 
Coot and Duck, and a little bird with open feathers, like 
those of the Emu, in its tail, whence it has obtained the 
name of the Emu Wren. I also got specimens of the Wan- 
dering Albatross, which were taken at sea, oflF Storm Bay. 
The skin of this bird is so oily that the only mode of preserv- 
ing it seems to be, by filling it repeatedly with wood-ashes 
until dried. I have likewise obtained skins of the Wombat, 
and of a small animal inhabiting the shores of rivers, and 
some parts of the coast, and having the habits of a Water Rat: 
its hind feet are webbed, and its tail is tipped with white. 

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1834.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 211 

It is called in the Colony, the Musk Rat, in consequence 
of a skin having heen, at an early period, packed with one 
of a Musk Duck, by which means it acquired a musky 
smell, and not from any natural smell of musk in the 

7th. The Monthly Meeting received an application for 
membership, from an individual who has lately adopted 
the principles of Friends, on conscientious grounds. The 
father of this person has also become convinced of the 
accordance of the principles of Friends with the Gospel, 
in consequence of reading a copy of " Barclay's Apology,^ 
that he purchased in London, of Isaac Veale, who seized it 
from Edmund Fry, for an ecclesiastical demand. 

10th. The week-day meeting was small. A pious man, 
formerly a prisoner, attended, and spoke a few words, ap- 
parently with great sincerity; but clearly not from the 
description of exercise, which Friends recognize as the spring 
of Gospel ministry. Something was afterwards communi- 
cated by two Friends, on the nature of such exercises, and 
on the benefit of suffering the Lord to work in us and by 
us, rather than of setting ourselves to work. After meet- 
ing this person acknowledged himself to have been in- 

15th. We had sa.tiahctoTy letters from two of our 
friends ; both indicative of a growth in the root of religion, 
as well as of some enlargement in its frxtit: one of them 
holds a meeting in his own lodgings. He is a clerk in a 
Government-office, and being allowed a small sum to pro- 
cure himself lodging and clothing, he has this advantage 
over many other prisoners. He often sits alone to worship 
the Lord, but sometimes one or two others join him, and 
on some of these occasions, he says, ^^In obedience to 
what I believed to be required of me, I have given expression 
to what, for dread, I dared not to suppress, though in much 
backwardness and brokenness. I have experienced the 
terrors of the Lord in not freely giving up ; and once for 
going beyond the word of life.^^ Like one of our friends 
here, he is another Onesimus. Some of the free population 
of respectable rank, and of some degree of religious thoi^ht- 

p 2 

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212 MUDDY PLAINS. [7th mo. 

fulness, regard him as a shining light, in a dark place, 
very humble, but full of faith, and abundant in good 

On the 18th we again went to Muddy Plains, where we 
held two meetings, on the 20th. Many of the inhabitants 
of this district still retain a very low and immoral character, 
but there is some willingness among them to listen to 
counsel. Many of the assigned servants are far fix>m what 
they ought to be; but we always find they receive plain 
dealing well, when it is administered in love. 

21st. We visited Hugh and Mary Germain, in their neat 
cottage. Hugh Germain came to V. D. Land with Colonel 
Collins, at the first settlement of the colony. He was a 
private in the Marines, and was for many years employed 
in hunting Kangaroos and Emus for provisions, which the 
officer, whose servant he was, received from him, and sold 
to the Government, at Is. 6d. per pound. Germain, as- 
sisted by two prisoners, returned 1,000 pounds per month, 
on an average. Though Emus are now rarely seen on 
the island, at that time they were frequently met with 
about New Norfolk, Salt Pan Plains, the Coal River, and 
Kangaroo Point. The Kangaroo was also very plentiful 
in places where it is now rarely seen : one of the largest 
Foresters that Germain killed, was on the spot where Hobart 
Town Barracks now stand : the hind quarters weighed 130 
lbs. and it measured nine feet from the tip of the nose to that 
of the hind feet. At this period, these animals were usually 
taken by dogs. H. Germain says, he rarely carried a gun, 
though he often fell in with parties of Aborigines, *^in 
whom there was then no harm." He thinks they hurt 
nobody till two white men, charged with murder, escaped 
from Port Dalrymple, and got among them. He pursued 
this mode of life so closely, as to be at one time, five years 
without sleeping on a bed; and sometimes, in very wet 
weather, he was driven to take refuge from floods, in a tree ; 
where he has had to remain all night, covered with a large 
kangaroo's skin, to keep off* the rain. He was the first white 
man who penetrated into several parts of the colony, and 
a principal in conferring upon them such names as Jericho^ 

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1834.] VAN DIEMEXS LAND. 213 

Bagdad, Abyssinia, &c. Only one of the party could read ; 
and his only books were a Bible, and the Arabian Nights' 
Entertainment; out of which books the places were suc- 
cessively named. He considers his health to have been 
preserved through these hardships, chiefly, by washing 
himself well every morning and evening. 

22nd. Was very showery. We returned to Hobart 
Town, crossing at Kangaroo Point, in a whale-boat. It was 
rough on the Derwent, near the middle of which, we passed 
several Jackass Penguins. I had often before, heard the 
cries of these birds on the river. 

23rd. A person of my acquaintance furnished me with 
a living Albatross, but as I could not conveniently accom* 
modate a large, living bird, I killed it, being desirous of 
preserving its skin. The stomach contained a green sub* 
stance resembling Barilla, and a large quantity of pure, whale 
oil ; about a quart of which ran out of the bird's mouth. 
Probably the Albatross may eat Barilla and other vegeta* 
bles containing soda, to enable it to digest the oil. Like 
many others of the gull tribe, it feeds greedily on blubber, 
which is often to be had in these seas, in the whaling 
season. The oil from the stomach remained limpid, but 
that from the skin, which was so abundant as to require 
to be removed with a spoon, became opaque, white, and 
almost solid, on cooling. 

The adaptation of animals to their station, is one of the 
subjects in which the wisdom and skill of the Creator, is 
remarkably exemplified. Thus the eye of the Morepork or 
Greater Night Jarr, which I lately had the opportunity of 
examining, is wonderfully adapted for enabling it to see the 
insects in the dark, on which it feeds. The eye is large and 
stretched by a bony ring, of one. piece ; and when recently 
removed, it forms a fine camera-obscura, transmitting the 
images of objects facing it, through the integuments at the 
back of the retina. The tongue of the Wattle-bird and the 
Honey-eater being pencilled with hairs, is as remarkably 
adapted to enable them to obtain the honey which forms 
their food, from flowers. 

25th. G. W. Walker wrote to Sydney, to request our 


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214 HOBART TOWN. [7th mo. 

letters still to be forwarded to us here. In some respects^ it 
is trjring to us to remain so long in this land^ and when way 
opens^ we shall be glad to proceed to New South Wales ; 
but we must wait with patience the will of Him who knoweth 
the end from the beginning; who hath condescended to lead 
us about and to instruct us; and whose time is the best time. 
The little company here, who have been gathered to Friends, 
is becoming more organized, and is, I trust, deepening in the 
root of religion : this also appears to be the case with some 

31st. The week-day meeting was small. It was a season 
to be remembered with comfort, by those who were brought 
to wait for the revelation of Jesus, by the Spirit, sent to them 
of the Father, in order that they might feel his power raised 
into dominion in themselves, over all the powers of darkness, 
and know the true Shepherd to put them forth and go before 
them. Thus such become built up in Him, members of that 
church of God, against which the gates of hell shall not pre- 
vail ; whilst all systems that are mixed up with the short- 
sighted views of human expediency, must ultimately have 
the unsound mixture rooted out of them, or otherwise they 
must become disorganized, how much soever they may en- 
large their borders for a season. 

8th mo. 7th. The propriety of recording my dear Com- 
panion as an approved minister, came under the con- 
sideration of the Monthly Meeting ; and it concluded, under 
the feeling of unity with his Gospel labours, to take this 
step, subject to the confirmation of the next Monthly Meet- 
ing, to be held at Kelvedon, in Great Swan Port. — ^A com- 
munication was received by the Monthly Meeting, from a 
young man, who is an assigned prisoner servant in the 
Colony, desiring to be commended to the notice of Friends. 
The meeting being interested by his expressions of penitence, 
recorded its feeling of Christian interest for him, and its wish 
to hear from him, from time to time, that it might know the 
state of his religious progress. The following extracts are 
from a letter from this yo\mg man, in reply to one written 
a few weeks since : " I am thankful to say, that I feel rather 
more comfortable in my mind than I did when I wrote to 

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1834.] VAN DIEMEN8 L.AND. 215 

you before. Your kind advice respecting the Temperance 
Society has claimed my close consideration; for I now 
believe it rights well to consider before I engage in any 
matter^ under a sense, that if I had done that before, I 
should have been preserved from falling into many snares, 
amongst which strong drink was one. I may say, it was the 
first of my going astray : this led me to company, by which 
it increased on me, together with going to places of amuse- 
ment; and being imder many engagements of this abomi- 
nable nature, it caused me to neglect my business; so at 
last, I became a thief, a disgrace to my relatives, my friends, 
and my country. I have now come to forsake such abomi- 
nations, through the Lord's assistance, who strictly com- 
mands to go ^out from among them, and touch not the 
unclean things.^ Tell the young men at home, how strong 
drink, and what the world calls pleasure, bring destruction 
and misery, upon both soul and body : encourage them in a 
particular manner to strive against such evils.'' In the same 
letter he speaks of his parents, in terms of affection, and 
laments with much bitterness, that he behaved so wickedly 
towards them, and neglected their pious advice, which, if he 
had attended to it, would have preserved him from coming 
into such a state, as that in which he is now placed. He then 
expresses thankfulness, that the Lord was merciful toward 
him, both at the hulks, and on his voyage, and that he is so 
now, in the colony, also that he has a good master and mis- 
tress. In speaking of his wish to have some tracts, &c. he 
says, "A Bible would be a very great treasure to me, for it is 
very seldom I can get the loan of one." In a former letter 
he says : ^' I resigned my membership with Friends, not on 
any religious point of view, far from it ; it was to prevent 
my vile and evil conduct being discovered." In his last 
letter, after requesting to be commended to the love and 
notice of Friends here, he says, " I have a great desire once 
more to join that Society ; for it is the only one that my 
conscience would allow me to join : their belief and principles 
I love, and I prize them more now than ever I did; and 
through the Lord's assistance I shall practise them more 
than ever I have done. I have been highly favoured, at 

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216 HOBART TOWN, [8th mo. 

different times, in silent waiting on the Lord, when seated 
upon an old, fallen tree, under a rock, at the back of the hill^ 
where the trampling of human feet is seldom heard." 

15th. We have regretted of late, to see in some well 
disposed persons, a disposition to calumniate Friends, and 
to try to make out that Quakerism is not accordant with 
the Gospel. The occasion of this has been, that a few per- 
sons have adopted the principles of Friends, from a con- 
viction of their more complete accordance with the Gospel, 
than those of the communities with whom they were before 
associated. This has also led to the exhibition of a very 
different spirit toward us, on the part of some persons, from 
that which we have endeavoured to entertain toward those 
who conscientiously differed from us ; and which we hope ever 
to be enabled to maintain toward such : it has also some- 
times drawn us into discussions, much against our inctination, 
which have, however, ^ been overruled for good. Inquiry 
into our principles has been excited, and we have been 
willing to give an answer in meekness, to those who have 
sought information respecting them. 

On the 22nd we commenced another journey, and pro- 
ceeded in company with Robert Mather and Francis Cotton, 
to Lauderdale ; where, on the 24th, we held another meeting 
with the neighbouring inhabitants. 

25 th. On arriving at the Bluff-ferry, on the Pitt Water, 
there was no boat-man, we therefore walked along the "Seven- 
mile Beach, to the Lower-ferry, where we had to wade a con- 
siderable distance to the boat. I do not remember to have suf- 
fered so much before, from the coldness of the water. A heavy 
surf from the Southern Ocean, breaks upon this beach ; upon 
which a niunber of remarkable marine animals were cast. 
One among them, of about a foot in length, belonged to 
the order of Holothuridse or Sea Cucumbers. We quar- 
tered for the night at the hospitable dwelling of James and 
E. Gordon. 

26th. We pursued our way through the long and 
dreary Cherry-tree Opening, over the Brushy Plains, the 
White Marsh, and Burst-my-gall HiU, to Prossers Plains. 
Here we designed to visit a settler, and turned aside, at the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1834.] VAN DIEMEN8 LAND. 21 7 

close of day^ along a track leading toward bis bouse. About 
two miles oij tbe road, we found it intersected by a new fence, 
a common difficulty in a newly settled country; and being un- 
able to find our way further, as it was dark and rainy, we re- 
turned three miles, to a little inn. At this place about half-ar- 
score' men were intoxicated, whom we judged, from their 
appearance, to be soldiers and assigned prisoner-servants: 
they remained drinking and using bad language, till midnight. 
In other respects our accommodation was tolerably good for 
such a place. There is reason to believe that much drunken- 
ness exists in secluded situations, among prisoners, as well 
as among free people, and that the former often pilfer to 
obtain the means of paying for liquor. 

27th. Being at this time in poor health, my friend 
Francis Cotton had mounted me on his mare, it being 
necessary that one person should ride, to keep a sack 
containing some of his goods, from falling off, as he had no 
means of fastening it to the saddle. The road through 
Paradise was too rough and precipitous to be pleasant 
for riding, and it had the appearance of danger. The 
scrub was also difficult to get through, in some places, 
and care was necessary, as the way is a mere foot-track, 
to avoid being carried against trees, or amongst branches* 
However, having the sack to take care of, I rode at a 
foot's pace over the whole, except one hill, and the river. 
The rocky bed ^f the latter is slippery, and has narrow 
chasms in it, dangerous to the legs of horses. Some-> 
times I found it necessary to twist one hand into the 
mane, and with the other to lay hold upon the sack, to keep 
it from slipping off behind. Horses accustomed to .this 
kind of country, descend the stony hills best, with the bridle 
quite slack ; taking care of themselves, they take care also 
of their riders. On this journey we tried carrying our own 
luggage in knapsacks, but did not find it so convenient to 
persons unencumbered with guns, as having each a parcel 
to carry by a strap in the hand. We reached the habitation 
of some kind friends, a little after dark, having had to use 
a compass, observe a star, and listen to the direction of the 
roaring of the surf, on a neighbouring, sandy beach, to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

218 SWAN PORT. [8th mo. 

enable us to keep in the right direction^ which^ here and 
there^ was not distinguishable by a track. 

28th. Early in the afternoon^ we reached the dwelling 
of Thomas Buxton^ whose &mily are noted for their 
hospitality, and were soon supplied with what was needful 
for our wants. Leaving my companions to follow on foot, 
I rode at a gentle pace over the Rocky Hills. We all arrived 
at Kelvedon in the evening, and were again refireshed 
together in waiting upon the Lord. 

29th. Was occupied in assisting F. Cotton to plant some 
fruit-trees, and to engraft others. He had brought the 
trees and scions upon his back, more than eighty miles, 
to preserve them from injury. Fruit trees are valuable in 
a newly-settled country. Some of the scions were obtained 
from the Government Garden at Hobart Town, where there 
is a valuable collection of fruit-trees, from which scions may 
be had, on apphcation to the Aide-de-Camp of the Lieut 
Governor. The others were from the capital garden of 
James Gordon, of Pitt-water. 

31st. We assembled twice for worship, with F. Cotton's 
large family, the assigned servants being also present, and 
were favoured with a sense of divine overshadowing. A 
portion of Penn^s ^* No Cross no Crown,'' and a Psalm^ 
were read at the commencement of the opportunity in the 
evening. The chapter on the use of flattering titles was 
the one falUng in course; and I had some remarks to make on 
this subject, which possesses more importance than is usually 
attributed to it. As my understanding has been opened to 
it, I have had perfect unity with our early Friends, in their 
testimony against these titles, and also against complimentary 
forms of speech ; and a strong apprehension has rested on 
my mind, that if Friends should abandon these testimonies, 
the Lord would soon take them away from being a people. 
To cherish pride, which is an abomination to the Lord, in 
others, is diametrically opposed to the principles of the 
Gospel ; and though it is often argued that these things are 
now so common, that pride is but little, if at all, flattered 
by them, it requires but a small degree of penetration to 
perceive that they are very gratifying to unregenerate men ; 

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1634.] VAN DIEICENB LAND. 219 

and that the remains of pride^ even in persons of some de- 
gree of spirituality^ are mortified by the omission of these 
titles and addresses. 

9th mo. 4th. The Monthly Meeting was held at Kelve- 
don, and the judgment of that held in the 8th months at* 
Hobart Town, was confirmed, respecting recording my com- 
panion, as an approved minister, and sanctioning his pro- 
ceeding with me in that capacity. 

Between the 12th and l7th^ we again visited the settlers 
in the upper part of Great Swan Port, holding several reli- 
gious meetings among thenl. 

When at Moulting Bay, dose to the house of a settler, 
we counted fifty-six Black Swans, in pairs: their nests had 
been carried away by floods. This is often the case, and 
at other times they are extensively robbed of tikeir eggs. 
One family, at whose house we lodged, had sometimes 
taken as many as five hundred eggs at a time. Formerly a 
tribe of Aborigines resorted regularly to this neighbourhood, 
at this season of the year, to collect swans' e^s. 

Happening to take up the Hobart Town Courier, at Bel- 
mont, on the 17th, we saw, with much interest and satisfac- 
tion, a notice of the safe arrival of our dear friends Daniel 
and Charles Wheeler, in Hobart Town. They landed from the 
Henry Freeling, on the 10th inst. ; being on a religious visit, 
to some parts of the Australian Colonies, and to the Islands 
of the South Seas. — Dr. Ross, the editor of this newspaper, 
had kindly inserted a special notice of their arrival, 
hoping that the tidings would reach us through this 

On the 22nd, we set out to return to Hobart Town, in 
company with Francis and Anna Maria Cotton. Several of 
their children, with Dr. Story, accompanied us a few miles on 
the way. On the beach, near T. Buxton^s, the Doctor and I 
turned over some flat, basaltic stones, in a pool of salt water, 
that did not become empty by the recession of the tide, and 
were gratified with the sight of several species of coralline, 
alcyonite, sponge, and others of the lower tribes of animals, of 
curious and singular structure, but of which we had not the 
means of preserving specimens. 

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220 PROSSERS BAY. [Sth mo. 

On the beach of Prossers Bay, we saw two beautiful White 
Cranes ; a bluish, lead-coloured species is not uncommon ; 
several species of Duck are also met with in this Colony. 

Some parts of our journey to Spring Bay, were very un- 
iDomfortable to those on horseback. A slight mistake in re- 
gard to a track, occasioned us a trackless journey for several 
miles. This is a common circumstance in Van Diemens Land^ 
where, except in a very few places, naturally clear, and in 
the immediate vicinity of settlers' houses, the way is through 
forests, bounded only by the sea that surrounds the island, 
and which are full of dead logs, and fragments of the limbs of 
trees, scattered in all directions ; these continually turn tra- 
vellers from a straight line, except where a path has been 
cleared. On our way, we had conversation with some pri- 
soner-guides, confirming the belief that there are many of 
this class, far from being destitute of religious sensibility. 

On the 27tii, we crossed the Derwent, in a whale-boat, to 
Hobart Town ; where we had a mutually pleasant meeting 
with our friends D. and C. Wheeler^ who, \idthin a few 
months, had been in company with our dear connexions in 
England. Although we hear of these frequentiy by letter, yet 
there is a satisfaction in hearing of beloved relatives, irom 
the lips of those that have lately seen them, which none can 
fully understand but by experience. 

In reviewing our late journey, and the many blessings, 
and mercies we have been made partakers of, among which 
is the improvement of my own health, and now, in having the 
comfort of meeting our dear friends, we felt that there was 
great reason for us to adopt the language, '* What shall we 
render to the Lord for all his benefits ?** 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Old Johnson. — Prayer. — Spiritual PoTcrty. — ^Yearly Meeting. — Meeting at New 
Norfolk. — Influenra. — Cold of Mount Wellington. — Mantis. — Sale of Spirits. — 
Calumny.— Visit to Port Arthur.— Doughboy Island.— Black-backed Gull.— 
Commandant bewildered in the Forest — State of the Penal Settlement. — 
Scurvy. — ^Educated Prisoners. — School. — Employment. — Convict Boys. — Coal 
Mine. — Black Snake — Coal.— Plants. — Return to Hobart Town.— Letter. — 
Meetings. — Laws of Primogeniture and Entail. — Pensioners. — Rural Dean. 
—Surgeon of the Alligator. 

8th mo. 29th. In company with G. W. Walker, F. Cotton^ 
and T. J. Crouch, I walked tq. Qlenorchy, to see old John 
Johnson, who has been very ill, and is still so feeble that 
he compares himself to a cracked earthen vessel, bound 
about to keep it together. He is full of thankfulness for 
the mercies he receives, often saying, " What am I, a poor 
bit of dust, that the Lord should regard me ; I, who have 
hved so long in rebellion against God ? He has had mercy 
upon me, but I can never forgive myself, nor love him 
sufficiently. What am I, or what are we all, that the Lord 
should thus regard us ?'' — In his illness, he said, he felt quite 
willing to die, that he cast himself upon his Saviour, and 
was quite willing to go. When his pain was excessive, he 
prayed, that if consistent with the divine will, he might be 
eased of his pain, and permitted to speak a few words of 
the Lord's goodness before he was taken away : his prayer 
was immediately answered, and the violence of his pain 
assuaged. The old man made many inquiries of us, 
on the nature of prayer. He said, he had been taught to 
think his petitions would not be accepted, unless offered 
upon bended knees ; and that, for four years, he had not 

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222 GLENORCHY. [8th DdO. 

missed a night in getting out of bed to pray, in addition to 
praying before going to bed^ and on rising; but that he 
began to think, it was perhaps unnecessary for him to get 
out of bed for this purpose, and that he was nearly unable 
to do so. We explained to him, that God is only wor- 
shipped in spirit and in truth ; that if the heart be 
but bowed before him, he will accept its offerings, whe- 
ther from persons in bed, or out of bed, on bended knees, 
or at their daily occupations ; and whether their petitions 
be uttered or unexpressed : that if people be bowed in 
reverent stiUness of soul, under the sense of the Lord^s 
presence, though no words may be formed in the mind, 
he will still regard and bless them. The old man said he 
was comforted, and saw the matter more clearly than he 
had done before, but that when he was first awakened, he was 
so ignorant as to think that he must go into ^' the bush ^' 
to pray, where he could make a great noise. 

In the course of a walk, with a serious person, about this 
time, he told me, that he thought he had sustained loss, by 
regarding the feeling of his own weakness and emptiness, as 
a state of desertion, and by trying to turn from it, instead of 
regarding it as the teaching of the Holy Spirit, designed to 
humble him, and to bring him into a more simple trust in 
the Lord, and a closer communion of soul with God. I 
believe this is the case with many, who thus flinch from 
humiliating baptisms, and regard them as the withdrawing of 
the Lord's Spirit; not recollecting, that the presence and 
light of the Holy Spirit, are as necessary to enable us to 
behold our own weakness and emptiness, and even our sin- 
fulness, as they are, to give us a perception of the Divine 
fulness; nor considering that we can never properly seek 
reconciliation with the Father, until we are given to see our 
alienation from him by sin ; nor come unto Christ, as those 
who feel that they need a physician, imtil we feel our 
spiritual diseases; nor can we seek to know the Lord to 
be our fulness, till we are made sensible of our own empti- 
ness ; nor shall we know him to be our strength, till we be 
made sensible of our own weakness. But, blessed for ever 
be his holy name, he is still known, by his dependent chil- 

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1834.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 223 

dren^ to be riches in poverty, strength in weakness, and a 
very present help in trouble. 

On the 3rd of 10th months the first Yearly Meeting, of 
the persons professing with the Society of Friends, in 
Van Diemens Land, commenced ; it was continued by ad- 
journments to the ninth, inclusive. The principal subjects 
that occupied its attention, were, the reading and recording 
of the certificates from Friends in England, respecting Daniel 
and Charles Wheeler, and George W. Walker, and myself; 
the granting of an additional certificate to 6. W. Walker, to 
authorize his proceeding with me to New South Wales and 
South Africa, in the character of a minister of the Gospel, 
(Appendix. G.) ; the making of a record of our labours in 
V. D. Land ; the investigating into the state of the little 
community professing with Friends in this Colony, and 
agreeing upon regulations for preserving good order among 
them ; and the addressing of an Epistle to the Meeting for 
Sufferings, of Friends, in Great Britain, proposing a corres- 
pondence with them. The meeting was favoured to be able 
to adopt the following minute at its termination : — 

^^ In conclusion, we believe it our duty to record, under 
feelings of reverent thankfulness, that, in the sittings of this 
our first Yearly Meeting, the sensible presence of the great 
Head of the Church, has been mercifully felt among us, 
enabling us to transact the business that has come before 
us, in much love, and in unity one with another.^^ 

On the 25th of 10th month, G. W. Walker and I, went 
again to New Norfolk, where, on the following day we held 
two meetings. In one of them a man, who is attached to the 
principles of Friends, reproved some persons for whispering ; 
and afterwards remarked, that our sitting in silence might 
appear strange to some, who had not considered the matter, 
but that, for his own part, he could bear testimony to the 
benefit of the practice ; that before leaving England, he had 
for some time, attended a little meeting of Friends, in which, 
often, not a word was spoken ; that when these meetings 
had been held in silence, he had been more edified, as his 
mind was turned to the light of Christ, than ever he had 
been under the most learned, studied discourses ; and that 

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224 NEW NORFOLK. [10th mo* 

he was conTinced^ others would also be thus edified^ even in 
silence, if their minds were turned to the inward manifesta- 
tion of that light, which is given us, through Jesus Christ. 

On returning to Hobart Town, we found Daniel Wheeler 
very ill, in the influenza, which had been prevalent, and 
in many cases, fatal. 

11th mo. 11th. In company with two young surgeons, 
I again ascended Mount Wellington, and collected specimens 
of various plants. Though the summer is advancing, snow 
fell dry on the top of the mountain, and the cold, with a 
high wind, was so intense, that I was unable to restore 
circulation in my hands, by rubbing them with snow : some 
of my fingers were consequently numb for several days after. 
Another of our company became violently affected with 
cramp, from which we all suffered in some degree. Though 
the snow was insufficient to protect vegetation from the frost, 
many plants which were in flower, did not seem to be 
injured by it ; yet they cannot endure the continued cold 
of an English winter. 

Insects are now numerous, some species of the remark- 
able genus Mantisy are found in Tasmania ; they have obtain- 
ed the name of the Praying Mantis, from the remarkable 
posture in which they stand to catch flies, which they eat 
with great voracity. The species, common at this season, 
in the gardens here, is of a light pea-green, an inch and 
a half long, and three-tenths wide in the broadest part 
of the body, which is covered with wings, an inch long, of 
an elliptic form, overlaying each other. 

Colonel Arthur having invited us to express freely any 
thing we wished to say connected with the welfare of the 
Colony, we presented to him on the 15th a paper entitled, 
'^ Observations on the Distillation, Importation, and Sale of 
Ardent Spirits, as sanctioned by the Government.'' He 
informed us that he approved of the suggestions contained 
in this document, but felt a difficulty in regard to acting 
upon it, on account of the revenue. The state of a Govern- 
ment which depends upon the continuance of the sins of 
the people for the support of its revenue, is truly an awful 
state. A copy of this paper is inserted in Appendix. H. 

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1834.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 225 

Some notice having been taken^ in the Sydney papers, of 
our Report on the state of the penal settlement at Macquarie 
Harbour, which had been printed among some parliamentary 
papers on Penal Discipline, the editor of the "Hobart 
Town Tasmanian ^' denounced us as Government Spies, and 
took much pains to bring us into discredit, and the Gospel 
through us. One of the Launceston papers also followed, 
in some degree, in the same steps. The ^' Colonist ^^ and 
^^ Courier,^' of Hobart Town, of their own accord, defended 
us. We believed it our place not to interfere in this matter, 
and were preserved in calm dependence upon the Lord, 
to make our sincerity manifest, if such should be his will ; 
and ^'the shield of faith *^ was made effectual to ** quench 
the fiery darts of the wicked.'^ 

The Lieutenant Governor having expressed a wish, that 
we should again visit the Penal Settlement, on Tasmans 
Peninsula, we took the subject under serious consideration, 
and came to the conclusion, that it would be right for us to 
comply with his wish. A whale-boat was provided for 
us, in which we proceeded, on the I7th of 11th month, 
to the north-east extremity of Ralphs Bay, and lodged at 
the house of our friends, the Mathers, at Lauderdale. On 
the following morning, the men dragged the boat across 
Kalphs Bay Neck, and rowed us over Frederick Henry 
Bay. We landed on a small basaltic island, oflF the Carlton, 
csalled Dumpling, or Doughboy Island, which is a favourite 
name for a small island among sailors ; here, in a short time, 
our boafs crew collected about twelve dozen of the eggs of 
the Black-backed Gull. This Gull makes no nest, except a 
slight hollow among the grass, or in the light earth, in 
which it lays about three eggs, nearly as large as those of 
a Common Fowl, but more conical, and of a dirty green 
colour, speckled with irregular, dark spots. 

This Island produces a Tree Mallow, Lavatera plebia, and 
the other maritime plants of this part of the world. From 
hence, we proceeded to the southern extremity of Norfolk 
Bay, and walked from thence to Port Arthur; where we 
occupied the house of the Commandant, who was absent 
during our stay. He had gone to visit the signal stations, 


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226 TA8MANS PENINSULA. [llth mO. 

and had lost his way in the intricate forest : his life was 
thus endangered more than once^ on similar excursions. 

The Settlement was greatly improved since our former 
yisits, hut was still incomplete in accommodation^ for the 
separation and instruction of the prisoners^ who were now, 
887 in number. The association of men of this descrip- 
tion, in common day-yards, and sleeping-places, is fraught 
with much evil, that is very difficult to obviate. 

In consequence of the prisoners living on salt meat, 
and being defectively supplied with vegetables, a large 
number were suffering from scurvy. Nineteen, who were 
in the Hospital, chiefly from this disease, presented as ap- 
palling a picture of human wretchedness, as I recollect ever 
to have witnessed. — ^This defect, on being represented to 
the Government, was speedily remedied, by the cultivation 
of more land with vegetables, and an occasional supply of 
fresh meat. 

The general discipline of the Settlement was improved, 
but we found very little reformation on religious principle; 
and very few of the educated prisoners showed any dispo- 
sition to assist in the instruction of the others, in the 
evening school, which was held twice a week. The few 
books to which the prisoners had access, were diligently read, 
but the number of these was small. 

The prisoners were employed in ship-building, shoe- 
making, breaking stones, cutting timber, brick-making, &c. 
and many of them were working reluctantly, as is always the 
case where labour is compulsory, and without reward. — ^A 
few men, employed in making bread, were locked up in the 
bakehouse till the bread was delivered to the Commissariat 
Officer, to prevent pilfering, which is sometimes attempted 
here, very artfully. 

An interesting addition has lately been made to this Settle- 
ment, in an establishment for convict boys, on a point of land, 
now called Point Puer, access from which to the main land 
is cut off by a military guard. 157 of these boys, formerly 
kept on board the hulks, on the Thames, are here placed 
under restraint and coercive labour, as a pimishment. By 
these means, combined with attention to education, they are 

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1834.] VAN DIBMBNS LAND. 227 

acquiring habits^ calculated to enable them to maintain tikem- 
selves honestly. The restraint is irksome^ but upon the 
whole^ the boys seem pleased with the idea of being put in 
the way of obtaining a livelihood. — Considerable difficulty 
has been found, as might be expected, in raising the morals 
of these juvenile delinquents, from a most degraded state. 

On the 21st, attended by a prisoner constable, we returned 
to Norfolk Bay, and proceeded to ESagle Hawk Neck, and 
from thence down Elagle Hawk Bay, to Woody Island, where, 
as well as at many other places, constables are stationed. 
From Woody Island, we were rowed to a coal mine, lately 
opened, on Sloping Main, a point of Tasmans Peninsula : 
we crossed this point to a hut, where we took up our quar- 
ters for the ni^t. Here we read a portion of Scripture, to a 
few constables and soldiers, and addressed them on the im- 
portance of attending to their eternal interests. 

When passing through the forest between Long Bay and 
Norfolk Bay, a large Black Snake met us on the path, which 
we, of course, left to make way for the snake: it passed us with 
its head a little raised, and with an air of boldness that was 
rather appalling. Stout switches being plentiful in the bush, 
6. W. Walker immediately cut one, and following the 
venomous reptile, despatched it with a single blow. 

On the 22nd, we returned to the coal mine, and mustered 
the prisoners employed in it ; with whom we had a religious 
interview, as we had also had, with the different groups at 
Port Arthur. The coal from this place makes hot fires, but 
scarcely changes its form in burning: it finds a market in Ho- 
bart Town, for about ten shillings a ton. Only the top seam 
has yet been worked. Access is gained to it by a level, that 
is very little above the high water mark. 

Having completed our visit, we returned across Frede- 
rick Henry Bay, and landed near Lauderdale, where I left 
my companion, and proceeded by Clarence Plains and 
Kangaroo Point, to Hobart Town, which place I was fa- 
voured to reach in safety, thankful in having been privileged 
with fine weather, in a deeply interesting excursion, in which 
storms would have exposed us to great risk. 
AnguUlaria uniflora, Anqpterus glanduloswy and several 


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228 HOBART TOWN. [11th mo. 

other interesting plants^ were in flower^ on Tasmans Pen- 
insula, as was also Thysanotus Patersonii, on Clarence 
Plains. The last is a low, twining plant, with fringed, pur- 
ple blossoms, delightfully fragrant. 

On returning to Hobart Town, I had the satisfaction to 
find my friend Daniel Wheeler restored to health, and 
proposing soon to depart for Sydney ; whither G. W. 
Walker and myself had, for some time, believed it would 
be right for us to accompany him and his son. 

24th. Greorge W. Walker rejoined me in Hobart Town, 
where we made up a report, of our visit to Port Arthur, 
containing the substance of the foregoing remarks, and 
presented it to the Lieutenant Grovemor. — Feeling much 
interested for the prisoners, and for the Catechist who had 
lately come into office at the Penal Settlement, but who 
was absent during our visit, I addressed a letter to him, 
of which an extract is inserted in Appendix. I. 

30th. Our meetings were largely attended, and were sea- 
sons of comfort. D. Wheeler and myself had to inculcate in 
them, the necessity of a more full submission to the inward 
dominion of Christ, as the leader and governor of his people; 
testifying, that, without submission to his Spirit, we can 
never truly assure ourselves of the pardon of our sins, even 
through faith in his blood ; as he said, *' Not every one that 
saith unto me. Lord, Lord, shall enter the kingdom of heaven; 
but he that doeth the will of my Father, which is in heaven.^* 

12th mo, 1st. I had a conference with a person respecting 
the settlement of his affairs, and took some memorandums, 
from which the draft of his will was prepared, which was read 
to him, in the company of his wife and sons. It is to be 
regretted that the Laws of Primogeniture and Entail, which 
are of prejudicial influence in Great Britain, should be in 
force in a new Colony like this. Their direct tendency is, 
to preserve influence in the hands of persons who may have 
nothing to qualify them to use it aright, and thus to prevent 
the influence of others, who may have every necessary quali- 
fication to benefit the public, but may not be possessed of 
great property; and this is but a small part of the evil 
connected witii these laws. My attention has long been 

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1834.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 229 

attracted to their pernicious effect upon the progress of 
civil and religious improvement in my native land, tlie pros- 
perity of which lies near to my heart. 

4th. We have lately met with several of the Pensioners 
who came out with us in the Science. Many of them, and 
of other persons of the lowest class, find difficulty in obtain- 
ing employment. Some of the steadier ones are employed 
as police-constables, at the wage of one shilling and nine 
pence a day. Several have died, and others have been 
brought into circumstances of degradation, through intem- 

10th. We completed the shipment of our luggage, and 
embarked on board the Henry Freeling, after taking leave 
of our friends ; from many of whom it was a trial to part. 

11th. The wind being unfavourable, we went on shore, 
to meeting. To myself it was a season of poverty, but 
not without consolation. My work being done here, at 
least for the present, it has pleased my Heavenly Father 
to permit me to feel much of my own emptiness, but in 
something of true stillness, in which I desire to give aU 
glory to the Lord, in the acknowledgment of being an 
unprofitable servant. — ^We took tea with Philip Palmer, 
who was at this time holding the office of Rural Dean, and 
from whom we had received much kindness. Several other 
persons were also of the company, among whom was 
William Marshall, the surgeon of the Alligator, ship-of- 
war, with whom we had, at various times, much pleasant 
intercourse. He took no active part in fighting, but la- 
boured diligently to promote the spread of the Gospel of 
Peace ; often reasoning also with the people, on temperance, 
righteousness and judgment to come. In many respects, 
we felt much unity of spirit with him, notwithstanding we 
considered his position on board a ship-of-war, a very 
doubtful one for a vital Christian. — [This valuable individual 
lost his life in the Niger expedition, in 1841.] 

After this visit we returned on board the Henry Freeling, 
accompanied by our kind friend T. J. Crouch, who took 
leave of us at a late hour, when the ketch was preparing 
for sea. 

Q 3 

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Vo3rage to Sydney. — ^Cape Howe. — ^Diversity of Gifts. — Dangerous Ktoation. — 
Fort Jackson. — Sydney. — ^Religious Instruction. — Aborigines. — Rock Oysters. 
— Brugmansia. — Visit to the Governor. — Projected Visit to Norfolk Island. — 
Meetings on Ship-board. — S. Marsden. — ^New Year's Day. — Shrubs. — " Brick- 
fielder." — ^First Meetings on Shore. — ^Temperance Meeting. — ^Works of Crea- 
tion. — ^Visit to the Governor, at Parramatta. — Card Playing. — Snake. — 
Elizabeth Bay. — Fig-tree and Acrosticum grande. — Peaches. — Plants. — School 
Meeting. — Group of Aborigines. — Parasites. — Meeting in the Court-House. — 
Luminous Appearances in the Sea. — ^New Zealand Hostages.— Imposition on 
Medical Men. — ^Meeting on Board the Henry Porcher. 

12th mo. 12th. Thb weather was beautifully dear, and the 
moon was shining brightly, when we came on board the 
Henry Freeling, last night. The ketch was soon got under 
weigh, and it was proceeding smoothly down the Derwent 
when we retired to rest ; but we had scarcely cleared Storm 
Bay, before our gentle breeze increased into a gale. At an 
early hour we were roused by the rolling of the vessel, on a 
heavy sea : it frequently washed over the deck, the seams of 
which had opened under the influence of the dry atmosphere 
of Tasmania, so that some of us were soon compelled, firom 
the dripping in, of the salt-water, to leave our berths, and 
take to the sofas. 

17th. At sun-set, we were off Cape Howe, the south- 
east point of New South Wales : the cape and adjacent coast 
were ftdntly visible. The sea had been rough much of the 
time since we left Hobart Town. The roll of the vessel was 
so great after roimding Cape Pillar, as to make some of the 
oldest sailors on board, sick. Birds have been numerous, 
and we have seen a few whales. 

18th. The weather was fine in the forenoon. In the course 

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of the day we passed Montagu Island^ Mount Dromedary, 
and Point Dromedary, — In perusing the Journal of the visit 
of my friends, John and Martha Yeardley, in Greece, &c. 
I was led to admire the goodness of the Lord, in preparing 
instruments for the particular fields of labour, into which 
he calls them. Thus, these dear friends have been prepared 
for service among the dense population of an old continent ; 
our dear Daniel and Charles Wheeler for a course of voy- 
aging among the islands of the Pacific ; and 6. W. Walker 
and myself, as a sort of pioneers, in the bush of Tasmania. 
Each party would, I suppose, have found the path of the 
other more trying than the one in which himself was sent ; 
the diversified gifts of each have been adapted by the Lord 
of all, to the respective services in which he has required 
them to be exercised. 

19th. The forenoon was beautifully fine. We dried our 
wet bedding in the sun, and got a leak in the deck stopped. 
Shoals of small fish were frequently passing, and numbers of 
laiger ones, rising out of the" water among them, probably, 
taking the small ones as their prey. A few Albatrosses 
and Mutton-birds were swimming on the smooth surface of 
the sea. In the afternoon, we had thunder, lightning, rain, 
and a brisk wind. The evening was wet and dark, and the 
current had carried us so close in shore, that when near 
Cape George, at the entrance to Jervis Bay, it was dis- 
covered, by some lights of the natives on the land, that a 
few minutes' continuance' in the same course, would have 
run us upon the rocky coast. Alarm was excited among 
the seamen, and I do not doubt but our situation was a 
perilous one; yet on turning my mind to the Lord, as I 
continued writing, I felt a peaceful calm, and sufficient 
evidence to satisfy me, that no harm should befall us. — 
Blessed for ever be the name of the Shepherd of Israel, 
who neither slumbereth nor sleepeth, but who, at times, 
permits us to see danger, under such circumstances, as that 
we may know that it is he who delivereth us. The vessel 
was got round in time to clear the inhospitable shore, and 
we proceeded in safety on our voyage. 

20th. We passed Botany Bay this morning, and about 

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232 SYDNEY. [12th mo. 

noon^ entered Port Jackson. The coast of this part of New 
South Wales, is bold, and in many places, perpendicular. 
The cli£Fs, which are of sand-stone, are interrupted by small 
sandy bays. Port Jackson is a considerable estuary. The 
entrance, with the Henry Freeling, is represented in the an- 
nexed etching, from a sketch by my friend Charles Wheeler. 
A light-house marks the South Head, which is about a 
mile from the North Head. The estuary branches into nu- 
merous bays ; some of which have sandy beaches, others are 
very rugged, as are also some of the low hills behind them. 
The hills, in many places, are covered with Gum-trees 
and different species of Banksia, and other trees and shrubs, 
such as are peculiar to this part of the world. Some of the 
more even places have been cleared, and have houses 
erected upon them. A few of these are of imposing ap- 
pearance. — A pilot boarded us at the Heads, and brought us 
safely to anchor in Sydney Cove. Thus, through the mercy 
of him whose providential care is over us, we are at the end 
of another voyage, and advanced another step on our way. 
After dinner, I went on shore with George W. Walker. 
We called on Joseph Orton, the superintendent of the 
Wesleyan Mission, in these parts, for whom we had des- 
patches from Hobart Town, and after spending an hour 
pleasantly with him, returned on board the Henry Free- 
ling. In point of building, Sydney strikes us as being more 
like a large English town, than Hobart Town. Many of the 
houses are in contact: the shops are quite English. In 
general appearance, the buildings are like those of towns 
within thirty miles of London. In the court-yards and the 
gardens of the more retired streets. Peach, Orange, and 
Loquat trees. Grape-vines, and many singular and beautiful 
shrubs are growing luxuriantly ; here and there, tower- 
ing Norfolk Island Pines also mark the difference from the 
climate of England. White Mulberry forms a common 
screen round the gardens, and a small tree, called here 
White Cedar, Melia Azederachy is often planted between 
the houses and the outer fence of the premises. In our 
walk, we saw no person that ' we knew. We are again 
strangers, in a strange land. 

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1834.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 233 

21st. We remained on board, and twice assembled with 
the crew, for what might more properly be called religious 
instruction than public worship. After a solemn pause, a 
portion of Holy Scripture was read ; another pause ensued, 
then a few Psalms were read, after which a considerable 
time was spent in silence. In the morning the silence was 
broken also, by the ministerial labours of George W. Walker 
and myself. In assembling with the crew of the vessel, 
who have not been brought to the same views with Friends, 
and few of them to clear religious principles, our friends 
Daniel and Charles Wheeler have adopted the practice of 
spending a portion of time in reading the Scriptures, as we 
have done on like occasions. 

22nd. We received a friendly call from John Saunders, 
the Baptist minister, and made acquaintance with a few 
persons attached on principle to the Society of Friends. 

23rd. We called at the Government House, and entered 
our names for an audience with General Bourke, who at 
this season of the year, resides at Parramatta. We also 
waited on Alexander Mc. Leay, the Colonial Secretary, and 
on Thomas C. Harington, the Under Secretary, to each of 
whom we had letters of introduction, and by whom we were 
politely received. — From these individuals and their family 
connexions, we received unvarying kindness during our 
sojourn in this Colony. 

After dinner we crossed to the north shore of Port Jack- 
son, and had a walk in the bush. Though Gum-trees and 
Acacias are prominent productions of the vegetable kingdom 
here, as well as in Tasmania, yet there is so great a variety 
of other trees and shrubs, not found in that island, as to 
give this country a different aspect, in many places. Insects 
are more numerous here than in V. D. Land. The Tetii- 
ffonuBy here called Locusts, of which there are several 
species, keep up a constant rattle, like that of a cotton-miU, 
both in the town and out of it. They are generally stationed 
on the upper portion of the trunks of trees, or on the larger 
branches : some of the kinds attain to four inches in length. 
Moschettos are abundant, and are very annoying to some 
persons. On returning, we passed a family of Aborigines, 

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234 SYDNEY. [12th mo. 

sitting round a small fire : two women had blankets thrown 
around them, and one of them had a dirty piece of flannel 
about her neck : she said she had been very ill. They had 
three children, that seemed from five to eight years old; 
one of which, at least, was a half-caste. They had also 
several dogs and a cat. Some men belonging to them were 
fishing; and three fish were lying near their fire. They 
said, one of the men had gone to the town to buy bread, 
but they were afraid he would spend the money in drink. 
In features an old woman reminded us of some of the least 
personable of our acquaintance among the Tasmanian Abo- 
rigines : a younger woman was of less forbidding aspect ; 
and the childm were of fine bvely countenance, and by no 
means of unpleasant features. They spoke English tolerably, 
and gladly accepted a few pence to buy bread. Their whole 
appearance was degraded and very forlorn. 

The Sandstone rocks on the shores of Port Jackson, are 
covered with Rock Oysters : these are of small size, and have 
undulating shells ; one of which is convex and fixed to the 
rock. The upper shell is nearly flat, and is easily struck off 
by means of a horizontal blow. The fish is of good flavour, 
and is sold in Sydney, clear of the shell, at 6d; a pint. The 
Aborigines had been eating Rock Oysters, and another 
shell-fish that resembled a Cockle. 

24th. The evening was illuminated by lightning; in the 
town, the air, after sunset, was perfumed by the blossoms 
of Brtiffmansia stuweolenSy a large South American shrub, 
cultivated in almost every garden, and bearing pendulous, 
whitish, trumpet-shaped blossoms, seven inches in length. 

27th. Daniel and Charles Wheeler, and George W. 
Walker, and myself, proceeded to the office of the Colonial 
Secretary, who accompanied us to the Government-house, 
and introduced us to Major General Richard Bourke, the 
Governor, by whom we were courteously received. Daniel 
Wheeler presented his certificate, fipom the Morning Meeting 
of Ministers and Elders of the Society of Friends, in London, 
and a letter from the Secretary for the Colonies. The Gover- 
nor alluded to some interviews I had had with him in London, 
in 1831, when he read my certificates, from our own religious 

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1834.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 235 

society. I now presented a letter to him from Viscomit Gode- 
rich^ recommending G. W. Walker and myself, and the object 
of our visit to tbese Colonies^ to his notice; also a letter from 
Colonel Arthur, written with a view to forward our desire to 
visit Norfolk Island, and to attend to similar services in this 
Colony generally ; and one from Joseph Massey Harvey, of 
which the Governor was famished with a copy, by the writer, 
when in Ireland. On my expressing a desire to be permitted 
to fulfil an apprehended duty, in visiting the Penal Settle- 
ment on Norfolk Island, in company with G. W. Walker, 
the Governor informed us, that care was exercised to pre- 
vent persons, under ordinary circumstances, from landing 
there, but he readily consented to our going thither, under 
an apprehension of religious duty ; and to our being put on 
shore there by the Henry Preeling, on her way to Tahiti, 
and being left to be brought back by a Government vessel. 
Thus, through the over-ruling of the Most High, another 
important object was put in train to be accomplished, by our 
friends coming out in the Henry Freeling, in this direction, 
and, for the accomplishment of which, way opened in such 
a manner, as to afford to my own mind satisfactory evidence 
that the means for its accomplishment, as well as the sense 
of duty with respect to the visit, were of the Lord. 

28th. We assembled twice on deck, for public worship, 
having "rigged a chapeV* by putting up the awning, and 
fixing a number of the colours along the sides and ends. 
A small congregation, consisting of persons somewhat con- 
nected with the Society of Friends assembled with our ship's 
company. A considerable time was spent in solemn silence, 
in which there was a sense of the presence of the Lord ; 
whose presence gives Ufe and consolation to those who wait 
upon him in sincerity and in truth, and to whose goodness 
and mercy both Daniel Wheeler and myself bore testimony 
on these occasions. 

30th. The forenoon was occupied in conversation with 
Samuel Marsden, the intelligent, aged, episcopal clergyman, 
of Parramatta; whose heart has long been open to encourage, 
the improvement and civilization of this part of the world, 
and especially the introduction of Christianity among the 

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236 SYDNEY. [1834. 

inhabitants of the isles of the Pacific. He dined with vls, 
and gave us much interesting information respecting his 
visits to New Zealand^ &c. 

1st mo. 1st. 1835. Our week-day meeting was held on 
board. Several persons attended it Daniel Wheekr al- 
luded to the commencement of the new year, and exhorted 
us to examine what progress we had made toward the 
kingdom of heaven, since we first believed. It was a season 
of comfort under a sense of the pardoning and sanctifying 
mercy of the Most High. 

We took a walk near the town in the evening. Many- 
beautiful native shrubs are in flower : among them are 
Lambertia formosay Grevillea btuvifolia and sericia, Epacris 
grandifloray &c. which grow in heathy soil, on the bushy 
ground, covering the sandstone. 

3rd. The early part of the day was calm : the thermo- 
meter rose to 100° in the shade. About two o'clock the 
wind arose, with violence, from the south east, and the 
thermometer fell to 70°. It rained in the evening. This 
kind of wind has occurred a few times before, since our 
arrival: it is frequent in the summer, and coming upon 
the town from the direction of some old brick-fields, has 
obtained the name of a Brick-fielder. It brings small 
pebbles pelting like rain, and clouds of red dust, formed, 
not however, entirely from the brick-fields, but also from 
the reddish sand and soil in die neighbourhood. This 
dust penetrates the houses, in spite of closed doors and 
windows, till it is seen upon ever3rthing, and may be felt 
grating between the teeth. 

4th. A meeting was held in our cabin, this morning : it 
was a season preciously owned of the Lord ; the influence 
of whose Spirit brought us into the feeling of solemn 
reverence. The like blessing was also showered down upon 
us, even more abundantly, at the first meeting of Friends 
held on land, in N. S« Wales, at John Tawell's, at six 
o'clock this evening. Twenty-two persons were present. On 
both occasions I was engaged in testimony and prayer ; in 
the evening, Daniel Wheeler spoke also in testimony, and 
at the close of the meeting exhorted us to endeavour to 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 237 

keep close to the sense of the divine presence, which had 
been so mercifully granted us, through Jesus Christ our Lord* 

5th. In the evening, we were present at a public meeting 
of the Temperance Society, in a large school-room, formerly 
used as a court-house. It was numerously attended, and 
many respectable females were of the company. Richard 
Jones, one of the vice-presidents, was in the chair; and 
Richard Hill was secretary. Some resolutions, which time 
did not admit of being brought forward at a former meeting, 
were now proposed, and carried : and the meeting was ad- 
dressed by William P. Crook, Dr. Laing, John Saunders, 
William Jarratt, George W. Walker, myself, and a number of 
persons, whose names I do not recollect. I have no doubt 
but the cause of temperance was promoted. This was the 
first meeting of the kind at which D. and C. Wheeler were 
ever present, their residence having long been in Russia. 
They were agreeably interested. They, with G. W. Walker 
and myself, were kindly and publicly welcomed to the Colony 
at this meeting. 

6th. Having been prevented taking exercise for some 
days, we went on shore, in the evening, on the north side of 
Port Jackson, and collected a few specimens of plants and 
insects : some of the latter, as well as many of the former, 
are very beautiful, and all display the power and wisdom of 
the Creator. The more the works of creation are under- 
stood, the more the evidence of infinite wisdom and power 
in the Creator is seen. If it were designed that the dis- 
play of these, in every part of creation, should be among 
the incitements to adoration and praise, in the mind of 
man, how greatly is his fallen state exhibited in this con- 
nexion ! Instead of being able to name them according 
to their qualities, as Adam was, before the fall, most persons 
pass them unheeded by ; many are disgusted at the proper- 
ties which render them fit for the places they are designed to 
fill ; and among those who study them, too many make them 
their idob, instead of giving God the glory. 

11th. Having obtained leave to hold a meeting for public 
worship with the Inhabitants of Sydney, in the Old Court 
House, and extended an invitation to them, a congregation 

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238 PAR&AMATTA. [1st mo. 

of from four to five hundred people assembled with us. 
Among them were several persons of influence. It was a 
season to be remembered with gratitude to Almighty God ; 
who strengthened Daniel Wheeler and myself to preach 
Jesus Christy and him crucified^ and to direct our auditors to 
the teaching of the Holy Spirit, manifested aa the light and 
grace of Christ, in the secret of the heart ; and leading to 
repentance and to faith in him, and to a humble dependence 
upon God for ability to work righteousness. 

13th. The Governor having invited Daniel Wheeler 
and myself to visit him at Parramatta, the Private Secre- 
tary came on board the Henry Freeling, yesterday, and 
made arrangements for conveying us thither. This morn- 
ing a government-boat took us up to Parramatta, which is 
distant, by water, fifteen miles, up the estuary of Port 
Jackson ; which for the greater part of the way, runs into 
bays on both sides. For about half the distance from Syd- 
ney, the* bays are formed by woody hills of low elevation, 
running into rocky, sand-stone points. Toward Parramatta, 
the shores are low and muddy, and the contiguous lands 
cleared and cultivated. Houses are interspersed at moderate 
distances ; some of them are inhabited by prosperous settlers, 
and have the aspect of those of English gentlemen. Many 
of the gardens are well stocked with Peach, Orange, Mul- 
berry, Fig, and Loquat-trees, and Grape-vines. The grass 
lands are green from the abundance of Cynodon dactykm, a 
grass that resists the drought more than most other kinds. 
It not only abounds in pastures in this country, but takes 
the place occupied by Poa annua in England, at the roots of 
walls, by the sides of foot-paths, &c. 

Conversation on various subjects passed at the Government 
House, in the course of the afternoon and evening, and 
among them, on lunatic asylums. The Governor remarked that 
an institution of this kind was greatly wanted in N. S. Wales, 
and seemed pleased with a proposition to supply him with the 
" Sketch of the Retreat,*' and *' Hints on the Construction, 
&c. of Pauper Lunatic Asylums ;** with which I afterwards 
furnished him. Tea was introduced at eight o'clock, and 
after it, cards, with which some of the company amused 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 239 

themselves. One who declined joining them, said he had 
not played for so long, that he had forgotton how, and that 
his recollections of card-playing were painful. On behalf 
of Daniel Wheeler and myself, I stated the objections of 
the Society of Friends to the practice, on account of its 
dissipating effect upon the mind, and its tendency to draw 
into an immoral risking of property. This elicited the 
remark, that the present company only played for nominal 
stakes. The same objection, however, Ues against playing 
for nominal stakes in gaming, as that which lies against 
what is called moderate drinking, in the use of intoxicating 
liquors. It gives a sanction to the practice, and opens the 
door for the greatest excesses. Where money is risked in 
gaming, to take it one from another on such a ground, 
seems to me, not only objectionable for the reasons already 
stated, but as a breach of that consideration one for another, 
which is an essential ingredient in true politeness. And I 
have remarked, that the inconsistency of the characteristics 
of card-playing, forces itself so quickly upon the minds of 
persons, on their coming decidedly under religious convic- 
tion, that they soon discontinue the practice. 

14th. On returning from Parramatta, a large Black Snake 
crossed the road close before the carriage ; it alarmed the 
horses, so as to make them start to one side, and become 
difficult to manage. 

15th. We walked to Elizabeth Bay, and met the Colo- 
nial Secretary, at his beautiful garden, which is formed on 
a rocky slope, on the margin of Port Jackson, of which 
it commands a fine view. — Here are cultivated, specimens 
of many of the interesting trees and shrubs, of this Colony, 
along with others from various parts of the world, inter- 
mixed with some growing in their native localities. Among 
the last, is a fine old Rusty-leaved Fig-tree, FicuB ferruginea^ 
which is an evergreen, and has laurel-like leaves. A noble 
specimen of Acrosticum grandey a fern of very remarkable 
structure, from Moreton Bay, is attached to a log of wood, 
and secured by a chain to a limb of this Fig-tree. The 
walks at this place are judiciously accommodated to the 
inequalities of the sinuous bay, and are continued roimd a 

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• ' l" 

( r \ 

■.'. .'.'';• n. 

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240 SYDNEY. [1st mo. 

point covered with native bush. Peaches are ripe in the 
open ground in abundance^ and liberty to partake of them 
freely, was kindly given, by the open-hearted proprietor. — 
Dendrobium speciosum and linguiformey remarkable plants of 
the Orchis tribe, are wild here, upon the rocks, and D. 
tetraffonum is naturalized on a branch of Avicennia tomen- 
tosuy covered with Rock-oyster shells, and suspended in a 
tree near the shore. A fine patch of the Elks-horn Fern, 
Acroaticum alcicomey retains its native station on a rocky 
point in the garden. 

18th. Our meetings to-day were seasons of renewed 
fevour and mercy. Several persons were present in the 
morning, who had not before met with us : at the conclu- 
sion of that in the evening, D. Wheeler alluded to the 
sense of divine influence that had prevailed over us, until it 
might rightly be said, "The Lord God omnipotent reigneth/* 

19th. A meeting was held for the organization of an 
Australian School Society, auxiliary to the British and 
Foreign School Society. Some opposition was exhibited, 
but ultimately this was overruled, and measures were adopted 
for carrying the object into effect. 

20th. In the evening, we went to the north shore, and 
again fell in with a group of the Aborigines, that we met 
with there a few days since. They were now sitting around 
a fire and smoking, not excepting a little, naked boy, about 
two years old, who seemed as busy with his short pipe as 
any of the company. They often obtain in Sydney, the 
washings of rum-casks, which they call " BidV^ and get in- 
toxicated with it. In this state they quarrel among them- 
selves, notwithstanding they are very peaceable toward the 
white population. — A group of these people, as they are 
seen, degraded by contact with a population of European 
extraction, is represented in the accompanying etching from 
the pencil of Charles Wheeler. 

27th. At the request of the Governor, we waited 
upon him, and he kindly desired to be informed, if he 
could do anything further to assist us in our anticipated 
voyages. — In the afternoon we joined a company of pious 
persons, of various denominations, at the house of George 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 241 

Allen^ a short distance from Sydney. Conversation took 
place^ on the views and practices which distinguish the 
Society of Friends. These we had in some measure to ex- 
emplify^ in a religious opportunity^ which commenced with 
the reading of the first epistle to the Thessalonians. I made 
some comments on this* occasion^ upon the text, ^'Pray with- 
out ceasing ^^ shewing, that the fidfilment of this injunction, 
depended upon a close attention to the teaching of the Holy 
Spirit, by which we are made quick of understanding in the 
fear of the Lord ; and are enabled to discern our wants, so as 
continually to breathe our petitions in secret, to our Father 
who seeth in secret. Daniel Wheeler was also engaged in 
the same line of service. 

In an evening walk, on the North Shore, we saw a large, 
old, bushy Fig-tree, Ficus ferrugineay overhanging the 
water ; some of its limbs were almost covered with Acros- 
ticum akicome and Dendrobmm Imgviffjrme, A broad-leaved 
LorarUhuSy a parasite of the same tribe as the Mistle- 
toe, but with much finer blossoms, was growing upon some 
of the branches. Plants of this genus are of frequent occur- 
rence in this Colony. Some of them incorporate themselves 
with the wood of the foster tree, and others adhere to the 
bark by an external root. 

2nd mo. 1st. We held our meeting, in the forenoon, on 
board the Henry Freeling. It was attended by most of the 
persons who generaUy assemble with us. Silence was only 
interrupted by a few words, near the conclusion, expressed 
by myself, on the doctrine of Christian love, as set forth by 
our Saviour and the apostle John, and a short addition on 
the same subject by Daniel Wheeler. 

In the evening, we had a large meeting in the Old 
Court-house, the use of which was granted us for the 
purpose. It was an exercise of faith, to invite people to 
such a meeting, under an apprehension of religious duty. 
But I was enabled to believe, that whether it should be 
best for us to set an example of waiting on Ood in 
silence, or to speak in his holy name, qualification would 
be given at the time ; and in this confidence, to fulfil 
the injunction, ^'Cast thy burden upon the Lord, and he shall 

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242 SYDNEY. [2nd mo. 

sustain thee/^ I was preserved in great mental quietude, 
through almost half the meeting, though feeling much of a 
blank in mind, except as regarded this sense of dependence. 
When, at length, tfie passage, "Why do the disciples of 
John and of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not F' 
was presented to my view, with an apprehension that it was 
my duty to express it. — I saw but little of the scope of 
these subjects, to what opened, as I gave utterance to them, 
and by which I was enabled to preach the new birth, Christ 
crucified, &c. Daniel Wheeler added a few sentences in the 
same strain. After I had given utterance also to prayer, on 
bended knees, the meeting separated. We felt thankful 
to Him who continues to be, to his dependent children, a 
present help in time of need, and who qualifies them for the 
labour to which he calls them, in such a manner as to prove, 
both to themselves and to others, that all the glory belongs 
unto Himself, and to Himself alone. 

On returning to the Henry Freeling, the water was 
beautifully luminous, wherever it was agitated. This is 
often the case in calm nights. A train, like the tail of a 
comet, followed the boat; and each oar, as it dipped, be- 
came surrounded by a luminous patch, which became fainter 
for some time after the oar left the water, and at length 
died away. Sometimes brilliant shining points adhere to the 
oars, which may possibly be phosphorescent animalcules. 
The light, in the wake of the boat, and on the dip of the 
oars, is also probably occasioned by this race of minute, 
animated beings, or by phosphorescent matter disengaged 
from the water ; and which may be formed by decomposing 
animal and vegetable substances. 

4th. I had some conversation with Samuel Marsden, and 
with the Colonial Secretary, on the case of a New Zealander, 
who was on board the Henry Freeling a few days ago ; he, 
and his wife and child, were brought away from tiieir 
own country, as hostages, by a house in Sydney, that has 
a whaling establishment on that part of the coast of New 
Zealand, to which these people belong, and of which, tliis 
man is said to be a chief. The lives of the persons employed 
by this house were thought to be in danger, and this 

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18S5«] NEW SOUTH WALES. 243 

expedient was adopted for their protection. Tliere is reason 
to beUeve, it was with the consent of the man and his country- 
men^ that he and his wife became hostages^ but they seem to 
have had no idea of being so long detained. The chief com- 
plains of the detention, and says, that, if an Englishman had 
been detained in like manner in his coimtry, a man-of-war 
would have been sent to demand him. It is an important 
question, how far it is proper to allow of acts of this charac- 
ter, and one which merits the consideration of the British 
Legislature. — In the evening George W. Walker and myself 
attended the committee of the Temperance Society. About 
a dozen persons were present. The cause of temperance ap- 
pears to be gaining ground. 

5th. We had a visit from a young physician, who was 
prevailed upon to join a ship at Liverpool, as the medical 
officer, with the understanding, that for his passage out, he 
was only expected to attend to the state of the crew ; and 
that if his services were required by the passengers, they 
would pay him on their own private account. But he after- 
wards found, that the contract of the owners with the passen- 
gers, included medical attendance ; and of this, the owners 
took care to apprize him, when the ship was on the point of 
sailing. Thus they availed themselves of his services for the 
whole ship's company, when he was unable to make a stand 
against their imposition. — ^This is the second instance we 
have met with, of medical men being imposed upon, in con- 
nexion with voyages to these colonies. In the other case, 
the surgeon was invited to see the ship, when at Gravesend, 
and to sleep on board, and in the morning he found himself 
at sea! 

Having believed it would be right for us, before proceeding 
to Norfolk Island, to hold a meeting with such of the crews 
of the numerous vessels, now lying in Port Jackson, as could 
be collected, application was made to John Hart, the master 
of the Henry Porcher, for the use of the deck of his vessel, 
for this pmpose. This was readily granted, and arrange- 
ments were made accordingly. 

8th. Notice of our intended meeting having been given 
on board all the ships, in the port, about a hundred and fifty 

R 2 

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244 SYDNEY. [2nd mo. 

persons, chiefly masters of vessels and officers, assembled on 
board the Henry Porcher, this morning. It was a season in 
which Divine Mercy brought us under solemn feeling, and 
gave ability to preach the Gospel freely, without any compro- 
mise of principle, to the practices of men. When constrained 
by the love of Christ, to preach, it is a favour to be enabled 
to preach the Oospel fully, both with regard to faith and 
practice, even when we ourselves may feel, that we have not 
attained to the full measure of that which the Gospel requires; 
a feeling that ought to prompt to an increase of diligence, 
in making our calling and election sure. After the meet- 
ing, we distributed a number of tracts, confining ourselves, 
on this occasion, to those published by Friends, and those 
of the Temperance Society. — ^At our meeting on shore, 
in the evening, a long time of silence, preceded a lively tes- 
timony from Daniel Wheeler; I also addressed the company, 
and afterwards gave utterance to prayer, in the prospect of 
departing for a season from this land. 

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Arrangements for yiniting Norfolk Island. — ^Departure. — Adverse Winds. — Shark 
and Pilot-fiBh.— Seamen. — Spiritual Navigation.— Jelly-fish. — " The Elizabeth' ' 
Whaler. — Tropic Bird.— Norfolk Island. — ^Departure of D. and C. Wheeler. — 
Orange Vale. — Oak. — Geology. — ^Features of the Island. — Norfolk Island Pine 
and Tree-fern. — Fruits. — ^Description of Prisoners. — Assemblies for Worship. 

2nd mo. 12th. At the request of the Governor, we again 
waited upon him, to receive further instructions respecting 
our visit to Norfolk Island ; and, by his order, the Colonial 
Secretary furnished us with the documents needful to secure 
us a reception, addressed to the Commandant. In order to 
be ready for sailing, the Henry Freeling was yesterday re- 
moved from her mooring, into the stream, where she lay close 
by the Government schooner, Isabella, also bound for 'Nor- 
folk Island, with soldiers and prisoners. In the evening we 
took leave of our friends in the town, and returned on board 
the little vessel, which had been our dwelling-place during 
our sojourn, at this time, in N. S. Wales. 

13th. The Isabella sailed early in the morning; and we 
took a pilot on board, who brought us to the Heads of Port 
Jackson, by noon. We had not been long at sea before we 
all fell sick. Though the distance to Norfolk Island is only 
about a thousand miles, this voyage occupied nineteen days* 
Adverse winds drove us far eastward, toward New Zealand, 
and we were much delayed by calms. 

17th. Being pretty well recovered, we were able to read, 
and to take exercise on deck. A Shark, about seven feet 
long, followed at our stem, most of the day. It had been 
attracted by the offal of a sheep that was killed in the 
morning. Having had its hunger appeased, it could not be 


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246 PACIFIC OCEAN. [2nd mo. 

tempted to take a nice piece of pork that concealed a large 
hook. Two little Pilot-fish were swimming fearlessly before 
the nose of this rapacious animal^ and three lax^r ones in 
advance of the bow of the vessel^ often almost in contact 
with it; but they darted nimbly forward^ so as always to 
avoid a blow. To have the precedence of something larger 
than themselves, seems a pleastu^ to them; but I could 
not discover their inducement. 

21st. We have lately spent a little time in reading, not- 
withstanding the motion of the vessel renders the head in- 
capable of bearing much effort at one time, either in this 
exercise, or in writing. — It is pleasant to see the seamen 
instructing one another in nautical observations and calcu- 
lations. The carpenter is a good navigator; he became 
awakened to the importance of eternal things on his voyage 
from England; since he became a steady man, he has 
taken pleasure in instructing the other sailors, who are im- 
proving in knowledge and conduct. On board the Henry 
Freeling, there is a happy exemption from the foolish mys- 
tery that prevails on board many other ships, respecting the 
course of the vessel, by which the sailors are kept in 
Ignorance, to no good purpose. 

22nd. We assembled twice on deck, with the crew. 
Some portions of Holy Scripture were read, and a consider- 
able time was spent in silence. In the morning, I spoke 
to the seamen on the importance of having the attention 
constantly alive to the pointings of the Spirit, and on the 
necessity of daily, close self-examination, in order to main- 
tain a steady course heavenward ; illustrating these subjects, 
by comparing them with the necessity of attention to the 
compass, in steering the vessel, and with making daily 
observations of the sun's altitude, &c. by means of nau- 
tical instruments, to ascertain the exact place to which the 
vessel had attained in her course. 

25th. The wind has generally been adverse, since we left 
Sydney ; to-day it is light, and the swell is high from the 
opposite direction. A shoal of Black-fish passed us this 
morning. A Dolphin threw itself out of the water several 
times at our bow, being probably in pursuit of small fish. 

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1835.] PACIFIC OCEAN. 247 

It resembles a Pike in figure, much more than the strange- 
looking thing that is represented on signs in England. Some- 
times, however, it gives itself remarkable twists, when playing 
on the water. Its colour is brilliant blue, and gold bronze, on 
the back, and silvery, underneath. Jelly-fish were very 
numerous; sometimes the sea seemed almost full of them. 
The most common species, represented 
at Figure 1. consisted of from five to 
fourteen transparent tubes, about three 
inches in length, and one inch in dia- 
meter, united lateraUy, so as to form a 
truncated cone, of about twelve inches 
in circumference. These tubes had angular openings at 
their upper extremities : the lower ends were closed by 
membranes, that 'the animal drew in and projected at 
pleasure, and which, in connexion with the alternate ex- 
pansion and contraction of the tubes, served to take in and 
eject water. By this means the animal was also propelled 
along in the ocean. In the upper part of each tube, there 
was a brown, horse-shoe-shaped line, under which a smaU, 
white body was situated as in Fig. 4. A smaller conical 
body was enclosed within the circle of the external tubes. 
The complete tubes ultimately become separated, and are 
to be met with swimming about separately, without any 
apparent diminution of vital power. In these, the coloured 
line was perfectly straight. Fine, transverse striee were visi- 
ble in some portions of the tubes. At night, numerous ani- 
mals of another species, of this tribe, represented at Fig. 2. 
were floating about the vessel, and emitting a brilliant light. 

These were conical tubes, open at one end, without any inter- 
secting membrane, transparent, colourless, or slightly green or 
brown, five to seven inches long, and an inch wide, covered 
with smaU tubercles, among which were short, thick, trans- 
parent, hooked protuberances, pointing upward. The light 
emitted, was visible from a considerable depth below the 

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248 PACIFIC OCEAN. [2nd mo.. 

surface of the ocean, but it was more brilliantly phos- 
phorescent when the animals were on the surface. When 
taken out of the water, these animals, which have a slight 
motion, continued to emit light, for a short time, and 
then shone only at intervals, particularly on being irri- 
tated by rubbing. The shining re-commences at the part 
rubbed, and soon spreads over the whole animal. There 
were also other molluscous bodies taken out of the seat, 
emitting light, like brilliant sparks, but they were so minute^ 
that I could not trace any distinct form. 

Another Jelly-fish resembled the cap of a mushroom, 
about two inches in diameter. It was entirely colourless, 
but was marked by about thirty short, worm-like tentacuke, 
attached, a little above the margin, alternately with patches 
of a few fine lines. It had also a bundle of colourless fibres 
in the centre, internally. This animal is represented in 
Figure 3. 

' The wood-cuts of this curious race of 

animals, interspersed in this volume, will 
give the reader a good general idea of 
some of their remarkable forms. 

27th. We spoke the Elizabeth, of 

Sydney, a whaler, that had been out eight 

months, and had got twelve hundred 

barrels of oil. Some potatoes and onions were exchanged 

for oil, for our lamps. .The people seemed glad to obtain 

fresh vegetables, and they accepted a few tracts gratefully. 

i 28th. More Jelly-fish were examined. 

One was somewhat similar to those no- 

^ /nV **^®^ yesterday, see Fig. 4, though of only 

ifi ^f^W ^^^ tubes, but it also formed a truncated 

11 I tJfjp cone of a perfect form. The tubes were 

^j^ ^4lc^^ open at the base, and the animal propelled 

itself by the force of the water expelled from them. Another 

species represented at Figure 5, consisted of about twenty 

associated, inflated, transparent tubes, an inch in length, and 

a quarter of an inch in diameter, slightly attached side 

by side, in a line, with about every third standing out 

of the line, or, the whole mass was joined together so 

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1835.] PACIFIC OCEAN. 249 

as to form a compact body. Each of these tubes had a red^ 
forked Ime^ extending from the open end to the base^ inter- 
secting the tube diagonally^ and terminating at the lower end^ 
by a deep-red^ spherical body, not larger than a pin^s head. 
The opposite end of the tube was opened or closed, by two 
transparent, projecting lips. The whole animal seemed little 
more than a delicate, gelatinous membrane. 


We observed animals of this tribe, in the 2nd mo. 1832, off 
Port Davey; some of which resembled the single tubes of the 
last, but were several inches in length and breadth ; others 
were concave, pellucid bodies, tinged with pink or crimson, 
and having fringed margins. In the 5th mo. of the same year, 
myriads of pellucid bodies were swimming just below the sur- 
face of the sea, off the Mew-Stone, of V. D. Land : they were 
about the size of horse-beans : most of them were oval, and 
resembled beads of cut glass : others were round and encir- 
cled by smaU oval excavations. Whales are said to feed on 
these. In the Tamar, in the 12th mo. 1833, the Jelly-fish, 
Fig. 6, was numerous. It had a mushroom-like cap; the 
margin of which continually expanded and con- 
tracted. The cap, on the upper side, was mark- 
ed by a purplish cross ; underneath, from the 
centre, a stem proceeded, which spread out in^ 
to a sort of table, as wide as the cap itself; from 
the under-margin of this, there were eight stout 

Animals of this tribe seem Uttle more than organized 
water, yet in the beauty of their structure, as seen in their 
native element, they exhibit the inimitable skill of their 
great Creator, and surely ought, with the rest of his wonder- 
ous works, to incite to his praise. 

3rd mo. 4th. Yesterday and to-day, many Tropic Birds 

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250 NORFOLK ISLAND. [Sfd mo. 

were flying about ; they are called Boatswains^ by seamen, 
from a fiaiicied resemblance of the two long feathers of the 
tail^ to a marline-spike^ an implement used on ship-board^ in 
splicing ropes^ and kept with others^ under charge of the 
boatswain. These birds^ with Gannets and Terns, indicated 
the proximity of land; and early in the morning, Phillip 
Island, which is high land, with a bold peak to the south, 
was in view j and close beyond it, the lower hills of Norfolk 
Island, clothed with lofty pines, towering like spires, and 
giving it a very remarkable appearance. Nepean Island, 
which is small, and very sterile, lies between these islands. 
Two government vessels, the Governor Phillip, and the 
Isabella, were standing to and fro, off these islands, none of 
which have harbours. The sea was breaking heavily on a 
low reef, fronting the little bay, on which the settlement on 
Norfolk Island is situated. Tlie commander of the Gover- 
nor Phillip came along-side, and gave us some instructions ; 
he kindly presented Daniel Wheeler with some Trumpeter- 
fish which are much esteemed. The Commander of the 
Isabella also came on board, and with him, an officer, who 
brought us a letter from Major Anderson^ the Commandant. 
We took a hasty leave of our dear friends, D. and C. 
Wheeler, and their ship's company, and went on shore. In 
passing through a narrow opening in a reef that fronts the 
island, a surf caught the boat, and threw its bow on the 
rocks ; but we quickly got into deep water again. Being 
delivered from the momentary danger, by the merciful pro- 
vidence of our Heavenly Father, we soon stood again on dry 
land, thankful for our preservation. On landing on Norfolk 
Island, we received a very kind welcome from the Command- 
ant, who ordered a boat off to bring our luggage on shore 
immediately; but the surf became too heavy to allow the 
boat to proceed. Having taken a very hasty leave of our 
dear friends, we wrote a parting letter to them, to go by a 
boat that was to convey to them, a few refreshments from 
Major Anderson, and to bring our luggage on shore, in the 

5th. By the return of the boat, at an early hour, we 
welcomed a feeling reply to our parting letter, from our dear 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 251 

companions. Tliey soon made sail, and before noon the 
Henry Freeling was out of sight, on her voyage for Tahiti, 
&c. In the afternoon, we accompanied the wife of Major 
Anderson, and some other persons, to the Commandant's 
garden, which is situated in a beautiful hollow, called Orange 
Vale. The Commandant joined us, at four o'clock, at din- 
ner, imder a spreading English Oak, that must have been 
planted at the earliest settlement of the Island, about fifty 
years ago, as it is as large as an oak would ordinarily be, in 
a century, in England. 

Norfolk Island is about seven miles long and four broad. 
A small portion of its southern side, is limestone ; to the 
east of this there is a still smaller portion, of coarse, silicious 
sandstone. The remainder of the island is basaltic, and 
rises into hills, covered with grass and forest. The highest 
hill is Mount Pitt, which is on the north side of the 
island, and about 1,200 feet above the level of the sea. 
The upper portions of the vallies, and the higher parts of 
the hills, are covered with wood. The Norfolk Island Pine, 
AUingia exceba, towers a hundred feet above the rest of 
the forest ; it also grows in clumps, and singly, on the grassy 
parts of the island, to the very verge, where its roots are 
washed by the sea, in high tides. In figure, this tree re- 
sembles the Norway Spruce, but the tiers of its branches 
are more distant. Its appearance is remarkably different, in 
its native soil, from what it is in the fine collection of trees, 
at Kew ; where it nevertheless exhibits many of its striking 
and beautiful features. Where the wood of Norfolk Island, 
merges into open grassy valley, a remarkable tree-fern, 
Alsophila excelsa, exhibits its rich crests, among the sur- 
rounding verdure. The fronds are from seven to twelve 
feet long ; they resemble those of Aspidium FUix mas, and 
are produced in such a quantity, as to make this noble fern 
excel the princely palm-tree, in beauty. It usually has 
its root near the course of some rain-stream, but as its 
trunk rises to fifty feet in height, and its top does not affect 
the shade, like many of its congeners, it forms a striking 
object in the landscape. 

Much of the land was formerly cultivated, but this is now 

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252 NORFOLK ISLAND. [3rd mo. 

over-run with the Applet fruited Guaya^ and the Lemon^ which 
were introduced many years ago^ when the Island was settled^ 
with a view to its becoming a granary to New South Wales. 
Grape Vines, Figs, and some other fruits have also become 
naturalized. In the garden at Orange Vale, Coffee, Bananas, 
Guavas, Grapes, Pigs, Olives, Pomegranates, Strawberries, 
Loquats, and Melons, are cultivated successfully. Apples 
are also grown here, but they are poor and will not keep. 

This Island being inaccessible, except at the opening in 
the reef, before noticed, and very remote from all other in- 
habited lands, has been selected for a penal settlement, for 
the worst description of prisoners. Most of those now here, 
have been transported from New South Wales or Van 
Diemens Land, on account of crimes committed in those 
Colonies, after the parties had been transported from Great 
Britain or Ireland. 

3rd mo. 8th. At ten o'clock, we accompanied Major 
Anderson to the congregation of Protestant prisoners, which 
meets in a room, called The Court-House, within the yard 
of the prisoners' barracks. This room is capable of contain- 
ing about two hundred and fifty prisoners ; those who cannot 
be accommodated within it, sit outside. The Protestant pri- 
soners meet here on First-days, at ten and two, for public wor- 
ship ; and from twenty to thirty of them, assemble at one 
end of the room, at eight, and half-past twelve, as an adult 
school ; at the same time, for the same purpose, about the 
like number of Roman Catholics, meet at the other end. The 
prayers, &c. of the Episcopal Church were read by a 
prisoner, said to have been brought up as a minister of that 
denomination of Christians. He delivered an appropriate 
address, or sermon, including an uncompromising denun- 
ciation of sin, and an exhibition of the hopes of the gospel. 
Had his own life been an exemplification of the efiicacy of 
the doctrines he preached, and his mind so kept under the 
influence of the Holy Spirit, that the baptizing power thereof 
might have freely accompanied his ministry, much good 
might have been expected from his labours. I would not be 
understood to intimate that no benefit resulted from them, 
nor yet that the man did not in some degree, feel what he 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 253 

preached; ^ut in the coiirse of his address, he honestly 
acknowledged, his own want of conformity to what he so 
strongly urged as necessary for himself and others. This 
individual also reads prayers, in the Jail, and in the Hospital, 
on First-days, and attended to the opening of the Protestant 
Adult-school. After his service was concluded, a short pause 
ensued, when I briefly addressed the prisoners, as did also 
George W. Walker. 

At two o^clock, we went with Major Anderson to the 
public worship of the Roman Catholic prisoners, which 
commences at the same hours as that of the Protestants, in 
a mess-room, in what is designated a Lmnber-yard. The 
prayers were read by a prisoner, in English, except one, near 
the close, in Latin. This man is also said to have been 
educated for the ministry; he seems likewise to have 
some practical knowledge of the inward work of grace. He 
also read a well-arranged address, of his own preparing, 
inciting to practical piety ; and which, in point of doctrine, 
would not, I suppose, have been considered faulty, by any 
Protestant congregation. 

At the conclusion, I stood up, and remarked, that having 
come among them in the love of Christ, I would take the 
liberty of expressing what was in my heart toward them. 
They were very attentive, while I referred them to their own 
convictions of sin, as the reproofs of the Holy Spirit, by 
which the Father sought to draw them to his beloved Son, 
in order that they might obtain eternal life through him. 
When I had concluded, my companion also addressed a few 
words of Christian counsel to them, to which they listened 
with like attention. The prisoners officiating as the ministers 
to these congregations, had been selected as the most suitable 
persons on the island for this office. Some free persons 
were, however, always present, to see that good order was 
kept, and nothing improper communicated. The free Pro- 
testants met at ten o^clock, in a room, at the military bar- 
racks, and the free Roman Catholics in another. The 
Episcopal service, and a sermon, were read by one of the 
officers, and that of the Roman Catholics by a sergeant. 
The First-day of the week is now spent in a very orderly 

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254 NORFOLK ISLAND. [3rd mo. 

manner upon this island ; where^ in former days, it is said 
to have been fax otherwise. Before the present arrangement 
was made, the only apology for public worship attempted, 
consisted in assembling the whole of the prisoners in a little 
square, in the front of the military barracks, with the military 
opposite to them, imder arms, while a few prayers were 
hastily read by an officer. The whole of this was concluded 
in the space of little more than ten minutes. The effect 
was such, that to this day, the prisoners say they formerly 
never heard the Divine name on Norfolk Island, except 
when it was blasphemed. 

9th. We visited the Jail, an inadequate building for 
the purpose for which it is used. In one room, about 
30 men were confined, who had formed a plot to take the 
Governor Phillip, on her last voyage to this Island. They 
had chains from one ankle to the other ; through these, a 
long chain was reefed, which was secured outside. The 
place was so hot and close, that many of the prisoners had 
stripped off their clothes for relief. They were very at- 
tentive while we read to them from the Scriptures, and 
imparted to them religious counsel; comparing the misery 
produced by sin, with the peace resulting from righteousness, 
and exhorting them to flee from the former, and follow 
after the latter. We assured them of the willingness of 
God to enable them to serve him, if they would only seek 
help from him ; seeing he gave his beloved Son to die for 
all men, and has exalted him to his own right hand, to be 
a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and the remis- 
sion of sins. 

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Norfolk Island. — ^Kings Town. — Occupation of Prisoners. — ^Mitigation of Sen- 
tence. — ^Freycinetia. — ^New Zealand Flax. — Agriculture. — Pigeons. — Cats. 
— ^Fly-catchers. — ^Parrots. — ^Dying Prisoner. — Ansons Bay. — ^Wistaria. — Ipo- 
moea pendula. — '' The Sisters " Pines. — Jasminum gracile. — Lagunea Pater- 
sonii. — Burial of a Prisoner. — Improyement among the Prisoners. — Provisions. 
— Sweet Potato. — Profanity. — Perjury. — Madrapores. — Sea Anemonies. — 
Papal Prayers. — Teaching of the Spirit. 

The Settlement on Norfolk Island was formerly called 
Sydney, but in order to avoid confusion with the capital of 
N. S. Wales, its name has been changed to Bangs Town. 
It consists of the Commandant^s Residence, which is a 
commodious and substantial dwelling, the Military Barracks, 
the Penitentiary, the Commissariat Stores, the Jail, the 
Hospital, and a few other buildings, of stone, and some 
smaU dwellings, of weather-board, and a few thatched cot- 
tages, of dried grass. These are situated on the narrow 
flat of the limestone, which is on the south side of the 
island, and but little above the level of the sea. There are 
also some weather-board, farm buildings, at a place called 
Longridge, a mile from the Settlement. Many of the 
prisoners are employed in quarrying stcMie, and in building 
a new Commissariat Store. As no gunpowder is used in 
blasting the rock, and the stone is raised by means of 
levers, there is great waste of labour. This is also the case 
where persons in heavy irons are put to work with those in 
light ones, or entirely without; the latter having to wait 
for the tardy movements of the former. Prisoners, gene- 
rally, are indisposed to industry, and circumstances like 

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256 NORFOLK ISLAND. [3rd mo. 

these are taken advantage of by them. The practice of 
confining them in jails, without work, tends to inure them 
to idle habits, and is a great evil. 

3rd mo. 10th. The Isabella sailed for Sydney, taking back 
some prisoners, whose time here had expired, and others who 
had had their sentence shortened, on account of good con- 
duct. Mitigation of sentence of this kind, has been at- 
tended with very happy results. When no hope was held 
out, the prisoners were reckless. 

12th. We had an interesting religious interview with 
the prisoners employed in agriculture, at Longridge, where 
they were assembled in a thatched building used for a 
mess-room. The feeling of solemnity was striking, both 
while we sat in silence, and while we read the Scriptures, 
and addressed them. 

13th. After visiting the patients in the Hospital, we 
walked into the forest — One of the remarkable vegetable 
productions of this island is Freycinetia Baueriana, or the 
N. I. Grass Tree. It belongs to the tribe of Pandanete, or 
Screw Pines. Its stem is marked by rings, where the old 
leaves have fallen off, and is an inch and a half in diame- 
ter; it lies on the ground, or climbs like Ivy, or winds 
round the trunks of trees. The branches are crowned with 
crests of broad, sedge-like leaves. From the centre of these, 
arise clusters of three or four oblong, red, pulpy fruit, four 
inches in length, and as much in circumference. When 
the plant is in flower, the centre leaves are scarlet, giving 
a splendid appearance to the plant, which sometimes is seen 
twining round the trunk of the princely Tree-fern. The 
New Zealand Flax, Phormium tenax, a large, handsome 
plant, with sedgy leaves, covers the steep declivities of 
many parts of this Island, particularly at the tops of the 
cliffs of the coast. It is suffered to grow to waste, except 
a little that is converted into small nets and cordage, by the 
prisoners, for their own use. Two New Zealanders were 
once introduced, to teach the prisoners to prepare it ; but 
their process was so tedious, that the scheme was aban- 

14th. All the agricultural labour here is performed by 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 25? 

the hoe, under the idea of making the work of the prisoners 
laborious ; but they work so idly as to counteract the inten- 
tion. They are now harvesting a crop of Maize. Scarcely 
enough of this grain is raised for the settlement, where the 
supply might be very ample. They are usually separated into 
gangs of from ten to fifteen men, to prevent combination, 
but a much larger number are now together. After having 
a meeting with those employed in agriculture, we joined a 
company of the officers, who were taking a rustic dinner, on 
the west coast, at a place adjacent. The cliflFs here were 
high and steep, so that it was difficult to reach the sea, 
which washes perpetually against the lower rocks. The 
Domestic Pigeon has become naturalized, and breeds abun- 
dantly in these cliffs ; as does also the Domestic Cat, under 
like circumstances, feeding on the Pigeons, Tropic-birds, 
Gannets, and other birds, and on Rats, which are very 
numerous. As no gun is allowed to be fired within a mile 
of the Settlement, many birds are very tame; some here 
appear naturally fearless. The Flycatcher will come so close, 
that I have seen it take flies off a persons hat, or off his 
hands, as he has stood with them behind him. A small 
green Parrot, with a red ring around the base of its beak, 
is remarkably tame. I missed my way, in rambling from my 
companions, and in the evening, saw a pair of these birds 
fly into a bush, which I opened where they were sitting : 
they did not seem disturbed at my presence, but kept chat- 
tering one to the other. When I imitated their noise, they 
took no notice, and did not fly, till my hand was within a 
few inches of their feet. The Lory Parrot, Psittacus Pen- 
nantiiy which is crimson and blue, is common here, but it is 
rather shy. 

15th. We visited the free Protestant congregation, which 
consists entirely of the Civil and Military Officers, and their 
families ; no other free persons being allowed to reside on 
the Island. 

16th. We met with a man, who was in the hospital, sink- 
ing, from an old chronic disease of the chest : he seemed in a 
dark state of mind, but not without some glimmerings of 
light. We encouraged him to give way to his convictions for 


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258 NORFOLK I8LAND. [3rd mo. 

sin^ and to pray for ability to look upon Jesus^ as the Lamb 
of God that taketh away the sin of the world. It is awfiil 
to see repentance deferred to a death-bed^ when the powers 
of the mind^ as well as those of the body, are weakened by 

I rode with Major Anderson to Ansons Bay, on the north 
side of the Island. This was formerly a landing place, but 
the sand has been washed away, and large stones remain, 
too rough for boats to venture upon. The road was chiefly 
through thick forest, oyerrun with luxuriant climbers* 
Among them was a Wistaria^ with pea-flowers, of purple 
and green, and leaves something like those of the Ash. It 
hangs in festoons of twenty or thirty feet, from the limbs 
of the trees that support it. One of the most beautiful 
climbers of the Island, is Ipomcea pendula, which has hand- 
some, fingered foliage, and flowers like those of the Major 
Convolvulus, but of a rosy pink, with a darker tube. The 
remains of two Pines, which were noted for their magnitude, 
and were blown down in a storm, were lying by the side of 
the road. These were called "The Sisters;" they were 
nearly 200 feet in height. 

While on Norfolk Island, I usually took a walk before 
breakfast, and explored some of the beautiful hills and 
valleys, many of which are thickly wooded. In the borders 
of the woods, there is a great variety of beautiful shrubs. 
Among these is the Slender Jasmine, Jaeminum ffracUey 
known in England, as a delicate, green-house plant. Here 
it climbs over the bushes, or with twisted stems, as thick as 
a man^s wrist, reaches the branches of lofty trees, at fifty 
feet from the ground, and climbs in their heads. In these 
cases, it has probably grown up with the trees, the lower 
branches of which have progressively died away, and left tihe 
wreathed stems of the Jasmine, like ropes, hanging from the 
upper boughs. Scattered on the grassy hills, is HibUcus or 
Lagunea Patersonii^ which forms a spreading tree of forty feet 
in height : it is here called White Oak : its leaves are of a 
whitish green, and its flowers pink, fading to white, the size 
of a wine-glass. It is perhaps the largest plant known to 
exist, belonging the Mallow tribe. In a thick wood, I met 

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1835.] NOBFOLK ISLAND. 259 

with it eighty feet high^ and with a trunk sixteen and a half 
feet round. 

18th. I attended the interment of the prisoner^ before 
alluded to, who died yesterday. After the *^ Burial service/* 
of the Episcopal Church had been read, I spoke a few 
words to those assembled on the occasion, I was never more 
struck with the inappropriateness of much of this service, 
and of its danger of misleading the ignorant, and of lulling 
them into a state of ease, by holding out the idea, that aU 
would be well with them at last, without distinction as to 
their past Uves. We afterwards had an interview with a 
considerable number of the prisoners, in the Court-house^ 
in which much openness was felt in preaching the Gospel. 

19th. The dryness of the weather having stopped the 
mill stream, a number of men are employed in grinding 
Maize, or Indian Corn, in hand miUs. This is hard work, in 
this cliniate, where the thermometer is usually at about 80°, 
at this season of the year. We had a religious interview 
with these men, and were sensible of the love of our 
Heavenly Father bringing a feeling of sweet solemnity over 
our minds. This we could not but regard as an evidence of 
the continued extension of divine mercy to our auditors, and 
we esteem this feeling as one of the greatest of comforts to 
ourselves ; we had also a religious interview with the agri- 
cultural gangs at Longridge. On speaking to an overseer, 
who had been long on the island^ he informed us, that there 
had been a progressive improvement among the prisoners 
for some time past ; especially, since Major Anderson had 
availed himself of the means within his reach, for their 
religious instruction, and had regulated the appropriation of 
punishments to the nature of the offences committed. 

A man spoke to us of the defective quality of their pro- 
visions, and complained of the dryness of the maize bread, 
and the hardness of the salt meat. To be restricted to such 
diet is felt to be a privation, but the state of the health of 
the prisoners, shews that it is not unwholesome ; and they 
are not designed to be pampered by indulgence. The sup- 
ply of vegetables and wild fruits, keeps off scurvy, at this 


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260 NORFOLK ISLAND. [3rd mo. 

The more orderly prisoners are allowed to cultdvate small 
portions of ground as gardens. They grow chiefly the 
Sweet Potato^ Batatas edulis, a plant of the Convolvulus 
tribe, producing large, tuberous roots, which are excellent 
for food, either roasted, boiled, or fried in slices. When 
prepared by frying, this root resembles sweetish cake, and 
sometimes supplies the place of toast at breakfast. 

20th. Visited the hospital and jail. In the former, one 
of the patients was a man whose ankles had become chafed 
by his chains. In the latter, a man confined for indolence, 
and awfully blasphemous language, complained of his sen- 
tence, for what he termed, a frivolous offience. No person 
can be long on Norfolk Island without discovering, that 
he is indeed, amongst a people, extremely depraved. His 
ears are assailed by dreadfully profane language, especially 
if the prisoners are not aware of his presence. Other 
crimes, most degrading in their character, are not unfrequent; 
and to avoid punishment for offences, perjury is committed 
with the most hardened recklessness. 

21st. I spent much of the day on the east coast ; where, 
in some pools, among the rocks, there were several species 
of Madrapore, of the kinds called Corals, and of those 
which, when fossilized, are called Brainstones. One deep 
bason was lined with them, and presented a scene of un- 
common beauty.- A kind of Coral stood up in broad, thin, 
leaf-like tables, rising one above another on a common stalk. 
Some, on the sides, were va]^ously branched and diversified. 
Their colours were white, light-blue, and olive. There were 
holes through those on the sides, that would admit a finger, 
out of which tubular Polyps, of the Sea Anemone tribe 
were protruded, displaying in the sunny water, their crests 
of variegated feelers, of the richest hues, resembling goi^e- 
ous flowers. 

22nd. In the morning, we visited the congregation of 
free Roman CathoUcs, consisting chiefly of soldiers and their 
families, with a few officers. The service was conducted by 
a sergeant. The order and attention of the people was 
exemplary, but it was sorrowful to hear some of their prayers 
addressed to the Vii^in Mary and other ''saints;'^ especially 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 261 

when rememberings that they had been trained in this 
delusion, by those who were not content with the one Medi- 
ator between God and poor fallen man, provided of the 
Father, in his mercy and wisdom, even the Lord Jesus, who 
ever liveth to make intercession for us. We did not, how- 
ever, feel it our business, to point out to them their errors 
of doctrine ; but rather, in connexion with those points in 
which their profession of faith is sound, to lead them to a 
practical attention to the teaching of the Holy Spirit, the 
Spirit of Truth, which, when implicitly obeyed, leads out 
of error, and into all truth. In the afternoon, we visited 
the adult-schools, and the congregation of the Protestant 
prisoners. At the conclusion of their service also, I had 
something to commimicate, of the same tendency. How 
lamentably has the teaching of the Holy Spirit been neg- 
lected by professing Christians, notwithstanding the promise 
respecting this Spirit as the Comforter, that He should take 
of the things of Christ and show them unto his disciples. 
— From this neglect arose the apostacy of the Christian 
church, in early days, both in faith and practice ; and from 
the same source, arises in the present day, the unscriptural 
provision of most churches, in regard to ministry, and various 
other subjects, by which the people are drawn to lean un- 
duly upon man, instead of being instructed to seek, to know 
the Lord to be their teacher, and to trust in him alone. 
The professors of Christianity, are consequently very gene- 
rally, kept in great weakness, and in great shallowness of 
Christian experience. 

24th. In a gang which we visited, at an out-station, there 
was a man, who was under sentence of death, and expecting 
to be executed, at a time when we had an interview with the 
prboners in the Jail, at Launceston, in V. D. Land. This 
man referred to the meeting we had, at that time, with the 
prisoners, with expressions of gratitude, and seemed thank- 
ful to receive another visit. 

s 3 

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Norfolk Island. — ^Disinclination to receive Religious Instruction. — Prisoners' 
Barracks. — Iron. — Flagellation. — Overseers. — Sentence to Penal Settlements. 
— Sick Prisoners. — Rocks. — Cape Gooseberry. — Palm. — ^Wood-quest — ^N. I. 
Pines. — ^Roman Catholic Prisoners. — Cleanliness. — Temperature. — ^Reckless 
Prisoner. — ^Felling-gang. — ^Plants. — ^The Cascade. — Flora of N. I. — Sugar 
Cane. — Rum. — Christian Doctrine. 

3rd mo. 25th. Major Anderson allowed such of the prisoners 
as were inclined to meet with us, for the purpose of hearing 
the Scriptures read, and of receiving such counsel as we 
might have to impart, to remain behind, when the bell rung 
for work, at noon. This was designed to prevent any un- 
pleasant feeling respecting encroachment upon their leisure. 
The number who chose to remain was, however, small. 

26th. We visited the Prisoners* Barracks, which form 
a large tier of buildings, of three stories. They are kept 
very clean, and are frequently whitewashed. The wards are 
large, which is disadvantageous. Opportunity is thus af- 
forded to considerable numbers of men, to unite in plotting 
mischief. The prisoners are lodged in hammocks, suspended 
in two tiers, to wooden frames. The bedding is kept perfectly 
free from vermin, by being not only washed, but baked in 
an oven. For this purpose it is placed on bars of wood, 
which are kept clear of the sides of the oven to prevent its 

27th. The case of a prisoner, who complained of rigorous 
treatment, underwent examination by the Commandant. 
The man was formerly a soldier: he had been sentenced 
to wear irons for life. Good conduct would have entitled 
him to have had the irons only on one leg, at the expiration 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 263 

of twelve months ; but he had been concerned in a mutmy 
and had conducted himself improperly in other respects; 
his irons were therefore heavy, and attached to both legs ; 
and it did not appear that he had any just cause of com- 

Flagellation is now but seldom resorted to here ; when 
it was frequently inflicted, some of the more callous pri- 
soners said, they would stand a hundred lashes for a small 
piece of tobacco; and the recklessness with which they 
committed offences, to which this punishment was attached, 
accorded with their declaration. It was accounted a mark 
of bravery among them, to bear the punishment unmoved. 

Overseers, selected from among the first-class men, have 
the time of their sentence reduced, by every two years 
counting for three ; but if they misconduct themselves, and 
be removed from office in consequence, they lose the be- 
nefit of the previously reduced time. Two of the overseers 
on Norfolk Island are free men. A number who are called 
Volunteer-overseers, are prisoners, of New South Wales, 
holding tickets-of-leave, who have volunteered to become 
overseers on Norfolk Island, for salaries of from Is. to 2s. 3d. 
a day, with the hope of obtaining free or conditional par- 
dons, as a reward for the faithful discharge of their duty. 
The time spent on Norfolk Island, under a colonial sen- 
tence, is not reckoned as any part of an original sentence. 
Thus, a man transported from England, or from Van Die- 
mens Land, to New South Wales, for seven years, com- 
mitting an offence at the expiration of three years, and 
being sentenced to Norfolk Island for seven years, will have, 
at the expiration of that period, to serve the four years re- 
maining of his original sentence, in New South Wales, on 
being returned thither. 

We had an interview with the prisoners, in the Jail and 
Hospital. In the* latter, there was an aged man, who said 
he had lived so wicked a life, that there was no hope for 
him ! How awful is such a reflection on a sick bed ! Yet we 
were glad to find, even so much reflection as this, hoping, 
even against hope, that it might lead the man to seek for 
divine mercy. Another man, who was suffering severely 

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264 NOEPOiiK ISLAND. [3rd mo. 

from the effect of his own sin, professed to hare found 
mercy through Christ, in the day of his trouble: he ac- 
knowledged himself to be among the chief of sinners, and 
said, he sometimes felt very fearful, but at other times was 

28th. Accompanied by the Agricultural Superintendent, 
we walked to a stock-station, called Cheeses Gully, on the 
north side of the Island ; where three men are placed in 
charge of some cattle, feeding on grassy hills, embosomed 
in wood, and partially overgrown with Lemon and Guava- 
trees. On the coast, there are two remarkable arches, in 
the basaltic rock, one of these is between the cliff, some 
portions of which are columnar basalt, and an inaccessible, 
little islet, inhabited by Gannets and Tropic Birds. The 
latter, with their speckled young, and Common Pigeons are 
to be seen, in many places on the ledges of the cliffs. 

Many old roads, formerly used for bringing timber out of 
the woods, are grown up with the Cape Gooseberry, Physalis 
edtdiSy which produces abundance of pleasant, small, round 
fruit, in a bladder-like calyx. This is eaten by the prisoners, 
who also collect and cook the berries of the Black Night- 
shade, Solanum nigrum. These berries, are accounted 
virulently poisonous, in England, but their character may 
possibly be changed by the warmer climate of Norfolk Island. 

In the woody gullies, the Norfolk Island Cabbage-tree, 
Areca sapida, abounds. It is a handsome palm, with a 
trunk about twenty feet in height, and from one and a half 
to two feet in circumference, green and smooth, with annular 
scars, left by the fallen leaves. The leaves or fronds form 
a princely crest, at the top of this elegant column ; they are 
pectinate, or formed like a feather, and are sometimes 
nineteen feet in length ; they vary from nine to fifteen in 
number. The apex of the trunk is enclosed in the sheathing 
bases of the leaf-stalks, along with the flower-buds, and 
young leaves. When the leaves fall they discover double 
compressed sheaths, pointed at the upper extremity, which 
split open indiscriminately, on the upper or under side, and 
fall off, leaving a branched spadix, or flower-stem, which is 
the colour of ivory, and attached by a broad base to the 

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• ••••• •• 

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* .«..« 

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1855.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 265 

trunk. The flowers are produced upon this spadix : they 
are very small, and are succeeded by round seeds, red exter- 
nally, but white, and as hard as horn, internally. As the 
seeds advance toward maturity, the spadix becomes green. 
The young, unfolded leaves of this Cabbage-tree, rise perpen- 
dicularly, in the centre of the crest. In this state, they are 
used for making brooms; those still unprotruded, and re- 
maining enclosed within the sheaths of the older leaves, form 
a white mass, as thick as a man's arm ; they are eaten raw, 
boiled or pickled. In a raw state, they taste like a nut, and 
boiled, they resemble artichoke-bottoms. The seeds furnish 
food for the Wood-quest, a large species of pigeon, which 
has a bronzed head and breast, and is white underneath, and 
principally, slate-coloured, on the back and wings. This bird 
is so unconscious of danger, as to sit till taken by a noose 
at the end of a stick ; when one is shot, another will some- 
times remain on the same bough, till itself also is fired at. 
We measured a Norfolk Island Pine, twenty-three feet, and 
another twenty-seven feet, in circumference. Some of them 
are nearly two hundred feet high. The timber is not of 
good quality, but it is used in building; it soon perishes 
when exposed to the weather. This is said to be the case 
with all the other kinds of wood on the Island. Norfolk 
Island Iron-wood, Olea apetala, is the only other sort, re- 
puted to be worth using. No fences of wood are expected to 
stand above three years. Vegetation is rapid, in this fine 
climate, but decay is also rapid. There are very few dead 
logs lying in the bush. A group of the remarkable trees of 
f^is Island, are represented in the annexed sketch. 
" In the course of our walk, we had some conversation 
with two prisoner stock-keepers, who were Roman Catho- 
lics ; to whom we ofiered a bible and some tracts, to instruct 
them in their solitude. One of them declined accepting 
them, saying that, according to their church, he had been 
instructed by his parents and their priests, from a child, not 
to read the Bible ! The other said he was not against read- 
ing the Bible, but that it was the most dangerous book that 
could be put into the hands of an illiterate man! However, 
on reflection, they both concluded, that they would read the 

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266 NORFOLK ISLAND. [3rd mo. 

Bible^ as they were not able to attend public worship at the 
Settlement, on account of the nature of their occi]q[>ation. 

29th« We visited the congregations of the Protestant 
and Roman Catholic prisoners; and before they separated^ 
availed ourselves of the opportunities^ freely granted us, to 
express what we had to say to them. This being the last 
First-day in the months the prisoners were musteredji and 
inspected by the civil surgeon, after the morning service. 
Their state of health is good ; great attention is paid to 
cleanliness : they are not only required to wash themselves 
regularly, but every First-day morning, they aU bathe in the 
sea, within the reef, opposite their barracks, and many of 
them bathe also in the course of the week. 

30th. The weather has become stormy and wet. The 
temperature has lowered to 75°. From 65° to 85° in the 
shade, maybe considered the usual range of the thermometer 
here : it rarely falls below 65° in winter, or rises above 85° 
in summer ; and the night is but little cooler than the shade 
is in the day. The temperature is registered three times in 
the day, at the Hospital. 

In a visit to the JaU, we had conversation with a man 
of great recklessness; of such, there are several on this Island. 
He was confined in a cell, for misdemeanour, and was chafed 
in his mind, and ready to blame any one rather than himself, 
for his sufferings. He said, he doubted the being of a Deity, 
but wished, if there were a God in heaven, that he would 
deprive him of life, he was so miserable : also, that he had 
only five years to serve as a prisoner, but he knew he should 
not live out half his time ; for before it was half expired, he 
should die upon the drop. He told us likewise, that when 
out of prison, he was miserable still, and said, that if the 
ofiicers took as much pains to annoy the prisoners, as many 
of the prisoners took to annoy one another, the place would 
be worse than hell itself. We endeavoured to direct the 
poor infatuated man, to the proof, afforded by himself, and 
by others of such character, of the overruling of the Most 
High, in the misery dispensed to them for their perverse- 
ness and wickedness. 

Awful is the state of those who are in the gall of bitterness. 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 267 

and the bond of iniquity ! This Island^ beautiful by na- 
ture^ and comparable to the Garden of Eden^ is rendered^ 
not only a moral Wilderness^ but a place of torment to these 
men^ not so much by the punishments of the law^ as by 
their conduct one to another. They form schemes of mis- 
chief^ and betray one another ; and being idly disposed^ they 
are very generally chafed^ by the exertions of the prisoner- 
overseers^ to keep them at work. Being surrounded by the 
ocean^ and all other lands being so distant, the hope of 
escape is precluded. This renders the wicked^ very wretched^ 
particularly men of bad conduct^ sentenced for life. Those 
of reformed character might be moderately comfortable^ were 
it not for the society of the depraved. 

4th mo. 2nd. We walked to the north side of the Island^ 
to visit a ^^ feUing-gang/^ whom we found busy, rolling the 
trunk of a large Pine, to a saw-pit. While they were 
thus engaged, we explored an adjacent gulley, shaded by 
dense forest, and abounding with ferns, and young palms. 
On the upper branches of the trees four epiphytes of the 
orchis tribe, and some ferns and Peperomias were plentiful. 
The Peperomias, which are spreading, green plants, allied 
to Pepper, grow also on moist rocks, on the dark sides of 
which, Trichomanes Bauerianum, a membranaceous fern, of 
great beauty, forms tufts exceeding a foot in height. 

Having had a religious interview with the men, we pro- 
ceeded to visit some others, near Ansons Bay, who have 
charge of a flock of sheep, kept for supplying the officers 
with fresh meat: of this privilege the well-conducted pri- 
soners also, are occasionally permitted to partake. Some 
cK>ws and pigs are likewise kept on the Island, and each 
firee person is allowed a smaU quantity of milk, daily. 

On the rocks of the south coast, Asplenmm diformey a 
fern resembling the Sea Spleenwort, Asplenmm marinum, of 
England, is found. At a short distance from the shore, its 
leaves become more divided, and in the woods, in the 
interior of the Island, they are separated into such nar- 
row segments, that the lines of fructification are thrown 
upon their margins. It then becomes Canopteris odontites. 
But every possible gradation is to be met with between 

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268 NORFOLK ISLAND. [4th mo» 

this state and that in which it grows^ on rocks washed by 
the sea. 

4th. After visiting a gang of invalids^ Employed in break- 
ing stones^ I walked to a place called The Cascade, on the 
north-west side of the Island. A little brook descends 
from the woody hills^ and winds among the grassy ones^ 
bordered, in many places^ with copses, and straggling tree- 
ferns, till it reaches an open valley, formerly inhabited by 
settlers, where their old chimneys are still standing, and 
their orchards have run wild^ and have spread Grape Vines, 
Lemons^ Figs^ &nd Guavas, all around. Their Sugar-canes 
have also become naturalized, and border the streamlet 
thickly, till it falls over a basaltic rock, about twenty feet 
high, decorated with ferns, and a variety of other plants. 
Here the brook is again narrowed by woody hills, and mar- 
gined by luxuriant plants, of the broad, sedgy-leafed New 
Zealand Flax, and Water Cress, till it emerges on an open, 
flat, basaltic promontory, from the very point of which, it 
falls, about twenty feet, to the sea beach, where it is lost 
among the large, rounded, tumbled stones. — Among the 
Sugar-cane and scrub at this point, a beautiful convolvulus- 
like plant, Ipomcea cataracta, is entwined, and exhibits its 
large, purple flowers, shot with red. It was named from 
this place, by Bauer, a celebrated botanist, who accompanied 
one of the earliest navigators of these seas, and whose Flora 
of Norfolk Island, has lately been published by a person 
named Endlicher. 

Ipomcea carinataj a large plant of the Convolvulus tribe, 
having white flowers, with long tubes, that open at night, 
climbs among the trees, in the borders of the woods. Among 
the bushes there are two pretty species of Passion flower, 
Disemma adiantifolia and D. BauerianOy with copper-coloured 

From the Sugar-cane, the old settlers of Norfolk Island 
succeeded in making molasses, but they failed in obtaining 
sugar, not being aware, that the addition of a little lime, or 
potash, was needful to make it crystallize. They also dis- 
tilled rum, and injured themselves greatly by drinking it ; 
but they imagined the pernicious effects of the rum were 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 269 

produced by the lead of the worms^ used in the distillation. 
They never seemed to dream^ that they were suffering from 
the deleterious property of the '^ balmy spirit of the cane ;'* 
under which^ many of them sank prematurely to the grave ; 
and others became so enthralled^ that the love of strong 
drink has gone with them, as a curse, into other lands, 
blighting their prospects of temporal prosperity, and bring- 
ing them hopeless and imhonoured to the end of their 

Near the foot of the Cascade, there is a rock, forming 
a natural jetty, from which boats are hauled up out of the 
sea^ when they are unable to land on the south side of the 

5th. We visited the congregation of free and military 
Protestants, to which the Commandant's Clerk read the 
prayers of the Episcopal Church, and a sermon. The sermon 
was a very pointed one, on 2 Peter iii. 3. At the conclusion, 
my dear companion and myself, again availed ourselves of 
the opportunity afforded us, to bear a plain testimony to 
the necessity of becoming the servants of Christ, in order 
to obtain salvation, and to the impossibility of being saved 
whilst remaining servants of the devil, through sin. We 
also directed the attention of the congregation, to the con- 
victions of the Spirit of Truth, making sin manifest in the 
conscience, as the drawing of the Father leading to the 
Son, in order that mankind may obtain repentance, and re- 
mission of sins through him, and know, through him, a ca- 
pacity wrought in them, to will and to do the good pleasure 
of God. 

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Korfolk Island. — Cave. — Remarkable Shrubs. — ^Mount Pitt, — Group of Islands. 
— Capture of a Parrot. — Marrattia. — ^Petty Sessions. — Marine Animals. — 
Tree-ferns. — Animals. — ^Visit of Officers to Phillip Island. — Guayas. — ^Tnie 
Church. — ^Return of Officers. — Wild-boar. — Runaway Prisoner. — Religionfl 
Interviews. — L\iminous Fungus. — Prisoner's History. — Tidings. — ^Relapses. — 
Parting Opportunities. — Penitent Prisoners. — ^Departure. — Prisoners Letters. 
— Voyage. — Storm. — Lord Howes Island. — Portuguese Man-of- War. — ^ArriTal 
at Sydney. — ^Disorderly Soldiers. 

4th mo. 6th. We went to see a singular little caye^ not £eur 
from the Commandant's house. In this place^ two men who 
absconded^ a few months since^ concealed themselves in the 
day-time^ and for a considerable period^ eluded detection. 
The cave is in the rugged limestone^ that forms two low hills, 
the flat, and the reef on the south of the Island. Nepean 
Island, and a rock that resembles a ship under sail, off the 
north of Phillip Island, are of the same formation of lime- 
stone. The cave was near to a lime-kiln, and was concealed 
by a stone, drawn over its mouth. The Sandstone, adjoin- 
ing this limestone, is very hard and sonorous : it is valued 
for making filtering stones. 

The rocky shore of this Island is accessible from the land, 
in some places, on the south-west. In a few of the valleys, 
near the sea, in this direction Euphorbia obUqua^ a remarkable 
shrub, forms copses, attaining, when shaded by trees, to 15 
feet in height, and 2 feet in circumference. Here also, as well 
as in most of the other shady woods throughout the island, 
Botryodendron latifoliumy a shrub of singular form, allied 
to the Ivy, but of a very different appearance, prevails. Its 
figure may be compared to that of a long-leaved cabbage, 
mounted on a broom-stick. Its stem is about five feet high, 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 271 

and five inches round ; its largest leaves are about two feet 
long^ and one foot broad. The prisoners in the out-stations, 
wrap their bread in these leaves, and bake it in the ashes. 
The fruit is a dense cluster, of greenish, purple berries, not 
edible, produced in the centre of the crown of leaves. 

8th. In company with Major Anderson, and the military 
surgeon, we ascended Mount Pitt. The vegetation is of the 
same general character, as on other parts of the north of 
the Island. Lemon trees grow at the very top. On the 
northern ascent, a Pine was measured, 29^ feet in circum- 
ference, and a Norfolk Island Bread-fruit, Cordyline australis, 
2 feet 9 inches. The last, sometimes attains 20 feet in 
height : it branches from within a few feet of the ground, 
and forms several heads, with flag-like leaves, and long, 
branched spikes of greenish, star flowers, succeeded by whit- 
ish, or bluish-purple berries, that are eaten by parrots. It 
often forms a striking object, where a woody valley runs 
out into grass, growing at the extreme margin of the wood. 

Niphobolus serpens and Polypodium teneUum, two climbing 
ferns, ascend the trunks of trees, in the northern portion of 
the Island; and the Norfolk Island Pepper, Piper psittacorumy 
which produces a yellow, pulpy, pendent, cylindrical fruit, 
of a spicy, sweetish taste, is every where plentiful, in the 
woods. It rises, with a few, jointed, cane-like, green stems, 
to from four to ten feet high, bearing large, heart-shaped 

From the top of Mount Pitt, by ascending a tree, we 
could see the whole circuit of the Island, which approaches 
a triangle in form ; it is rendered very beautiful, by the 
variety of hill and dale, wood and open land. Nepean and 
Phillip Island are also included in the view; the former 
being very smaU, and rising only a few feet out of the ocean, 
and the latter, about five miles in circumference, steep and 
lofty, and varied by thick wood, and bare, red peaks. These 
three islands form the whole of this remote group. Norfolk 
Island is the only one inhabited. 

9th. The gangs being too busily occupied in harvesting 
Maize, to allow us to have interviews with them, I made 
another excursion into the bush, having as guide, a prisoner 

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272 NORFOLK ISLAND. [4th mO. 

who was sent here^ from New South Wales, for bush-ranging, 
or in other words, for breaking away from the restraint of 
penal discipline, and becoming a robber. This course of life 
he informed me, he should never have taken to, had he not 
fallen into the hands of a bad master. In the course of our 
walk, one of the Orange-fiwsed, Green Parrots, alighted on a 
bush near us. The prisoner broke a long stick, so near to 
the bird, that I expected it woidd fly away at the noise, but 
it sat still ; with a shoe-string, he made a noose, which he 
fastened to the end of the stick ; this he reached to the bird. 
After a few unsuccessful attempts, which only occasioned 
the parrot to move a little from its place, he passed the 
noose over its head, and captured it. — The most remarkable 
object that arrested our attention was Marattia elegans, a 
fern of great beauty, having fronds 14 feet in lengthy 7 fo®* 
of which were destitute of branches ; of these, it had 8i 
pair, which were again branched, and clothed with leaflets, 
five inches long, and three-quarters of an inch broad. 

13th. The petty sessions were held : they occur twice a 
week. Several prisoners received reprimands, or sentence 
to sleep in Jail, to sohtary confinement, or to wear chains, 
for neglect of work, or for insolence to overseers. A cir- 
cumstance of improper conduct in a military officer, lately 
removed from the Island, came to Ught, in the examination 
of a prisoner, such as shewed the pernicious eflects of the 
bad example, by which the penal discipUne is too often let 
down. It is awful to see the unmoved hardness with which 
prisoners make oath, most solemnly, to the truth of what 
they state, on both sides, when it is obvious, that on one 
side there must be perjury. Truly oaths are insufficient to 
secure correct testimony, where the moral standard of truth 
is low ; where it is gone, they only add to crime ; and where 
this standard is properly maintained, they are useless, yea 
being yea, and nay, nay. 

The tide being low in the afternoon, I walked among the 
rocks, and detached a few pieces of Coral, of different sorts. 
Some species of Alcyoniumy that are met with here, so 
much resemble the Corals, that it is difficult to distinguish 
them, except by the former being soft. Some long-spined 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 273 

£chini or Sea Urchins are found here, and two remark- 
able^ sea Slugs. One of them is about three inches long, 
black, and covered with- spine-like projections : it exudes 
a milky slime, on being alarmed. The other is as large as 
a rabbit, of a week old : it is drab, netted with dark lines, 
and has folds on its back and head. When irritated, it 
exudes a large quantity of purple fluid. 

14th. In company with Robert EUson, the military sur- 
geon, and attended by William Percival, a reformed prisoner, 
as our guide, I explored some of the gullies, on the south 
of Mount Pitt. Here two tree-ferns, AhophUa exceUa and 
Cyathea medularia, were very fine; the former measured 
40 feet, and the latter 20 feet, in height; both had mag- 
nificent, circular crests of fronds: those of the Cyathea, were 
11 feet in length. 

When Norfolk Island was first discovered, it was un- 
inhabited, and white Guinea-fowl were numerous upon it ; 
they are now quite extinct. When the Island was re- 
occupied, for a penal settlement, Pigs, Goats, Barn-door- 
fowl, Pigeons, Cats, Rats, and Mice, had become very 
niunerous. Percival, who was sent here soon after the 
penal settlement was established, told us, that the pigs and 
goats were chiefly destroyed in the first two years, in which 
time, from the irregular supply of provisions from Sydney, 
the settlement was sometimes dependent upon these animcds 
for food, and the people had to catch them in a morning, 
before they could get anything to eat. Pigs and goats, in a 
wild state, consequently, soon became extinct ; but they are 
still niunerous on Phillip Island. Barn-door-fowl are also 
now extinct, or nearly so, in a wild state. Pigeons are very 
abundant, breeding in inaccessible places amotig the cliffs. 
Wild-cats resort to the cliffs in summer, and in winter make 
incursions on the poultry-yards ; when they also feed on 
birds, rats, and mice; the two latter of which are very numer- 
ous at certain seasons of the year. There are neither snakes 
nor lizards on Norfolk Island; but lizards are said to be 
found on a small, rocky, detached portion of PhiUip Island. 

Two young officers pressed me much, this morning, to 
accompany them to Phillip Island; but I did not feel 

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274 NORFOLK ISLAND. [4th mO. 

satisfied to go, as there was tincertainty in regard to being 
delayed there, and there are no human inhabitants upon it. 
They shot thirteen Goats, which they sent back by the boat, 
on its return ; it brought also a supply of fine fish, of the 
kinds known here as the Trumpeter, King-fish, and Rock 
Cod. The last is very different from the one called by the 
same name in V. D. Land. 

Guavas are now ripe; they are so abundant on various 
parts of the Island, that the supply is more than sufficient, 
for man, pigs and birds, all of which consume great quan- 
tities of them. They are the size of small apples, and have a 
thick coat, enclosing a pink, sweet, seedy mass, that is 
agreeable to eat, either raw or cooked. 

15 th. We met a nimiber of the prisoners, in the Court- 
house, and after reading a chapter in the Bible to them, 
were again strengthened to urge upon them, the importance 
of attention to the teaching of the Lord^s Spirit ; without 
which no profession of religion can avail anything ; for all 
the members of the true church, are taught of the Lord, and 
great is their peace, and in righteousness they are estab- 
lished, according to the declaration of his prophet, what- 
soever may be their name among men; or how much 
soever the influence of education may have led them to 
esteem as important, things that are unimportant, or even 
encumbering. Without this teaching, none can come to 
repentance toward God, or to faith in Christ, or persevere 
in perfecting holiness in the fear of the Lord ; for all the 
children of the Lord are taught of him, even though they 
may not clearly apprehend the nature of this teaching, so as 
to acknowledge it in words. 

20th. The weather has become fine, after being stormy 
and wet since the 15 th. Two boats were sent to Phillip 
Island, to-day: they succeeded in bringing off* the two 
young officers, and all their attendants, except a prisoner, 
who was too remote to reach the boats before they were 
under the necessity of putting off, on accoimt of the rising 
surf, and he remained till the 24ih. A soldier was washed 
off the rocks, while they were embarking, and was saved 
with difficulty. 

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1855.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 275 

While the party was on Phillip Island, the prisoner who, 
is left behind, was attacked by a Wild-boar ; he faced the 
ferocious animal with a long stick, that he happened to 
have in his hand, and with which he parried off the boar, 
at the same time advancing upon it, till it was on the edge 
of a lofty cliff; he then made a sudden rush, which occa^- 
sioned the boar as suddenly to recede, and it fell backward, 
over the precipice, and was killed. This man once made 
his escape from Norfolk Island to Phillip Island, where 
he eluded pursuit, among the peaks, for three months: 
he supported himself on wild animals and fruits ; but soli- 
tude became so irksome to him, that he gave himself up, 
and has since been a well-conducted man. I have felt 
thankful to the Lord, who restrained me from going to 
PhiUip Island, where the party have had a miserable time, 
in the rain, and from whence no boat could have brought 
me on the following day, as was kindly proposed. 

21st. We went about two miles into the bush, to visit 
some working gangs, with whom we had a religious inter- 
view : they were seated, as has been usual on such occa- 
sions, on logs of wood, or on the groimd, in a sheltered 
place; and we were kindly provided with a wheelbarrow, 
leaned against a tree, and covered with a sack, as a seat. 
In our visits to these men, we have generally read a chapter 
from the Holy Scriptures, then made a pause, and sub- 
sequently, given expression to such impressions as were 
made upon our minds, either in testimony or prayer. We 
crossed to Longridge in the evening, and had an interview 
of a similar kind, with about two hundred of the men who 
are employed in agricidture. Two men, under religious 
convictions, spoke to George W. Walker, and he encou- 
raged them to keep under these impressions, hoping that it 
n^ht please the Lord to give them a sense of the pardon 
of their sins, and to lead them in the way of salvation. 

Being out after dark, we were interested by seeing num« 
bcrs of a small species of agaric, or mushroom, so luminous 
^ to reflect a shadow on substances near them. When 
held near a watch, the hour might be distinctly seen, or on 
^ng put near the face, the features might be discovered 

T 2 

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276 NORFOLK ISLAND. [4th mO. 

This remarkable fungus has obtained the name of Blue-light, 
though its radiance is rather green than blue : it grows firom 
decaying sticks or straw^ and is very abundant amongst 
the sugar-canes, as well as in the bush. Its cap is rather 
conTex5 covered with mucilaginous matter^ and is less than 
an inch across; the stalk is slender, two or three often 
grow together ; the whole plant is very watery. The bril- 
liancy is greatest in the cap, which shines most on the 
under side. 

23rd. At an early hour, the Government-schooner, Isa- 
bella, was descried; but as the wind was against her, she did 
not get near enough to land her despatches. I took a long 
walk, to a wood-cutting gang, to collect some transverse sec- 
tions of the wood of the Island, for my kind friend Alexander 
M^Leay. A prisoner who was my guide, gave me several 
particulars of his life. He said, he was carefully brought up 
by his mother, who made him ^^ attend church, and repeat 
the text ; '* and who sent him to a school, where he often got 
passages of Scripture oflF, by heart. He was afterwards er- 
rand-boy to a common-councilman of London, for whose 
convenience, he waited at a neighbouring public-house, to be 
ready to run errands. This public-house was the resort of 
thieves, and women of loose character, with whom he be- 
came entangled ; at length, he joined some of them in rob- 
bing his master's premises. By the vigilance of a watchman, 
the party was detected, and he was tried, and transported to 
Bermuda. Charged with mutiny there, along with ma^y 
others, he was sent back to England, and from thence to 
New South Wales, where he was assigned to a master who, 
he then thought, pinched him in his rations, and from whom 
he consequently pilfered. He was afterwards removed into 
the public works, where, through bribing an under-overseer, 
he earned money by occasionally working for a settler. He 
afterwards resolved to leave off all his dishonest tricks, call- 
ing to mind how much he used to hate the character of a 
thief, when a child. But being sent into Sydney one day^ 
while he yet had money in his pocket, he met an old ac- 
quaintance, who was pennyless, and took him to a public- 
house, to refresh him. Here he took a glass of spirits with 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 277 

the man^ out of the idea of good-fellowship ; this excited an 
old appetite for strong drink^ and he and his companion 
concluded to have a second glass. This destroyed their reso- 
lution to keep sober^ and they continued drinking, until the 
'whole of his money was gone, and with it, his resolution to 
keep from thieving. On reflecting upon this, he marvelled 
to think how soon strong drink destroyed strong resolution 
to keep from sin ! 

He fell completely back into his old habits, was appre- 
hended, transported to a penal settlement for life, and sent to 
Norfolk Island. He had cherished a strong desire again to 
see his parents ; but now, had no hope of ever effecting this, 
unless he could escape from the settlement; he therefore 
joined some others in taking off a boat. They were pursued, 
one of the party was shot dead, another dangerously 
wounded, and the whole recaptured. He had indulged in 
infidel principles, but the sight of the dead man had a power- 
ful effect upon him, and he could not help looking upon him 
as lost for ever. He was committed to jail in irons, with 
tihe rest of his fellows, and they were put upon the chain, 
that is, they had a chain passed within their irons, and fixed 
outside of their prison, to render them more secure. Here he 
felt his situation keenly. Passages of Scripture were brought 
to his recollection, and he obtained the use of a Bible, which he 
read diligently, determining, if through the mercy of God, he 
should get over this offence, so as again to be liberated from 
the jail, he would lead a different life. He also began to 
pray to God for help. The party were tried for attempting 
to take away the boat, found guilty, and sentenced to death ; 
but as they had used no personal violence, they were ulti- 
mately reprieved, and after lying long in prison, they were 
returned to their work. This was only a short time before 
the mutiny of 1834, in which, an attempt was made by the 
prisoners to take possession of Norfolk Island ; having a bad 
name, he was charged as being one of the party, and sent to 
prison, but was afterwards dismissed. 

While in prison, on this occasion, he became privy to a plot, 
for rescuing some men, sentenced to death, which he was not 
comfortable t^ll he had disclosed. His comrades suspected 

T 3 

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278 NORFOLK ISLAND. [4th mo. 

that he had commaniGated their plans^ they marked also his 
altered conduct, for he could no longer join in many of the 
evil practices in which they indulged, and he became in their 
estimation and language, '^ A bad fellow/' Before^ when he 
ran with them into the depths of iniquity, he passed among 
them as a ^^good fellow*'; for thus, among this depraved por- 
tion of our race, is good too generally called evil^ and evil 
good ! and a man, who in any measure becomes reformed, is 
liable to much persecution. This man, and others of reflec- 
tion, say, such is the wickedness of this place, that they often 
marvel that God, in wrath, does not cause it to be swallowed 
up, or destroy it, as he did Sodom of old ; for some of the 
sins of that ancient city are awfully prevalent here. ^ And 
the time was,'' said the prisoner, ''when there was not half- 
a-dozen righteous persons to be found on the Island," though 
there is reason to believe the number is now increased. 

24th. By the mail of the Isabella, we received intelligence 
of our dear friends in England, by a letter dated the 29th of 
9th month, 1834. I had also a letter from Alexander 
M'Leay, informing us, that the Friendship would call here, for 
Coffee Plants, on her way to Tahiti, and that by her, we 
might convey letters to our late dear companions, D. and C. 
Wheeler. — We had also tidings of the tail of an individual 
in V. D. Land ; for whose friends as well as for himself, we 
felt much sorrow. He was one who, through repentance and 
reformation, had been raised from a low state, into which he 
had brought himself by transgression. But old, sinful habits 
are hard indeed to root out. When they are overcome, close 
walking with God is required, to keep tliem down. If care- 
lessness be given way to, they easily revive : and like the 
old inhabitants of Canaan, who were driven to the hills, they 
again invade their old domain. In countries like these, 
where a large part of the population, free and bond, have 
become exiles from their native land, through habitual mis- 
conduct, relapses may reasonably be expected, in many 
cases in which hope has been excited ; and care is required, 
not to be too much discouraged by them. 

26th. In the morning we visited the congregation of free 
Protestants. Their service being short, we had an opportu- 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 279 

nity again to testify our Christian concern, for their present 
and eternal weUeure. On taking leave of them^ we went to 
the prisoner Protestants^ in time also to take leave of them. 

In the afternoon^ we visited the prisoner Roman Catholics, 
and topk leave of them likewise. On aU these occasions, we 
were enabled to bear an uncompromising testimony against 
sin, and to hold up the necessity of repentance toward God, 
and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ, in order to obtain the 
pardon of past sins, and to inculcate a humble, as well as 
watchful walking in the Spirit, as necessary, to being pre- 
served from fulfilling the lusts of the flesh. 

A sense of the divine presence, has often pervaded our 
minds, in a remarkable degree, when labouring among the 
outcasts of human society, in this Island, inspiring the hope, 
that some of them may yet come under the power of the 
Gospel. Though abundance of the worst of crimes are to be 
found among the prisoners on Norfolk Island, there are, even 
among them, a small number, who are not insensible of the 
operations of divine grace. 

One man, who now mourns because of his past sins, told 
us, that he had been twice sentenced to death, and a third 
time, had narrowly escaped the gallows, when he had been 
concerned in a robbery, with attempt at murder. He was 
formerly in high esteem with his feUow prisoners, for his 
boldness ; but this boldness was then exercised in the practice 
of iniquity. He was brought to reflect upon his sinful state, 
under the divine blessing, upon the labours of William Mar- 
shaD, the Surgeon of the Alligator, who, when that vessel 
was here, a few months ago, during the time that a number 
of men were tried for mutiny, frequently visited the prison- 
ers, and endeavoured to turn them from darkness to light, 
and from the power of Satan to God. — ^This prisoner was 
scarcely known to flinch under the lash, of which he received 
at one time, three hundred strokes, nor did he weep under the 
sentence of death ; but now, the tears steal down his cheeks, 
while he lifts up his heart in prayer to God, against whom he 
has so greatly revolted, and implores the pardon of his sins 
for Jesus' sake. In remarking upon the contriting influence 
of the love of God, he told us, that he sometimes heard 

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280 NORFOLK ISLAND. [4th mo« 

the prisoner who slept next him^ and who had also been 
very hardened^ weeping under its uifluence^ while others slept. 

28th. We had a satisfactory interview with two prisoners^ 
lately awakened : they made some feeling acknowledgments 
respecting their past vicious lives^ and said^ they fully me- 
rited all the punishment they had received. Such acknow- 
ledgments are rarely made by prisoners^ except in an awaken- 
ed state. 

29th. A number of the prisoners having expressed a 
wish to see us again^ before we left the Island^ we met them 
in the Court-house^ at their dinner-hour. There were about 
forty of them^ and they desired us to consider them as the 
representatives of a much larger number^ who being out at 
work^ on the £arm^ and in the gangs^ could not then be pre- 
sent. They presented us with the following address^ which 
one of them first read: — 

'^Norfolk Island, 29th April, 1835. 
" Gentlemen, 

'^ We, the prisoners of the crown, embracing 
the tenets of the Prostestant fedth, cannot, fipom pure mo- 
tives of unfeigned gratitude, allow you to quit this Island, 
without thus, publicly, expressing our sentiments for your 
unwearied zeal, and attention to our best interests, since 
you came amongst us, viz. the salvation of our immortal 

" Permit us to implore, that you would convey to Major 
Anderson, our Commandant, the deep sense we entertain 
of his great anxiety, since he assumed the command, for our 
well-being, here and hereafter. 

'^ That a kind Providence may conduct you both, in safety, 
through the trackless deep, to the haven where you would 
wish to be, is, 

" Grentlemen, 

"The ardent wish of 

''This Congregation." 

'' Messrs. Backhouse and Walker, 
" Members of the Society of Friends.'^ 

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1835.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 281 

We acknowledged the kind intention of the prisoners^ 
imparted to them a few more words of Christian coimsel^ 
commended them again to God^ and to the word of his 
grace^ and took a final leave of them. 

An early dinner was provided for us^ after which Major 
Anderson and his wife^ and several other individuals^ who 
had shown us much kindness^ accompanied us to the land- 
ing place^ where we took leave of them^ and went on board 
a whale-boat, along with Ensign Wyatt, who returned with 
us to New South Wales. A boat, coming from the Isa- 
bella, a short time before, was overtaken by a heavy 
surf, and driven upon the rocks, to the imminent peril of 
all on board ; but it was got ojBf again with little damage. — 
A police-runner, on this Island, formerly a notorious bush- 
ranger, in New South Wales, was sent out upon the point 
of the reef, the tide being low, to give notice of approach- 
ing surges ; and we were favoured, through this precaution, 
to escape some, such as might have swamped the boat. 
Being apprized of their approach, we kept under the shelter 
of a point of rocks, till they had passed. Our intrepid 
boat's crew then pulled briskly out, and we passed the 
broken water safely, though not without meeting some 
heavy surfs, that wet us a little ; within a few minutes, we 
passed some high swells, that would break with awful force 
in the passage that we had but just left. Thus being again 
favoured to escape the dangers of this shore, we soon 
reached the Isabella, which had remained attached to a 
buoy, laid down for the purpose, in eight fathoms water, 
to which vessels are made fast in fine weather. If it come 
on to blow, vessels are obliged to stand off and on, till it 
be fine again. In such cases, communication with the shore 
is sometimes cut off for many days. We loosed from the 
buoy about four o'clock in the evening, with a southerly 
breeze, that became so light, as to place us in doubt for 
some time, as to whether we should drift with the tide, 
upon the rocks, or clear the south-west point of the Island, 
which we were favoured to pass before night. 

Before we sailed, several prisoners requested leave of the 
Commandant, to send letters by us to Sydney, to be for- 

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.383 NORFOLK ISLAND. [4th mo. 

warded to their relations^ under the idea, that they would 
be despatched from the Colony with more certainty^ in this 
way, than if sent by the regular packet, to the Government 
Office. This was readily granted, on condition that the 
letters should be open, and that we should inspect them, 
to see that nothing improper was communicated. As some 
of these letters contained expressions illustrative of the 
feelings of the writers, with regard to their situation as Con- 
victs at a Penal Settlement, and the causes of crime, I 
ventured to make a few extracts from them; which are 
introduced at Appendix. J. 

The voyage firom Norfolk Island to Sydney, occupied three 
weeks, in consequence of calms and adverse winds. — ^The 
company on board the vessel, were Ensign Wyatt, G. W. 
Walker, and myself, twenty-five soldiers, ten prisoners, a 
free overseer, a store-keeper and his wife, and sixteen sea- 
men, inclusive of the captain and mate. 

5th mo. 6th. A storm came on in the night; in which, 
on reflecting upon the many snares that are in the world, 
and the many persons that have fallen away from righteous- 
ness, after having witnessed a precious state of divine favour, 
I felt willing to perish, rather than that I shoidd be per- 
mitted to falsify the testimony which the Lord has given 
me to bear, to the truth as it is in Jesus. Unworthy as I 
felt myself to be, of the least of the Lord^s mercies, I prayed 
to him, if he saw meet to continue my life, to continue sdso 
the baptisms of his Holy Spirit, until the very root of sin 
should perish ; and to enable me so to watch, as that the 
seeds of sin might not be suffered to vegetate, but their 
smallest buddings be destroyed, by the power of the Spirit. 
While thus meditating and praying in the storm, with 
thanksgiving, for the accommodation of a good berth, and 
many other blessings, I was preserved very peaceful, under 
a sense of the divine presence. Thus, as in days of old, 
and as on many former occasions, in my own experience, the 
Lord proved himself to be '^ a very present help in time of 
trouble;'* and I could adopt the language, ** Therefore we 
will not fear, though the waters roar and be troubled, though 
the mountains shake with the swelling thereof: for the Lord 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1835.] PACIFIC OCEAN. 2S3. 

of hosts is with us^ the God of Jacob is our refuge^ and 
blessed be his holy name for ever/^ 

10th. Balls Pyramid was seen at smi-rise^ and a high 
bluff, of Lord Howes Island, towards simset. The distance 
was only about thirty miles, but there was so much fog in 
the horizon, that the island was obscured most of the day. 
In the forenoon, the whole of the ship's company, including 
prisoners, assembled on deck, and we had a satisfactory reli- 
gious interview with them. George W. Walker read a 
portion of Scripture ; after which, we both addressed them, 
on the danger of deceiving themselves, and imagining them- 
selves the servants of God, while worshipping the devil by 
habitual and careless sin. The practise of cursing and 
swearing, awfully prevalent, was noticed, as one of these 
habitual sins; and others were also denoimced. The test 
pointed out by the Saviour of men, '*By their fruits ye 
shall know them,'^ was appealed to, and the doctrines and 
invitations, as well as the denunciations of the Gospel 
were set forth, the Lord helping us. The folly of neglect- 
ing the guidance of the Holy Spirit was illustrated, by the 
folly which it would be accounted in a mariner, to neglect 
the Compass, in steering a vessel, and the almost certain 
wreck, to which such neglect must lead. The mercy that 
had preserved us in the late gales, and spared us till the 
present hour, was magnified ; and all were exhorted to flee 
from the wrath to come, and to seek, in repentance, to be 
reconciled to God, through the death of his Son, and to 
be enabled, by his grace, to serve him in holiness. The 
people conducted themselves more properly afterwards, and 
spent much of the day in reading some tracts, with which 
we supplied them. 

14th. A dead calm. The sea was covered with minute, 
red animalcuke, like tadpoles, with transparent tails. Jelly- 
fish, and Portuguese Men-of-War, also a blue slug, half an inch 
long, with a silvery back, and palmate appendages, like 
fore fins, and posterior ones of a trilobed form, with a 
shark, sailing about with its dorsal fin above water, and a 
few birds, varied the smooth, circular expanse of blue 
ocean, bounded only by the sky. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

284 PACIFIC OCEAN. [5th mo. 

15th. Stood for land in latitude 31^. 9^ S.^ and descried 
some hills on the coast of N. S. Wales. 

16th. The Heads of Port Stephens were in sights at 
noon. The weather was so rough as again to make me 
sick: this has often been the case in the course of the 
voyage. The vessel leaks greatly on one tack^ as the wind 
lays her over to that side. Some of our company, at times 
get alarmed; but I have been favoured to feel peaceful and 
content, yet pitying the seamen who have to work hard 
at the pumps. 

18th. The wind still adverse. We are out of sugar 
and coals, and are using the last bag of biscuit, but have 
plenty of salt beef and flour. A spar has been cut up for 
fuel. The biscuit has long been full of Weevils, but w^e 
have made the best of it, by putting it into the oven. 

19th. OflF the Heads of Port Jackson. The wind still 
against us. We remembered that this was the time of the 
Yearly Meeting of Friends, in London, where many of those 
who bear the care and burden of the Society, would be as- 
sembled, and would feel the loss of those who have been 
removed from the church militant to the chiirch trium- 
phant. The prayer of our hearts was, that the Lord might 
support the burden-bearers, strengthen their hands, add to 
their numbers, give them sound judgment and clear dis- 
cernment, and clothe them with the love of Christ: and 
that he might yet cause his truth to be exalted among the 
nations, to the praise of his own everlastingly great and 
glorious name. 

20th. A gentle breeze sprung up about midnight. At 
break of day, we were favoured again to enter the Heads 
of Port Jackson, in safety. A calm soon eflsued, but the 
tide, and a light air that arose about noon, brought us into 
Sydney Cove. G. W. Walker and myself went on shore 
by a boat from the Government dock-yard, and found 
eighteen letters for us at the Post-ofiice, eleven of which 
were from our friends in England. 

While becalmed in Port Jackson, a number of Venus's 
Girdles, passed the vessel^ swimming a little below the sur- 
face of the water. These remarkable animals belong the 

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1835.] PACIFIC OCEAN. 285 

same order as the Jelly-fish^ but they resemble a long semi- 
pellucid^ horn shaving. There were also in the water^ atoms 
glittering in the sun^ and exhibiting prismatic colours^ the 
precise nature of which, we were unable to ascertain. 

21st. We engaged a lodging in the town^ but as it was 
not ready for our reception, we returned on board the Isa- 
bella, for the night. The excitement of landing, in con- 
nexion with the squeaking of rats, in the pantry, the bleat- 
ing of goats, and the crowing of cocks, on the deck, together 
with the quarrelling of drunken soldiers, in the hold, allowed 
us but little sleep. The prisoners had been safely delivered 
on board of a hulk, and the Isabella had been brought close 
up to the Dock-yard. Many of the soldiers had been on 
shore, and had returned in a state of intoxication, and ap- 
palling excitement. They were very quarrelsome. I went 
to them at midnight, fearing lest they should injure one 
another with their fire-arms, which they had with them, 
loaded. After labouring in vain, for some time, to get 
them quiet, I requested one of the most moderate, to hand 
me their lantern, which I blew out, and sent away. They 
became a little quieter, when unable to see each other, and 
then were soon overcome by exhaustion, and fell asleep, 
to awake in the morning, in shame, at the testimony which 
their black eyes, and bruised faces, bore to their mis- 

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Sydney. — Penal Discipline of Norfolk Island re-modelled. — ^EpisUe to Friends 
in Hobart Town. — Meetings. — Unclaimed Property of Deceased Persons. — 
Drought. — Shrubs. — ^Thoughtless Young Men. — Conceited Woman. — ^Prayer 
in Spirit. — Australian School Society. — Unworthy Descendants of Friends. — 
Blacks Fishing. — Species of CsUitris. — Ministry. — Shrubs. — ^Friends' Books. 
D. and C. Wheeler. — J. Leach. — Consumption. — ^Meeting at Cooks Biyer. — 
Travelling in New South Wales. — ^Mounted Police. — ^Meeting at the North 
Shore. — Botany Bay. — Dye-woods, &o. — Orass-tree. — Sweet Tea. — Miasmal 

After returning from Norfolk Island^ we remained in 
Sydney nearly fifteen weeks. In the course of this time, at 
the request of the Governor, we presented him a Report, 
on the state of the Penal Settlement, on Norfolk Island, 
containing the substance of the preceding remarks, and 
some observations of temporary interest, not needful to be 
introduced here ; especially, as the penal discipline, at that 
station, has been completely re-modelled, in order to afford 
Captain Maconochie the opportunity of trying to carry out 
his enlightened views, respecting the treatment of criminals. 
Some notice of these views will be found in this volume, 
under date of the 19th of 8th mo., 1837- 

The few persons professing with Friends, in Sydney, 
had kept up a meeting for worship, during our absence, 
both on First-days, and in the forenoon of one other day in 
the week. The little congregation in Hobart Town, who 
had lately been placed in circumstances of trial, excited our 
sympathy; and soon after landing, we addressed an epistle 
to them, a copy of which is inserted in Appendix. K. 

5th mo. 24th. The meetings were owned of the Good 
Shepherd, by a measure of heavenly solemnity. They were 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 287 

held in silence^ except that O. W. Walker expressed a few 
sentences near the close of that in the afternoon. The 
effects of our late voyage^ upon my own health, have been 
such, as to render it difficult for me to keep my mind 
properly settled, on these occasions ; but divine mercy has 
condescended to my weakness, so that I have stiU been 
permitted to feel the sensible influence of the Holy Spirit. 

26th. I consulted the Colonial Secretary, respecting the 
inquiries of a friend, in England, on behalf of one of his 
neighbours, whose brother died in this country, leaving some 
property. This, according to a good regulation in the 
Colony, was taken possession of by the Registrar of the 
Supreme Court, and advertised, to enable the relatives of the 
deceased to claim it. The Secretary kindly offered to obtain 
the desired information, if I would address a letter to him 
on the subject, which was done accordingly. 

28th. Very little rain has fellen for many months. 
Wheat is ten shiUings a bushel. Oranges and late Peaches 
are beginning to ripen. Apples from . Van Diemens Land 
are in the market. Several fine shrubs are in blossom, in 
the woods and bushy places, on the borders of Port Jackson. 
Among them are Banksia erietfoUa, udegTJfolia and spumlosa, 
Orowea salignay Styphelia tubiflora, Acacia suaioeolens, Hakea 
gibbosoy and Epacris gratu^hra^ Several of these are well 
known in English greenhouses. 

31st. A few young men who have been brought up 
among Friends, but have not retained their membership 
among them, have lately attended our meetings for worship. 
Like too many others, they seem never to have given due 
thought to their eternal interests : they have evidently the 
first principles of religion to learn, before they can know 
"the way of peace,'^ either as regards this world, or the 

6th mo. 3rd. I called upon an aged woman, who was 
sent to this Colony many years since, to conduct a school, 
^der the auspices of the Government. . She possessed 
considerable abilities, but overrated them, and assumed a 
^€pree of consequence, and expectation, beyond her proper 
sphere. This has stood greatly in the way of her prosperity; 

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288 SYDNEY. [6th mo. 

she is now very mfirm^ and in a dependent state^ a monu- 
ment of the folly of being ^' heady and high-minded.'^ 

4th. In our little week-day meeting, I was very sensible 
of the spirit of supplication^ and many secret petitions 
ascended from the altar of my heart, both on my own 
account, and on account of others ; but nothing of constrain- 
ing influence was felt, indicating it to be my place to lift up 
my voice on behalf of the assembled company; who^ I 
believe, were also sensible of the overshadowing of the 
Holy Spirit, and had access for themselves to the Throne of 

5th. We attended the Committee of the Australian 
School Society ; which is ready to open its first school^ on 
the 8th. 

9th. We visited some persons descended from Friends ; 
but though they received us kindly, they neither appeared 
to understand the principles of the Society, nor the first 
principles of the Gospel^ and consequently coidd not be 
expected to have much value for the example of their 

* We walked to Cooks River, which empties itself into 
Botany Bay, and fell in with a party of Blacks, who were 
fishing. One of them had a canoe, made of a large sheet of 
bark, stretched open with sticks, and drawn together in 
folds at the ends. This process they effect, by first warming 
the bark in the fire. The man and his wife were seated on 
their knees in the canoe, *in which they had a fire, on a flat 
stone. The man propelled the canoe by means of a paddle, 
that he applied first on one side and then on the other. He 
used a spear in fishing, made of a long stick, with four, long, 
wooden prongs, attached to it^ by means of string and Grass- 
tree Gimi. This he brought slowly, almost into contact 
with the fish, before striking. While fishing, he kept up a 
noise like the blowing of a Porpoise, and accompanied it by 
showers of saliva, that disturbed the sur&ce of the water, 
like small rain. He seldom failed in transfixing his finny 
prey. Another man, who stood on a log that extended 
into the river, was equally successful, by a similar process. 

14th. A person spoke in the meeting this morning, but 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 289 

got into a state of excitement, and exceeded the measure 
of his exercise, and thus became confused. This gave rise 
to some observations, after meeting, on the advantage of 
being deliberate, and of avoiding excitement, and the con- 
sequent risk of going too far in expression. A few remarks 
were also made on the views of Friends, in regard to the 
liberty of speaking in assemblies, for worship, as some of 
the persons who met with us needed information on this 
head. They were reminded, that though Friends admitted 
this liberty, in subjection to the judgment of the church, 
according to Scripture, they were careful that none should 
exercise it, but in the fear of the Lord, and under the belief, 
that it was in the counsel of his will, that they spoke. 

15th. We committed a few books, the writings of Friends, 
of which we apprehend the religious world, generally, know 
but little, to a gentleman, in the East India Company's 
service, to be placed in a public library, at Madras, or dis- 
posed of in such other way, as he may think likely, to make 
their valuable contents the most useful. The weather of a 
Sydney winter is fine, clear, and remarkably agreeable ; the 
thermometer varying from 46° to 66°, in the shade. Among 
the many beautiful shrubs, now in blossom, are Accicia pungena, 
BossuBa heterophyllay DUlwyma ericoidesy Boronia pUonema 
and tetrathecoidesy Eriostemon salictfoliusy Lambertia formosa, 
Bankaia collina, and Leptospermum baccatum. 

19th. Yesterday, we had the satisfaction of learning, 
from Captain Blackwood, of the Hyacinth, sloop-of-war, 
just arrived from Tahiti, that the Henry Freeling, with our 
friends, D. and C. Wheeler, had reached that island, in 
safety. To-day, we received satisfactory letters from them, 
mentioning the cordial reception they met with from the 
Missionaries and the Natives. 

20th. We took leave of John Leach and his wife, on 
board the Governor Phillip, bound for Norfolk Island. 
They left V. D. Land, in consequence of the increased in- 
disposition of John Leach, who has had consimiptive symp- 
toms for several years. General Bourke has appointed hin^ 
to the office of Catechist, to the penal settlement, on Nor- 
folk Island, in the hope, that the mild climate may conduce 

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290 SYDNEY. [6th mo. 

to lengthen his life^ and that he may be made serviceable 
to the prisoners there, as he has been, in an eminent degree, 
to those in V. D. Land. — ^We parted from them in Chris- 
tian love, under a precious sense of the divine presence 
overshadowing our minds. 

Consumption is not of frequent occurrence, among emi- 
grants from Europe, but children born in Australia, of 
European parents, sometimes die of this disease. Where 
it occurs amongst emigrants from Europe, it is generaUy 
as many years in running its course, as it would be months, 
in England. 

21st. We had a satisfactory meeting, on the premises 
of a settler, at Cooks River, seven miles from Sydney, 
where, by the zeal of a Wesleyan, a small congregation has 
been collected, which assembles on First-day mornings. 
The congregation consisted of about twenty persons. They 
assembled in a small hut, of split timber, placed perpen- 
dicularly into the ground, having interstices between the 
timbers, so open as to admit more cold air than was com- 
fortable, at this season of the year. The pulpit and seats 
were all very rustic. The appropriation of such a place 
to the purpose of divine worship, in this neighbourhood, 
is a token for good, not to be despised. Our kind friend, 
J. Tawell, conveyed us to the place, in a glass-coach. A 
few vehicles of this- kind are kept in Sydney, to let out for 
hire ; but there is no regular system of posting, yet estab- 
lished in any part of N. S. Wales, though coaches run daily 
to Parramatta, Liverpool, &c. 

We passed some of the Mounted-police, who are scour- 
ing the neighbourhood, in search of bush-rangers ; a party 
of whom robbed a cottage, at the angle of the road to Cool^ 
River, last week. One of them was shot in the act. They 
were prisoners who had escaped from a neighbouring ironed- 

28th. We had an interesting meeting with the inhab- 
itants of the North Shore of Port Jackson, at the house 
of John Parker, a gardener, from Norfolk, who emigrated 
to the Cape of Good Hope, in 1819, and subsequently to 
this Colony. The Divine Presence was sensibly felt, and 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 291 

ability was afForded us, to direct the congregation, to the 
teaching of the Lord, by his Spirit, manifested to the 
attentive mind^ as a witness against sin, and as a guide, a 
counsellor, and a comforter. The nature of true worship 
was explained, as well as the advantage of waiting upon the 
Lord in silence, to receive a knowledge of our states, and thus 
to become prepared to pray in spirit for the supply of our 
wants, and to give thanks in the name of Jesus, for the 
mercies received. The example of our holy Redeemer was 
held up to view, in rejecting the temptation of Satan, to 
worship him, for the purpose of obtaining the glories of the 
world. The contrariety to this example, was pointed out, in 
those, who, for the sake of a share of tiiese glories, sacrifice 
trutii, honesty, and justice, or immerse themselves in the love 
of tiie world. These, and all others who live in transgression 
against God, and in the gratification of their own corrupt 
propensities, were shown to be, through such things, falling 
down to Satan in spirit, and worshipping him. From the 
feeling that prevailed, I have no doubt, but that the Holy 
Spirit vras felt to bear witness to the same truths, in the 
minds of many of the congregation. G. W. Walker had a 
large part in the vocal labour of this meeting, much to my 

7th mo. 4th. Wishing to hold a meeting with the few 
settiers, on the shores of Botany Bay, we walked thither, 
and called at their dwellings. These are chiefly small huts, 
on the edge of a marsh, built by some veteran soldiers, 
who were located there, a few years since. The soil being 
of a nature requiring to be turned over, and exposed to 
the action of the air, for two or three years before it be- 
comes fertile, and tiiese men having no capital, and not 
being generally industrious, many of their cottages have 
been deserted, and their lands have passed into other hands. 
Botany Bay, with its gay shrubs, might wear an imposing 
aspect, to the first navigators of these seas, after a tedious 
voyage ; but its shores are shallow, and not convenient for 
landing, and most of the land on the north side, is dreary 
sand and marsh, of little, real value. The pieces that are 
worth anything, are of very limited extent, and are in few 


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292 BOTANY BAY. [7th mo. 

hands. One of the proprietors has estabUshed a woollen 
manufactory^ which, from the price' of labour in this coun- 
try, is not likely to pay. He told us, that the leaves of 
the Wooden-pear, Xyhmelum pyrjformey dye wool yellow, 
and that the branches of Leptospermum scqparium, answer 
the purposes of Fustic-wood, and dye fawn-colour. A hand- 
some species of Grass-tree, XatUhorrhma arb&reay was in 
flower, in some of the sandy grounds : its root-stocks were 
surmounted by an elegant crest, of rush-like leaves; fromi 
the centre of which, the flower stem arose to ten feet 
in height ; somewhat less than the upper half of this, was 
densely covered with brown scales, giving it an appearance, 
something like a Bull-rush. From amongst these scales 
the small, white, star-like flowers emerged, as in the other 
species of this genus. The plants with large root-stocks 
had been destroyed, for fuel, for which purpose they are 
much valued. In this neighbourhood, as well as at Port 
Jackson, the Sweet Tea, SmiUuif glydphylUiy abounds. It 
is a low, climbing plant, with narrow, heart-shaped leaves, 
having a taste something like Spanish Liquorice. It was 
used instead of tea, by the early settlers, apd formed the 
chief ingredient in their drink, on occasions of rejoicing. 

5th. Slight firost has occurred in some nights lately, so 
as to produce thin ice. Heavy rain fell last night, which 
was truly acceptable after the long drought. We lodged 
with a settler from Ireland, and had a meeting with about 
forty persons, at the house of his neighbour; where the 
Wesleyans, from Sydney, usually hold a meeting, on First- 

6th. The rain continued, with little intermission, but 
we returned to Sydney; 6. W. Walker became affected 
with low fever, from miasmata, raised by the wet on the 
parched marshes. 

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Sydney. — Meetings. — Austratian Settlers. — Weather. — ^Zamia. — Vegetable In- 
stinct. — ^Beneyolent Society. — ^Aborigines. — Gospel Labourers. — ^Temperance 
Lectures. — ^Liverpool. — Bible Meeting. — Hospital. — Unsteady Emigrants. — 
Work of the Spirit. — Ferserering Prayer. — L. E. Threlkeld. — Inyalids from 
India. — Temperance Committee. — Bible Meeting. — Spring. — ^Loquat. — ^Deci- 
duous Trees. 

7th mo. 9th. Six persons^ including G. W. Walker and my- 
self^ were present at the week-day meeting. It was a season 
in which ability was granted^ to point out the necessity 
of Ijeing willing, to have ^^ judgment laid to the line, and 
righteousness to the plummet/^ in order that, not only the 
pardon of past sin might be obtained, through faith in the 
sacrifice of Christ, but also ability to do the will of God, 
by the help of the Spirit, which is freely offered us, if we 
do but ask it. The congregation was also shown, that we 
cannot ask this help acceptably, unless we keep under the 
operation of the Holy Spirit, so as to be preserved sensible 
of our need of help ; and that without continued help, man 
is sure to go astray, in one way or other, and to try to recon- 
cile himself to an imperfect and sinful state. 

We dined, and spent the evening, with some of our 
friends, and were again refreshed by reading some extracts 
from the journal of J. and M. Yeardley. The state of 
society seems to be widely different, in the thickly-peopled 
parts of Europe, from what it is in the thinly -inhabited regions 
of Australia. In the latter, few persons are to be found, willing 
to devote their time and energies to endeavouring to raise 
the moral and religious tone of the population. Most of 
the settlers, who rank above the lowest class, have come 
hither, to try to better their fortunes ; this object they seem 


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294 SYDNEY. [7th mo. 

chiefly to pursue ; and where they are successful^ pleasure, 
and a measure of display, are, with most of them, the chief 
additional objects, combined with the original pursuit. 

12th. Our meetings were seasons of comfort. The 
sense of divine favour was not only granted, but also 
ability to labour, to bring the little congregation to a more 
steady attention to the impressions and operations of the 
Holy Spirit; in order that they may become more tho- 
roughly engrafted into Christ, the True Vine, and be lively 
branches in him, bringing forth fruit to the glory of their 
Heavenly Father. 

18th. Several days, lately, have been very wet. To- 
day, in a fine interval, we walked a few miles, to the east 
of Sydney. In a bushy hollow, we met with Zamia apiralisy 
a singular. Palm-like plant, in fruit. The whole fruit has 
some resemblance to a Pine-apple ; but large nuts, in red 
coats, are fixed under the scales forming the outside. 
The Blacks, place these nuts under stones, at the bottom of 
water, in order to extract some noxious principle from them ; 
they are afterwards converted into food. In wet weather, 
an insipid, jelly-like gum, which is wholesome, and not un- 
palatable, exudes from the plant. 

20th. Three species of the genus LorantkuSj which con- 
sists of plants, allied to Mistletoe, grow parasitically on 
trees in this neighbourhood. They have handsome blos- 
soms, a little like Honey-suckle, but with more green, 
than yellow or red in them. Two of them have external 
roots, adhering to the bark of the trees that support them, 
and incorporating themselves with it ; but occasionally* one 
of these species happens to grow upon the other, and then it 
emits no external root ! This is a striking instance of that 
power, sometimes exhibited by a plant, to adapt itself to 
circumstances, and which is called Vegetable Instinct. 

21st. We attended the anniversary meeting of the Be- 
nevolent Society, an interesting institution, for the relief 
of the infirm poor, many of whom are supported in its 
Asylum. The funds of this society are raised, to a con- 
siderable extent, by voluntary subscription; but as many 
of the objects of relief, and support, are persons who have 

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1835«] NEW SOUTH WALES. 295 

come to the Colony as prisoners, the Government makes 
up the deficiencies in the funds. 

23rd. I met a large group of Aborigines, in the street, 
several of whom appeared to be intoxicated. Some of them 
were dressed in dirty blankets. A few of the women had 
on skin garments, with the fur outside. Though some of 
the younger ones were not of unpleasing features, making 
allowance for their national outline, they looked meagre, 
and miserably degraded. 

26th. The meetings were seasons of much conflict to 
my mind, under a feeling of the power of temptation, per- 
haps in sympathy with others, under that power, but I 
was mercifully enabled to trust in the Lord, and if not to 
stay my mind upon my God, yet to keep him in remem- 
brance, in the sense that help was in him alone* In seek- 
ing this help, through faith in the blessed Mediator, I 
found it my place, out of my own weakness, to call others 
to the source of strength, and to testify to the stability 
of that Foundation laid in Zion, which whosoever builds 
upon, shall not be confounded. 

28th. In the evening, we attended the committees of 
the Bible Society and Religious Tract Society, which were 
interesting. It is comforting to find a few persons, in this 
Colony, labouring, according to their various measures of 
spiritual light, to promote the spread of the Gospel. These 
are chiefly, individuals who left their native land as mis- 
sionaries, or religious teachers; but some of them have 
found it necessary to enter into business, for the support 
of their families. 

Having believed that advantage might arise from giving a 
few lectures on Temperance, and the matter having pressed 
upon me as a duty, we obtained the use of the Old Court 
House, for this purpose. I was enabled to get through 
the first, which took place this evening, with more comfort 
than I anticipated. The audience was pretty large, and I 
trust, there was left upon their minds, an increased convic- 
tion of the evils of spirit-drinking, and of the importance 
of persons, of respectable character, abstaining altogether 
from this great source of temporal and moral evil, in order 

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296 SYDNEY. [7th mo- 

to promote, by their example, a reformation among the 
population at large. 

8th mo. 3rd. We attended a meeting at Liverpool, 
twenty miles from Sydney, for the re-organization of an 
Auxiliary Bible Society. The one formerly existing there, 
having become extinct. It is difiicult to keep up institutions 
of this kind, in a newly settled country, where they are 
more dependent for maintenance, upon excitement, than 
upon principle. The attendance was not large for the 
town, which contains about 600 inhabitants. The Colonial 
Hospital, at Liverpool, is a fine building, of brick; and 
there are a few good houses in the place, of the same 
material. The road from Sydney to Liverpool is good; 
It has two turnpike gates, and lies through a low forest of 
Eucalyptusy Acacia, and Melaleuca : it crosses Georges Ri- 
ver, by a rude bridge ; but a handsome one, of stone, with 
one elliptical arch, is in the course of erection. 

4th. I called upon a young man, from whom I had re- 
ceived a letter, imploring assistance : he came to the Colony 
two years since, and has been sinking in the scale of 
society, till he has got very low. To send young men, 
who are unsteady, to a distant land, is a dangerous expe- 
dient. They meet with numerous temptations, and usually 
give way to them, till they are brought into the depth of 
wretchedness. In this state, some of them commit suicide, 
others take to thieving or forgery, and become convicts ; 
others get berths among the lowest grade of sailors; and 
but few reform, or obtain situations in which they can re- 
trieve their characters. 

5th. We again crossed to the North Shore of Port 
Jackson, and invited the inhabitants to a meeting, to be 
held at the house of a settler. A young man accompanied 
us, from a family, who have become deeply interested re- 
specting the principles of Friends, and are carefully read- 
ing ^^Barclay^s Apology.*^ We had a long ramble, and 
becoming hungry, regaled ourselves with Oysters, from 
the rocks. 

9th. We returned to the North Shore of Port Jackson, 
in a boat, kindly sent for us, by the person at whose house 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 297 

the meeting was appointed. The congregation amounted to 
fifty-four persons. I was enabled to extend to them the 
invitations of the Gospel^ and to show, from many passages 
of Scripture, the necessity of being led by the Spirit of 
God, if we would become the children of God ; and that, 
without this Spirit, we have neither inclination' nor ability 
to take one step in the way of holiness. But by the assist- 
ance of this Spirit, which is freely offered to all, and which 
works in all who do not resist it, we are enabled to per- 
form the will of God ; for his Spirit excites us to repent- 
ance, to faith in Christ, and to obedience to his words, and 
leads those into all truth, who yield themselves freely to its 
blessed dominion. 

13th. The week-day meeting was a low season. Near 
the conclusion, I had to encourage those who felt themselves 
in any degree, in bondage to sin, to commit themselves in 
prayer to the Most High, and to beg, in the name of Jesus, 
under the sense of their unworthiness, that God would take 
unto himself his own great power, and reign in them ; that 
he would render every thing, contrary to his will, so burden- 
some to them, as to make them seek his help to put it away ; 
and that he would thus wean them from the things that 
keep the soul in bondage, from which none can deliver 
themselves, by their own power. The happy results of such 
exercise of mind before the Lord, I could testify to, from 
my own experience ; when, out of the depths of humiliation, 
I had cried unto the Most High, and waited upon him, from 
day to day, for an answer to my petitions, which were often 
repeated, under the fresh feeling of the state of necessity, to 
which my soul was made alive, by the in-shining of the light 
of Christ, or the manifestation of the Holy Spirit ; and which 
were, therefore, not vain repetitions ; but in accordance with 
the instruction, that " men ought always to pray and not to 

14th. I gave my concluding lecture on Temperance, 
and felt thankful, in having been enabled to accomplish 
what, for the present, may be my duty, with regard to the 
promotion of temperance in this place ; where iniquity has 
flowed as a torrent, through the medium of strong drink, 

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298 SYDNEY. [8th mo. 

which is still a most formidable barrier to moral and religious 

15th. Lancelot E. ThreUceld^ the Government Missionary 
to the Aborigines^ on Lake Macquarie^ breakfasted with us : 
he has come to Sydney, to interpret for one of the Blacks, 
who is charged with the murder of a white man. Threlkeld 
has written a grammar of the language of the Aborigines, 
which has been printed by the Government. 

1 7th. We took tea with two pious persons, from India. 
Before parting from them, the 50th chapter of Isaiah was 
read, and we spent a little time, in silently waiting upon the 
Lord, greatly to our comfort. It is indeed a privilege, to 
take sweet counsel with those whose hearts are turned to the 
Lord, in these regions, that may be called, spiritually de- 
solate, notwithstanding, such persons may not see many 
things belonging to the Gospel, in the same point of view 
with ourselves. Many invaUds from India, come to these 
Colonies, on account of their health, which they frequently 
recruit, in the drier atmosphere and cooler winters of 
AustraUa and V. D. Land. 

18th. The Committee of the Temperance Society was 
well attended. The important moral reformation, in absti- 
nence from spirituous liquors, is gaining ground in the public 
mind. Some additional restrictions have lately been placed 
on the sale of spirits, by the Government ; forbidding the 
payment of wages in them, beyond a third part, and inter- 
dicting the sale of them to prisoners, &c. But while any 
portion of wages is allowed to be paid in them, and houses 
are very numerously licensed for their sale, and the example 
of free persons encoxirages their use, prisoners will continue 
to obtain them. Sydney is still an awfully drunken place. 

25th. The anniversary meeting of the New South Wales 
Auxiliary Bible Society, was held in a large room, at the 
Pulteney Hotel, granted gratuitously by the landlord, who is 
a Jew! The Colonial Secretary was in the chair. The 
meeting was not very numerously attended, but was addressed 
by several persons, who ably set forth the privilege and im- 
portance of promoting the circulation of the Holy Scrip- 

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1835.] NKW SOUTH WALES. 299 

29th. The weather has become much warmer. There 
vras some hghtning this evening. Peach-trees are in blos- 
som^ and Vines and Weeping Willows are beginning to 
vegetate. Oranges are in perfection, and Loquats are be- 
ginning to ripen. The last are the produce of a large, bushy, 
evergreen, Japanese tree. They grow in clusters, at the 
extremity of the branches, and are yellow ; they are about 
the size of a large acorn, and contain one or two large seeds. 
Some of the varieties combine an agreeable acidity and 
sweetness, others are austere, and only fit for baking. 
Deciduous trees, from the northern hemisphere, rest in the 
mild winters of this part of the world, with remarkable 
regularity. Though the weather is as warm throughout the 
winter, as in the finest part of an English spring, these trees 
do not begin to vegetate prematurely, as they often do in their 
native coimtry, after a time of severe cold. 

Though all the native trees and shrubs of V. D. Land 
are evergreens, and the climate is cooler than that of N. 
S. Wales, there are a very few trees, natives of the latter 
couiltry, that are deciduous. The chief of these are, itfc- 
lia Azedarachy the White Cedar, which produces clusters 
of flowers, at the extremities of its branches, having the 
colour and smell of Lilac, just as its foliage begins to ap- 
pear ; Sterculia acerifoKay a tree resembling the Sycamore, 
but producing large quantities of flame-coloured blossoms, 
before its leaves unfold in spring ; and Cedrela Toona ? 
the Australian Cedar, a large tree, somewhat like an Ash, 
which casts its leaves in winter, at least in the cooler parts 
of N. S. Wales. 

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Journey to Wellington Valley. — Preliminary Arrangements. — ^Visit to Pam- 
matta. — Factory. — Orphan School. — Lunatic Asylum. — ^Kissing Point — Buah 
Fire. — ^Drought. — Schools, &c. — Meetings. — Civilisation of the Natives. — 
Forest. — South Creek. — Dislike of the Blacks to go far from Home. — ^Pen- 
rith. — Blue Mountains. — Ironed-gangs. — Huts and Caravans of Prisoners. — 
Weather-board Hut.— Views.— Cold.— Black Heath. — Mountain Road. — Bul- 
locks. — Eagles. — Mount Victoria Pass. — ^Vale of Clywd. — Hellvellyn. — 
Biver Oak. — Junction Stockade. — Honeysuckle Hill. — ^Drunken Landlord. — 
Bathurst. — ^Drunkenness. — ^Famine. — ^The Bocks. — Newton. — Sheep. — ^Wild 
Dogs. — Exhaustion. — Molong Biver. — Birds. — > Limestone. — Newry. — Wel- 
come. — Stock-keeper and Blacks. — Sheep-feeding. — Cottages. — Arrival at 
Wellington Valley. 

9th mo. 1st. Having made application for leave to visit 
the prisoners, in the Jails, Penitentiaries, Ironed-gangs, &c. 
in the Colony, we received a document to-day, signed by 
the Colonial Secretary, on behalf of the Governor, granting 
us this permission. An introduction to the Missionaries at 
Wellington Valley, was also given to us, by Richard Hill, a 
pious, and laborious Colonial Chaplain, and the Secretary 
to "the Church Missionary Society.'' We likewise made 
other preparations for a journey to Wellington Valley, be- 
lieving tha-t the right time was come, for us to proceed 
in that direction. 

2nd. We went to Parramatta, by a steamer, and took 
up our quarters at a respectable inn. This town is the 
second in size in N. S. Wales. In the census taken in 
1833, it contained 2,637 inhabitants. Its population, at 
this time, will probably be about 4,000. 

3rd. We breakfasted with Samuel Marsden and his fa- 
mily, at the parsonage. After breakfast, he drove us to 
the Female Factory, and the Female Orphan School. The 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 301 

former is a large stone buildings enclosed within a wall, 
sixteen feet high, divided into a number of wards, and 
having distinct yards, for assignable prisoners, and for those 
under sentence. There are sixteen solitary cells, in all of 
which prisoners were suflFering punishment, chiefly for drunk- 
enness and insolence. The number of females sentenced 
to confinement in this Factory, exclusive of those assignable, 
is about 250 ; who, it is to be regretted, are nearly destitute 
of employment. Formerly, women of this character were 
employed in spinning, and in weaving coarse, woollen cloth, 
but this occupation has been abandoned. The rooms where 
it was carried on, are empty, and like those of other parts 
of the building, have the glass of the windows much bro- 
ken. This is said to have been done by some of the 
women, in unruly fits, which they occasionally take, one 
exciting another. This is not to be wondered at, among 
so large a number of the worst portion of the females of 
Great Britain and Ireland, confined, but unemployed. The 
assignable women were occupied with needlework, and the 
place they were in was clean. The Female Orphan School 
is a good brick building, kept neat and clean : it contains 
150 children; who are generally healthy, and much hke 
others of the same age. 

On returning from the Orphan School, we called upon 
the Governor, and at his request, accompanied him to in- 
spect the site of a projected Lunatic Asylum, at Tarban 
Creek. The situation is a little elevated, on the north 
shore of Port Jackson, or the Parramatta River, which, at 
this point, spreads, so as to have the appearance of a fine 
lake. The view is delightful, extending eastward to beyond 
Sydney, which is seven miles off; it also takes in Parra- 
matta^ to the westward, distant ten miles ; and is bounded, 
in that direction, by the Blue Mountains, to the foot of 
which, is about thirty miles. There is good fresh water 
upon the spot, which, at present, is occupied by Gum- 
trees and scrub. Betwixt this place and Parramatta, there 
is a little settlement, called Kissing Point, with a neat 
Episcopal chapel. Not far from it, a fire in the bush had 
extended to a wooden bridge, and burnt it down. In 

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302 PARRAMATTA. [9th mO. 

several places along the road^ fires had not only ^^ consumed 
the thickets of the forest,'' and despoiled the trees^ but 
had burnt considerable lengths of post and rail fencing. 
In some parts of the ride, tracts of clear ground were 
yisible, bounded and interspersed with wood, giving the 
country the appearance of a la^e park ; but every thing 
looks brown and withering^ from the drought, which has 
now continued about nine months. The rains that have 
reached Sydney, have not extended many miles from the 
coast. There are some small Orange-grounds, about Kissing 
Point, and many of the settlers' gardens are furnished with 
Orange-trees, but they are losing their leaves for want of 

4th. We called upon two thoughtful famiUes, and then 
went again to the Female Factory; where we had inter- 
views, first, with the third-class prisoners, and next with 
those of the first and second classes, jointly. Much Chris- 
tian counsel was imparted to them, and supplication was 
put up, on their behalf, to Hinf who regards with compas- 
sion, the poor outcasts of our race, and who enabled us 
to point out the blessed effects of attention to the teaching 
of his good Spirit, leading to repentance, to faith in Christ, 
and to a holy, self-denying life, and who gave us some 
sense of his good presence, in the engagement. 

The Episcopal congregation, at Parramatta, is attended 
by from 500 to 600 persons, on a First-day morning, in- 
clusive of the military and prisoners. These have no choice 
in regard to being present. The Wesleyan congregation, 
on First-day evenings, amounts to about 150 persons ; and 
there is also a small Presbyterian congregation. There 
are two schools in Parramatta, to each of which the Go- 
vernment contributes £100 per annum, furnishing also the 
school-houses. There is likewise an infant school, similarly 
supported, the parents of the children contributing some- 
thing, by payments for the pupils. In addition to these, 
there are likewise some private schools in the town. 

5th. We had an interview with an ironed-gang, of from 
two to three hundred prisoners, in their barracks, at six 
o'clock in the morning. They were very quiet and attentive; 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 303 

and there was a measure of that solemn feeling over ns, 
which we esteem to be an evidence of the divine presence^ 
and a proof of the continued extension of the mercy of our 
Heavenly Father, both to ourselves^ and to those who are 
straying from the paths of righteousness, whom he is inviting 
to return, repent, and live. 

6th. Having believed it our duty to invite the Inhabitants 
to a religious meeting, we engaged a large room belonging 
the inn, where oidy a small company assembled this morn- 
ing. We had but little to express among them : that little 
was, however, illustrative of the nature of true worship ; and 
access was granted to the throne of Grace, in prayer, near 
the conclusion. Another meeting, held in the evening, was 
larger. The overshadowing of the divine presence was more 
perceptibly felt, and the doctrines of the Gospel were more 
largely preached, than in the former. After ^e state of the 
country, from drought, had been noticed, and the passage, 
^' He tumeth a fruitful land into barrenness, for the wicked- 
ness of them that dwell therein ;'' and some others, relat- 
ing to such dispensations of the Almighty, had been com- 
mented upon, the benefits of silence before the Lord, were 
also spoken of, and prayer was vocally offered ; after which, 
a solemn pause concluded the meeting. 

7th. Samuel Marsden provided us with a guide to South 
Creek : he was a Black, of that place, named Johnny, an 
intelligent man, speaking English very fairly, and wearing a 
hat, jacket, trowsers, and shoes. He carried our bundles, 
and was very attentive, and by no means meriting the cha^ 
racter given to us this morning, of their race, by a settler 
from Wollongong: "That nothing could be given to these 
fellows that they valued a straw.^^ I could not think the 
person who made the remark, had attained to much know- 
ledge of human nature. It is quite true, that the Blacks 
have not learned to place the same value upon many things, 
that the Whites place upon them. It is amusing to see the 
disappointment of many of the Whites, at the proofs they 
meet with of this fact ; especially, when they think to hold 
out temptations to the Blacks, to work for less than their 
labour is worth. Few white people seem to reflect upon 

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304 SOUTH CREEK. [9th mo. 

the fiact, that our notions of the value of things^ depend upon 
our habits^ and are^ in many instances^ merely ideal. It is^ 
however, to be regretted, when benevolent men adopt the 
notion, that the circumstance of the Blacks not estimating 
things by the same standard as the Whites, is owing to some 
invincible peculiarity in them ; because such an opinion para- 
lyzes their efforts for the civilization of this untutored race. 

On the way from Parramatta, we stepped into several 
cottages, conversed with the inhabitants, and gave them 
tracts. We had also many conversations with persons 
travelling on the road, on foot, in carts, &c. We were 
kindly received by Charles Marsden, and his family, at the 
South Creek, sixteen miles from Parramatta, and in the 
evening had a satisfactory religious interview with them and 
their servants. Before dark, we walked to the side of the 
Creek, to see the Black Natives, who resort thither. In 
comparison with some other tribes, the South Creek Natives 
may be considered as half-domesticated, and they often 
assist in the agricultural operations of the settlers. The 
wife of our guide can read, she is a half-cast, who was 
educated in a school, formerly kept for the Natives, at Par- 
ramatta. It is to be regretted that this school was aban- 
doned ; for though many who were educated in it, returned 
into the woods, yet an impression was made upon them, 
favourable to their further progress in civilization. 

A few of the Natives were, at one time, located upon a 
piece of the worst land in this part of the country, at a 
place, called Black Town. Here some of them ridsed grain, 
in spite of the sterility of the soil, at a time when they 
were unable to dispose of it ; and to add to their discou- 
ragement, at this juncture, the Missionary, who had been 
a short time among them, was withdrawn. The want of 
success, in this unfair experiment, is. sometimes brought for- 
ward, as a proof that nothing can be done for these injured 
and neglected people. 

8th. We set out, at an early hour, to Penrith, a small, 
scattered town, on the Nepean River. Our guide was 
another South Creek Black, named Simeon. His wife was 
killed, about two years ago, by some of those whom he 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALliS. 305 

termed " Wild Natives :^^ he had one litde boy, for whom 
he shewed great affection. We tried in vain, to persuade 
this man to accompany us to Wellington Valley ; he did 
not like to go to so great a distance. These people are 
afraid of other tribes of their own race. 

After breakfasting at a respectable inn, we proceeded to the 
station of the Stockade Ironed-gang, on Emu Plains. The 
huts^ in which they are lodged, are but temporary structures 
and the gang, which was large, is now reduced to seventy. 
The Superintendent, a young man from Inverness-shire, 
accompanied us to the gang, with whom we had a religious 
interview. They have been employed in cutting a new road, 
up Liapstone Hill, the ascent of the Blue Mountains, and are 
now completing it with a bridge, across a deep gully. 

On leaving the Ironed-gang, we proceeded along dusty, 
mountain roads, through forests of Gum and Stringy-bark, 
in some parts of which, fire was raging with fury ; it had 
btimt the scrub off other parts, and left it black. On 
reaching a place, called The Valley, where there is a plain, 
country inn, with the sign of The Woolpack, having mo- 
derate accommodation, we gladly rested for the night. 

9th. About five miles from our lodging place, we visited 
another Ironed-gang, and three miles further, a third; in 
each, there were about sixty men, and both were under the 
charge of a young military officer. The prisoners were 
lodged in huts, upon large, open areas, by the road-side, 
without any stockade. When not at work, they are kept 
on the spot, by a guard of soldiers, who are ordered to fire 
upon any that may attempt to escape, and who will not 
stop when called to. We were informed, that they had no 
Bibles, or other books, and that their only religious instruc- 
tion consisted in the reading of prayers by the officer, or 
sergeant in charge, on First-days. A few of the prisoners 
lodge in moveable caravans, which have doors, and iron- 
barred windows, on one side. Four or five men sleep in 
each end of them, on the floor, and as many more, on plat- 
forms. They are not less crowded than the huts, and are 
^uiwholesome dormitories. Many of the men sleeping in 
them, become affected with the scurvy. 


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306 BLUE MOUNTAINS. [9th mo. 

After travelling eighteen miles^ we arrived at the Wea- 
ther-board Hut, where we had intended to lodge ; but the 
. only good room was occupied. One, in which we had an 
excellent med of beef and bread, with tea, was T/ithout 
glass in the windows, and could not have the door shut, 
for the smoking of the wood fire. This, as is common in 
this land of trees, was a very large one, and it was acted 
upon by a fierce and piercing wind ; we therefore deter- 
mined on making another stage. The former part of our 
journey through the forest, had been cheered, at intervals, 
by remarkable views. Some of these, opened to a great 
distance, exhibiting the singularly winding cliffs of sand- 
stone, which seemed as if it had decomposed, till ferru- 
ginous veins had bid defiance to the weather. We now set 
out again, as daylight was departing, to make our way in 
the dark. We were informed, that there was but one road 
through the woods, yet we sometimes felt a little perplexed 
by this road dividing, for a short distance. But notwith- 
standing these difficulties, we found our previously ex- 
hausted vigour to increase as we proceeded, in consequence 
of the bracing effects of the cold wind ; and we reached 
the ^^ Scotch Thistle,*' a solitary inn, at Black Heath, on 
the top of the mountains, earlier than we expected. The 
road over the Blue Mountains, winds nearly forty miles, 
along their ridge, which ascends and descends a little, at 
intervals. Some parts of it have been cut with much la- 
bour, by prisoners, and others are sandy or rocky, but 
most of it is now good for carriages. There are a few 
miserable, solitary public-houses, by its side, in addition 
to the better ones, already mentioned, and another, of de- 
cent character. Along its whole course, there are no grassy 
openings to afford pasturage for cattle. At the present 
time, the little rigid herbage, in the forest, is dried up. 
The bullocks travelling with settlers' drays, are '' ill favoured 
and lean fleshed,'' from the scarcity of grass in the 
countries below. Dead bullocks were numerous by the 
road side. Wedge-tailed Eagles were frequently to be seen, 
feeding upon the fresh ones. 

10th. The night was very cold, rendering the good 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALBS. 307 

fires, the soft, clean beds, and excellent provision of this 
homely-looking inn, very acceptable. In the morning, the 
ice was as thick as a half-crown. In this cold region, there 
is a low species of Eucalyptus^ that I have not before seen ; 
there are also some other remarkable shrubs. — Our road 
continued to wind over the sand-stone mountains, to the 
pass of Mount Victoria, on the descent of which there 
was granite. The pass is carried, in two places, on cause- 
ways of mason-work, as wide as bridges, raised on narrow 
saddles, imiting the hills ; in other places it is cut through 
the rock. This great work has been effected by the labour 
of prisoners, a small party of whom are still at work. We 
had an interview with twenty-eight of them, several of whom 
were of desperate appearance. They are under the charge 
of an overseer, have no Bibles, and no religious instruction. 

At the foot of these mountains, there is a granite vale, 
called The Vale of Clywd, were there are two houses, one of 
which was lately deprived of its license to sell spirits. Fur- 
ther along the road, there is a brook, crossed by a wooden 
bridge. This brook was formerly called The Rivulet ; but 
this name is now corrupted into. The River Lett! The 
country here is open and grassy, and has a few White and 
Weeping Gum-trees, and a Banksia resembling Bankria aus-- 
traUs, scattered upon it. It will maintain a sheep to four 
or five acres. We turned a little from the road, to Hel- 
veUyn, the residence of two young settlers, by whom we 
had been kindly invited to such accommodation as they 
were able to famish. On the margin of the brook, there 
are some fine specimens of the species of Ctisuarina, called 
River-oak: they are about seventy feet high, irregularly 
branched, and densely clothed witii green, leafless shoots, 
resembling slender Horse-tail-weed. 

11th. Last evening, we had a religious interview with 
the family, and a few other persons, who had called to beg 
a night's lodging. This morning, one of our young friends 
accompanied us over some of the grassy, forest hills, to the 
road leading to the Junction Stockade, where an ironed- 
gang, of upwards of 150 prisoners, is employed, under the 
charge of a military officer. These men were at work, 

w 2 

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308 VALE OP CLYWD. [9th mo. 

cutting a road^ about three miles from the barracks^ under 
a guard of soldiers^ some of whom returned from Norfi^ 
Island, in the Isabella, at the same time with ourselves. 
We assembled the men by the road-side, and extended 
some religious counsel to them ; the guard standing, at the 
time, as they generally do, in a position to prevent any of the 
prisoners running away. The soldiers often use irritating lan- 
guage, mixed with curses, in speaking to the prisoners, which 
is of bad influence, in hardening them, when they greatly 
need to be rendered more susceptible of good. While in the 
act of assembling, one man picked the pocket of another, of 
a tobacco-box : he was seen, and knocked down by one of 
the guard, near to the place where I was standing. This 
circumstance occasioned no perceptible disturbance among 
the others ; and I trust there were some present who, at 
least, for the time, were brought to think on eternal things. 

Near the barracks, we saluted a native Black and his wife, 
and they returned our tokens of notice. They were the first 
we had seen in their wild state. We took some refreshment 
at a decent public-house, at Solitary Creek, and afterwards 
visited a small road-party, on the way to an inn, at Honey- 
suckle Hill. As we approached this place in the dark, 
we heard the cries of a female, and on arriving, found 
that the landlord, in a state of intoxication, had struck his 
wife to the ground, with a child in her arms; and such 
was his phrenzy, that it was difficult to restrain him from 
farther mischief. 

12th. We visited a small road-party, near the foot 
of the Stony Ridge, and another betwixt that place and 
Bathurst. It was past their work-hours, on seventh-day 
afternoon, before we reached the last party, and several of 
the men pleaded, that they were Roman Catholics, and did 
not wish to come " to prayers,^' as they style all kinds of 
religious interviews. With some difficulty, we got them to 
understand our object, and most of them assembled in a 
lude blacksmith^s shop, in which we were glad of a shelter 
from the cold. The message of love and mercy made a 
softening impression upon these prisoners, and we separated 
under different feelings, on their part, &t>m those with which 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 309 

they met us. This we find generally the ease. The bap- 
tizing power of the Holy Spirit is felt, and their attention 
tamed to their own convictions of sin^ as the work of this 
blessed Spirit, and as the message of the mercy of their 
Heavenly Father, seeking to lead them to repentance, in 
order that they may obtain salvation through his beloved 
Son. When we stop them during their work-hours, which 
we have liberty from the Governor to do, few plead excuses ; 
and as we do not enjoin any forms of worship, but simply, 
after a pause, say what is upon our minds, or pray for them, 
none seem to take it amiss. If it can be done, we always 
desire them to sit down, in order that they may rest at the 
same time ; and if exposed to the sun, we request them to 
keep on their hats or caps. These little considerations for 
their personal comfort, often prepare the way for the recep- 
tion of our counsel. 

As we ascended the hills, Bathurst Plains opened to our 
view, relieving the eye after a long incarceration, in thick, 
or in open forest, by a fine, undulating expanse, fifteen 
miles in length, and ten in breadth, watered by the Mac- 
quarie, formed here, by the junction of the Campbell and 
Fish Rivers, all running westward, and margined by a line 
of River-oaks, which are almost the only trees upon the 
Plain. Toward the western side of this open country, the 
rising town of Bathurst is situated, and settlers houses, of 
respectable figure, are scattered here and there on all sides. 
Much of the land is enclosed with post-and-rail fences ; but 
at present, it is one unvaried surface of brown, dried, short 
grass. We took up our quarters at an inn ; and notwith- 
standing the contentions of some drunken people at the door, 
and the appearance of disorder in the house, we found good 
accommodation in a quiet, well-fitted-up room, in a square 
area, at the back. Bathurst consists of a number of inns 
and cottages, scattered along the sides of a projected street, 
for more than a mile, with an Episcopal place of worship, of 
brick, on a hill near the parsonage, and some scattered huts 
on one side of the river : there are also a place of worship, 
of the Scotch church, and several inns and other houses, 
a jail, military barrack, hospital, factory for female prisoners, 


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310 BATHURST. [9th mo. 

police-office^ bank^ &c. on the other side of the river ; 
where the buildings are nearer one to another. 

13th. The night was very frosty. Bathurst is said to be 
about two thousand feet above the level of the sea ; which 
accounts for the coolness of its climate. We breakfiisted at 
the Parsonage ; and wishing to have a meeting with the 
inhabitants in the evenings spent the forenoon in inviting 
them to assemble with us in a school-room^ kindly granted 
us by John Espie Keane, the Episcopal Minister. It was 
pleasant, in the forenoon^ at the hour of public worship^ to 
see a number of the carriages of settlers driving in ; many of 
them coming from a distance of several miles. The piety 
and diligence of J. E. Keane has been greatly blessed^ in 
drawing the attention of people of this class^ to the obliga- 
tions of religion, at least, as regards the outward acknowledg- 
ment of them ; and there are a few in his congregation who 
are considered spiritually-minded. Our meeting was not 
large, but it was owned by a comforting measure of divine 

15th. G. W. Walker having taken cold, we were con- 
strained by J. E. Keane and his estimable wife, to become 
their guests, in order that he might be nursed. In the mean 
time, preparation was made for the continuance of our 

While at Bathurst, I saw much drunkenness^ such as is 
common in remote situations in these Colonies. Many men, 
and some women, who appeared to be servants of settlers^ 
were drinking at public-houses. It is common, with the 
men, many of whom have been prisoners^ but have served 
out their sentence, to engage themselves as sawyers, shep- 
herds, &c. in distant places, and to come into the town, when 
they have earned a few pounds, for the sole purpose of 
spending it in dnmkenness and debauchery. When their 
money is gone, they return again to their labour. But for 
this, many of them might have been in easy circumstances, for 
they get good wages, and a little sets a man up in this part 
of the world. They prove the truth of the proverb, ''The 
workman that is a drunkard will never be rich.'' 

16th. We set forward for Wellington Valley. At a 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 311 

short distance from Bathurst, a man was feeding a bullock, 
by the road-side, which had fallen from exhaustion. The 
continued drought has made "the famine wax sore'' to 
these useful animals ; and should there be no rain for a few 
weeks longer, it will be keenly felt, both by man and beast. 
In many places the ewes are so weak as to be unable to 
rear their lambs; and to the southward, the Influenza, a 
destructive disease, is prevailing among the sheep. We 
travelled about twenty-four miles along a well-tracked road, 
through open forest, and stopped, about noon, by the side 
of a pool, at a place called The Rocks, on account of the 
large masses of granite that project above the surface. 
Here we kindled a fire, and made tea, the common beve- 
rage with every meal, in travelling in this country. Among 
the rocks are some large Banksias, which are the last trees 
of this genus, in this direction, toward the interior. On 
our road, we passed two or three rude huts, at which we 
were informed that spirits were illicitly sold, and about sun- 
set, reached a hut, called Kyongs, of late kept, as a public- 
house, by a man known by the name of " Charley Booth,'' 
-who has been deprived of his license, and has retired into 
^'the bush." It is now occupied as a stock-station, by the 
overseer and assigned servants of a settler. One of the 
men conducted us down the side of a creek, oozing from 
among some low, basaltic rocks, and opening into pools, 
called Lewis's Ponds, and put us into the way to Newton, 
where we were received with much kindness, by some 
pious, Cornish Wesleyans. In this neighbourhood. Acacia 
dealbaia is richly laden with its golden blossoms, and A. 
melanowylon is a frequent tree by the brooks. 

17th. We travelled nearly forty miles, chiefly over low 
hills of granite, or argillaceous rock. At Broken-shaft 
Creek, there was the cottage of a blacksmith, and in other 
places, there were a few sheep-stations. We met some 
shepherds driving their flocks towards Bathurst, against the 
shearing time. Sheep are folded, in this Colony, at night, to 
preserve them from the Wild Dogs, which are said to be nu- 
merous J but they hide themselves in the day-time, and do 
not attack men. About noon, we stopped at a place where 

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312 MOLONG. [9th mo. 

there was water ; and near sunset^ at the side of the Mo- 
long River^ which^ at this season^ is a small stream, widen- 
ing here and there into pools. My companion was so 
much exhausted by thirst, that he lay helpless upon the 
ground, till I prepared tea, which revived him. We after- 
wards proceeded, at a pretty good pace, to a stock-station, 
belonging to one of our acquaintance, further down the 
river ; to which we found our way with some difficulty, in 
the dark. After making a hearty meal, we extended some 
religious counsel to the men, but there did not seem to be 
so much openness among them as we often meet with, 
among men of this class. 

In the course of our day's journey, the places that we 
passed through that were clear of trees, were few and of 
small extent. On one of these a flock, of a species of Ibis, 
as large as a goose, was feeding ; and on another there were 
some birds resembling the Thick-kneed Bustard, which is 
the Curlew of this country. Till to-day, we have seen 
few birds except eagles, attracted by dead bullocks, and a 
few Parrots, and White Cockatoos. We had some soup 
at Bathurst, made from the latter bird, which was pretty 
good. A Bandicoot is the only wild beast we have seen, 
since leaving Sydney. Near the Molong Biver, we came 
upon a limestone country. 

18th. Our road continued to be distinctly tracked in 
most places, though in some a little obscure, some of it 
was over basaltic country, and some over argillaceous : the 
soil of the latter was poor, with sharp gravel. In the fore- 
noon we rested on a log, by a shepherd who was watching 
his flock, with whom we conversed on the way of holiness, 
and work of redemption. The young man's heart was 
open to understand the things that were spoken, which he 
frankly acknowledged had not had sufficient place in his 
thoughts. Being much fatigued in the evening, with our 
walk of thirty-two miles, we had concluded to make a fire, 
and sleep in the bush, when it began to rain, lighten, and 
thunder. We therefore made our way, which was now 
become difficult to find in the dark, to a mean, dirty hut, 
at a place called Newry, belonging to a settler, and occupied 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 313 

by a ticket-of-leave stock-keeper^ and an assigned prisoner- 
servant. These men entertained us hospitably with milk 
and damper^ tare such as was offered to us at every station 
at which we called, on our way, and sometimes with the 
addition of tea and meat. There were two black youths 
residing in the hut with the stock-men ; we were informed 
that they made themselves useful in minding the sheep, 
milking the cows, &c. The stock-keeper observed that 
these Blacks stopped with them better than their country- 
men generally do with white people, because they treated 
them more like companions, and gave them a part of such 
provision as they themselves eat, instead of throwing scraps 
to them, as if to dogs. 

19th. Our accommodation last night, though the best 
the place afforded, was such as we but seldom have had 
to put up with. Our bed was more sombre than would be 
found in the meanest, mendicant lodging-house, in England ; 
it was only outdone by a blanket, generally used by one 
of the Aborigines, which was folded to add to the width 
of the bed. Another such bed, spread on the uneven clay 
floor, served our hosts; the two Blacks coiled themselves 
up on some sheep-skins, near the fire, pulling a blanket 
over them. My companion was driven from his resting- 
place, by bugs, which were very numerous. He tried to 
rouse the Blacks, in order to obtain more fuel, to revive 
the fire, but his efforts proved in vain; he therefore sat 
down on the best seat he could find : it was an uneasy, 
narrow stool, which did not stand level. At length, he 
was obliged to return to bed, by cold and faintness, which 
overcame all obstacles, and he fell asleep. 

These stations, as they are called, usually belong to 
opulent settlers, Uving in or near towns, who derive a great 
part of their wealth from their large flocks of sheep, and 
herds of cattle. These are tended by their servants, many 
of whom are prisoners, on their extensive locations, or on 
unoccupied, contiguous lands, in the interior of the Colony. 
Many of them also send flocks beyond the boundaries of 
the located part of the Colony, which is, in many directions 
for a great distance, low, open, grassy, forest hills, with 

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here and there dear flats, or plains. In such situations,, 
some of the less wealthy settlers feed their own flocks, 
foregoing, for a few years, most of the comforts of life. 
Three men called at the hut where we lodged, and after 
breakfEist, we read a Psalm, and gave expression to the 
exercise of our minds on their account; pointing out the 
terrible consequences of remaining in sin, and directing 
their attention to the grace of God which bringeth salva- 
tion, and to the mercy offered us in Jesus Christ. 

On the way toward Wellington, we passed a neat, but 
humble cottage, belonging to another settler. Most of the 
cottages in this part of the country, are of split timber, 
placed endwise into the ground, or of large sheets of Gum- 
tree bark, fastened to a frame work of poles ; the roof being 
also of this material. A few of the timber cottages, are 
plastered inside and out, and are whitewashed. After re- 
crossing the Bell River, which we crossed thrice, yesterday, 
we again came upon Limestone. One of the trees upon 
this formation, is Sterculia dtversifolia; it resembles the 
Oak in form, and the Poplar in foliage; and is like an 
English tree, in verdure. It attains to forty feet in height, 
and its bark is so tenacious as to be convertible into 
cordage ; whence it also, is called Corrijong. Its roots are 
thick and soft, so as to be cooked for food by the natives. 
The trunk of the young tree is remarkably thick and green. 
It grows intermingled with various species of Eucalyptus^ 
some of which are distinct from any we have before seen, 
and are about the size of the Willows and Birches of Eng- 
land. — On the side of the Bell River, we met a Black, 
with a blanket thrown loosely around him, driving a team 
of bullocks : he was the first we had seen, except the two 
boys last night, since the 11th. On arriving at the Mis- 
sionary Station, at Wellington Valley, we received a kind 
welcome from John Christian Simon Handt and his wife, 
and from Ann Watson, whose husband was from home ; 
and we felt thankful, that we had reached this extreme 
point of o\ir journey. 

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Wellington Valley. — Mission Station. — Worship. — ^Doctrine. — Mission Stock. — 
Aborigines. — ^Morals. — Language. — ^Aqnatic Plants. — ^Myami. — Honey. — Ani- 
mals. — ^Food of the KatiTes. — CaTem. — Mount Arthur. — Shrubs, &c. — Burial 
Place. — Public Worship of Friends. — ^European Influence. — Grass. — Initia- 
tion of Blacks as Young Men. — ^Native Women. — Prisoner Servants. — 
Molong. — ^Effects of Drunkenness. — Infanticide. — ^Feigned Intoxication. — 
Kangaroo Bay. — Ci-rilization, and Missionary Labours. — Milk. — Help in time 
of need. — ^Pious Fellow Traveller. — ^Definition of Love. — Bathurst. — ^Verdure. 

Wellington Valley was formerly a Penal Settlement 
for educated prisoners. The houses and barracks are of 
brick ; most of them are whitewashed. The best is occu- 
pied by the two missionary families ; another^ temporarily, 
by two young settlers, and a third by four soldiers. The 
number of Blacks at present on the settlement, is very 
small: thirty were here lately, but most of them have 
gone away for a short time, it is conjectured, on account 
of the death of one of their countrymen. Two native 
girls only, sleep in the house, the others preferring to be 
out of doors, by their fires. 

20th. G. W. Walker was confined to the house by 
indisposition. At eleven o'clock, there was public wor- 
ship. Some of the neighbouring settlers, and the few 
soldiers stationed here, as a guard against bush-rangers, &c. 
were present, in addition to the persons belonging to the 
missionary establishment. I remained as a devout spectator, 
while two hymns were sung, and J. C. S. Handt read the 
prayers of the Episcopal Church. He then addressed the 
congregation, informing them that, as I was present, he 
designed to forego preaching. Then turning to me, he said, 
if I had anything to say to them in love, they should be glad 

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316 WELLINGTON VALLEY. [9th mo. 

to hear me. My mind had been mider much exercise^ and 
after a short pause^ I stood up^ and gave utterance to what was 
before me ; alluding to what was said by the apostle Paul^ 
when he preached to the Athenians ; and showing, that the 
superstitions of the present day, do not consist in worshipping 
idols of wood and of stone, graven by art, and man's device, 
but in imagining that we are doing God service, by going 
through certain forms and rituals, devised by man, in imitation 
of the expressions of spiritual devotion. These things I had 
to contrast with that worship which is in spirit and in truth ; 
showing their inferiority, and that the Lord, to many who 
use them, is an unknown God. In commenting on the 
words, " whom ye ignorantly worship. Him declare I unto 
you,'' &c. I had to direct them to the working of the Holy 
Spirit, felt by all men as a witness in themselves against sin, 
and to declare, that this is the drawing of the Father, whose 
goodness seeks to lead us to repentance, in order to bring us 
unto the Son, that we may find life in him, and for his sake, 
receive the remission of sins that are past, and through him 
be enabled to perfect holiness in the fear of the Lord. That 
thus, we may come to the knowledge of God, who made 
heaven and earth, and all things that are therein, who is not 
worshipped by men's hands, neither dwelleth in temples 
made with hands ; but who is worshipped in spirit and in 
truth, by those whose hearts are turned unto him, and who are 
led by his Spirit ; and who walk in his fear, and live to his 
glory. These regard his law, as it is recorded in the Holy 
Scriptures, and as it is put into their inward parts, and 
written in their hearts j their whole lives are an act of wor- 
ship, both when assembled especially for the purpose, and 
when engaged in their daily avocations. Of such, the Lord 
is truly their God, and they are truly his people. 

21st. I walked with J. C. S. Handt to see a flock of 
about five hundred sheep belonging to the mission, which 
has also a herd of about one hundred cattle, and a few pigs 
and horses ; the sheep are said to be in the best state of 
any in this country. The harvest of last year was so 
plentiful that the surplus wheat is sufiicient for the sup- 
ply of the present season. This is a great blessing, as 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 3l7 

the drought has prevented the raising of an adequate 
crop for the present year^ and the supply of food is a 
principal attraction to draw the Blacks to the place. 
These people are not numerous here ; a hundred is the 
greatest number that has been seen at the Station^ at any 
one time, since its establishment, and several of these were 
from a distance. About thirty is the usual number resorting 
hither. They are said to be very capricious, and by no 
means desirous to learn, further than they are tempted by a 
supply of food. This is what may reasonably be expected, 
from a people who are not yet aware of what they are to 
gain, by learning to read. They are contented with food of 
the plainest kind, and like other races of men, are not dis- 
posed to work, beyond what they find necessary for obtain- 
ing the supply they require. They often prefer eating boiled 
wheat, to being at the trouble of grinding their com in hand- 
mills, and making bread. Their moral state is represented 
as of the lowest grade. Immoralities of the grossest kinds 
are reported to be practised amongst them, but these are, in 
some measure, traceable to the influence of the prisoner 

The Blacks of N. S. Wales are a decreasing race : they 
do not, however, appear to be inferior in intellect to other 
nations; but man, when from under the influence of the 
restraints of religion, and of civil institutions, seems to be 
the same d^raded being, all the world over. In N. S. 
Wales, he is Car indeed, removed from the dreams of natural 
innocence, of those who do not see the effects of the fall 
in themselves, or believe that these effects exist in 
others. The N. S. Wales Aborigines do not openly make 
feasts upon human subjects, like the natives of New Zea- 
land, and of some other islands of the Pacific; but there 
are pretty well authenticated instances of cannibalism 
among them. 

The missionaries at Wellington have acquired a tolerably 
competent knowledge of the language spoken among the 
Natives of this part of the country; it differs consider- 
ably from that of the eastern coast ; they are teaching 
two half-domesticated girls, and three boys to read, both in 

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their own language and in English. In the evening, all 
the boys left the establishment, being offended because one 
of them was refused a new pipe, as he had had one within 
a few days. The oldest of the boys may be about sixteen, 
the youngest about twelve; the intermediate one is about 
fourteen. After the custom of many others of his race, he 
wears a reed^ about four inches long, through the cartilage 
of his nose, as an ornament. 

In the margins of the pools of the Bell River^ there are 
Reeds, Arundo Phragmites, Bull-rushes, T^p?ia kUifolia, 
and some other aquatic plants, similar to those of England. 
The surface of the water is, in many places, covered with 
AzoUa mbray a beautiful, mossy-looking plant, occupying 
the place that Duck-weed does in England. 

22nd. Accompanied by J. C. S. Handt and a black 
youth, who, with a man and a woman, returned to the 
settlement this mornings we walked to Myami, two miles 
distant, on the banks of the Macquarie River. This river 
is now reduced to an inconsiderable stream, with large 
pools at intervals. The rocks, where we crossed it, are 
basaltic. At Myami, a Sydney merchant, has erected some 
good, wooden buildings; consisting of a dwelling-house, 
prisoners' huts, a large wool-shed, &c. Most of them are 
weatherboard, of the Pine of this neighbourhood, which 
is a species of Callitris : the wood is fragrant, but liable to 
split. The prisoners' huts are of logs, of gum-tree; and 
the shingles with which the whole are covered, instead of 
slates, are of the Forest-oak, Camarina torulosa. The 
noble tree of the same genus, called the River-oak, grows 
here to a large size, just within the banks of the rivers, 
greatly ornamenting the country. Myami is a large loca- 
tion, of roughish, basaltic, open, grassy, forest sheep-hills, 
with the advantage of an extensive back-run, beyond the 
boundaries of the located portion of the Colony. 

Our black companion was clad in a blanket, fastened 
round his shoulders; under it he had a bag suspended, 
in which he kept two pence, that he several times showed 
me, with a pleased countenance, though he did not seem 
to understand their value, except as pretty things to look 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 319 

at. He amused himself as he went along, by throwing the 
flat, crooked, wooden weapon^ called by the Whites a 
Boomring, but by the Blacks of this part, Barragan : he 
threw it at anything that took his fancy, not unfrequently 
missing his object. He informed us, that there was plenty 
of honey in the neighbourhood. It is the produce of small^ 
stingless bees^ that inhabit the hoUow limbs of trees : these, 
the Blacks cut down with small tomahawks, obtained from 
the white people, and thus possess themselves of the honey, 
which they drink when mixed with water. The Blacks 
here climb trees, by cutting little notches in them, into which 
they fix their hands or feet, as occasion requires. 

In the afternoon, I walked a considerable distance along 
the course of the Bell River, which was dry in some places, 
and running in others. In the pools, there were large 
flocks of Wild Ducks, of two sorts, and a few of the two 
species of the Shag or Diver, common in these Colonies. 
The Platypus, or Water Mole, and a small kind of Tortoise, 
are frequent in these rivers. The black youth, before al- 
luded to, assured me, that the Platypus brings forth its 
young alive, several at a time, in holes, in the banks of 
the river : he also informed me, that the Tortoise came to 
warm itself in the sun, on logs that lay in the water, 
and that ^' Black fellows catch him by the leg, and eat 
him.'' The Natives roast their food lightly : they eat almost 
all kinds of living creatures that they can catch, including 
the Platypus, the River-muscle, which is a species of Umo, 
grubs, moths, ants' eggs, the larger lizards, and snakes, 
provided the last have not bitten themselves in the agonies 
of death. One of them informed me, that the ants' eggs 
tasted like fowls' eggs; and I have been told, that the 
large moths, roasted, are not unlike new bread. On in- 
quiring of one of the boys, how he had taken a White 
Cockatoo that he was eating, he said, he had buried himself 
under the straw, near the corn-stacks, and when the birds 
came, he caught one by the leg. Scarcity of food, from 
the long drought, causes them to come in large flocks, into 
the stack-yards, along with Crows and Parrots. 

24th. There was a fine rain, with much thunder and 

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320 WELLINGTON VALLEY. [9th mo. 

lightning. Accompanied by J. C. S. Handt, and the black 
youth before mentioned^ we visited the large cavern in the 
Umestone^ about three miles eastward of the settlement. 
The entrance is contracted and steep, opening among nu- 
merous small rocky projections : within there are a number 
of irregular chambers, some of which are very large. TThe 
sides and roof are formed of irregular, sub-hemispherical 
cavities, the surfaces of which, as well as the floor of the 
cave, are covered with dust, formed by the decomposing 
stone. In a few places there are sparry projections from 
the sides : stalactites, resembling icicles, depend from the 
roof^ in several parts. In some places, the stalactites from 
the top have joined the stalagmites on the floor^ and in 
one place the mass has become stupendous, and remark- 
ably beautiful. The base is an ascent of irregular undulat- 
ing narrow ledges, forming a series of perpendicular hollows, 
rising gradually for six or eight feet: the stalactites are 
slender columns, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, 
laterally united into a mass of irregular outline, which may 
be forty feet in circimiference. But these dimensions not 
being from measurement, nor from memorandums made at 
the time, may be far from correct: they will, however, give 
some idea of this remarkable petrifaction, which by some 
has been compared to a great organ, to which it has a faint 
resemblance. The furthest extremity of the cave may be 
a hundred yards from the entrance : it is terminated by a 
sudden and almost perpendicular descent to water; which 
may be perceived by throwing stones down the opening. 
The top of one of the smaller chambers in the side, was 
dripping, and covered with short stalactites; another was 
dry, and inhabited by small bats, that were greatly dis- 
turbed by our flambeaux. Some bones are said to have 
been found in this cave, but I saw none, neither did I per- 
ceive any traces of fossil remains in the limestone, which 
is of a dove-colour, intersected with white veins, and of 
compact texture : possibly it may be transition limestone ; 
but it is contiguous to basalt, and to hills of very hard, 
compact, reddish stone, traversed by white veins, possibly 
silicious. In the neighbourhood there are several smaller 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 321 

cavities ; but I do not learn that they had been explored. 
Our black companion seemed a little fearful of entering 
the cavern, but he was pleased with exploring it. He en- 
quired, as we returned toward daylight, who made it ; and 
on being told, God, who made heaven, and earth, and all 
things, a momentary awe seemed to occupy his mind, as 
he repeated the answer. On the way to the cave, we saw 
a native black man, quite naked, (according to the common 
custom of these people,) walking with his blanket folded 
up in his hand. He stopped, and commenced cutting 
away the decayed bark of a tree, with his tomahawk, to get 
out grubs. When the aperture is cleared, the Blacks in- 
troduce a long reed, terminated by a hook of hard wood, 
pointed at the bend : this they force into the grub, and by 
this means draw it out of its hiding-place. On returning, 
we feU in with another, who had his head bound round 
with a fillet of netting, made of the bark of the Currajong, 
of this neighbourhood, and a strip of Kangaroo skin about 
his loins : he had in his hand, one of the hooks described, 
also a wooden paddle for digging up grubs and roots, a 
small club, and two opossums. These animals he had 
taken out of the hollow limb of a tree : they form a chief 
part of the subsistence of the native Blacks. At a short 
distance, his son joined us; he was one of the youths 
who left the settlement a few days ago. The man had 
curly hair: some of the Blacks here have straight hair: 
they rub themselves with grease, red ochre, yellow ochre, 
pipe-clay, &c. but I have not seen them with their hair 
matted with ochre and grease, like the Tasmanian Blacks. 
The rain of yesterday has greatly refreshed the country: 
already the grass is beginning to put forth greenness. 

25th. A few more Blacks came to the Station, and two, 
who had been there, went away, saying there was going to 
be a fight, at a short distance. These fights generally arise 
about their women, and are seldom fatal ; but occasionally, 
a few of the men get wounded. Among those who came 
to the station, were a woman and two little boys, the younger 
of which might be four years old. — In the afternoon, we 
walked to Mount Arthur, a hill about 500 feet high, near 

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the junction of the Bell and Macquarie Rirers. From this 
point, there ia an extensive view of the adjacent country^ 
which seems to be a continuation of open, forest hills. 
Many of them look black, and very bare, from fire, which 
has " devoured the pastures of the wilderness/' This hill 
is of compact, rufous stone, probably sandstone; near the 
top, its grain is coarse, and it imbeds larger pieces, form- 
ing a sort of Pudding-stone. On the upper portion, there 
were She-oak, Casuarina quadrivalvis and GrammUis rui^e- 
foliuSf a small fern, both of which are common in V. D. 
Land, also a Cycas ? a remarkable Eucalyptus, and Sierculia 
divernfolia. Upon the last, there was a remarkable Fif- 
ctfin, or Mistletoe. Lower down the hill, the beautiful Aca-- 
cia venustay formed a bush, about six feet high ; it bears heads 
of small, globular, golden blossoms. 

26th. We went to see the grave of a native Black. We 
were accompanied by J. C. S. Handt, who informed us, that 
the legs of the deceased were bound up, so as to bring the 
knees to the chin : that in this posture, the body was 
thrust into a shallow, round hole, and covered with leaves 
and boxighs, over which, a mound of earth, like a potato- 
heap, was raised up. On one side of this mound, and ex- 
tending a third part of the way round it, there was a trench, 
formed of two low banks of earth. On the same side^ 
some undulating lines, and others forming imperfect ovals, 
were inscribed on the trunks of adjacent trees. 

27th. The public worship, this morning, was attended 
by some of the settlers, from beyond the Boundary. One 
of them informed us, that he was at a meeting which we 
had on the north shore of Port Jackson, a few weeks ago. 
He expressed, in very decided terms, his preference for the 
simple proceedings of Friends in regard to worship, over 
those of other communities of Christians. We find many 
prepared to see thus far, the beautiful simplicity of what 
we deem to be the Truth 5 but alas ! how few are willing 
to take up the cross, and to put it into practice ! There 
were also present this morning, of the Blacks, an aged 
man and three women, attired in clean blankets, two girls, 
and six or eight boys, some of whom reside with neigh- 

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1835.3 NEW SOUTH WALES. 323 

bouring settlers^ and make themselves useful. After the 
Episcopal prayers had been read, we had an opportunity 
of communicating what was on our minds, of which we 
availed ourselves. I was also engaged in vocal supplication. 
— On a few occasions, when assembled with the persons 
of the Mission Establishment, we have not found it our 
place to say anything, after simply reading a chapter in 
the Bible, but more frequently, have had something to ex- 
press in exhortation, or prayer, — William Watson returned 
this evening, from an unsuccessful expedition to endeavour 
to gain an interview with some Blacks, who had killed 
some cattle belonging a settler, in consequence of having 
been exasperated, by the profligate conduct of a ticket-of- 
leave stock-keeper, toward one of their wives. 

28th. The forenoon was showery, but we took a walk 
with the Missionaries, who are both much - to be felt for. 
I was never more fully convinced of the importance of 
attending to divine qualification and direction, in missionary 
concerns, than since we came hither ; and though I heartily 
desire, and earnestly hope, that good may result from this 
mission, and I consider the example of such persons as the 
Missionaries, and their wives, as a barrier against the over- 
whelming, evil influence of a large proportion of the white 
population of the neighbourhood, and a strength to those 
who desire to walk uprightly ; yet, should this mission not 
succeed^ as regards any perceptible fruits among the Blacks, 
it will not be, to my mind, any proof that they are not 
within the influence of the beneficial effects of rightly di- 
rected religious labours. The Missionaries themselves do 
not think that they have yet effected anything, in the way 
of the introduction of religious principle into the minds of 
the Natives; though they have attempted preaching to the 
Blacks, in their own tongue, and they occasionally read to 
them, portions of Scripture, rendered into the dialect of 
Australia. There is some ground to apprehend, that the 
Blacks of Wellington may have been rendered more vicious 
than some of the other tribes, by the Europeans sent 
here, when Wellington was a penal settlement, and they 
certainly are still demoralized by some of those residing in 

x 2 

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the vicinity. The tribes are said to be more numerous, 
fifty miles northward and soutliward. Two half-cirilized 
men^ named Frederick and Jemmy^ returned with W. Wat- 
son, whom they had accompanied on the expedition : ihey 
make themselves useful in the agricultural and other oecu- 
pations of the Establishment. Frederick went lately to 
Liverpool ; he says, before he went, the stock-keepers told 
him that what the Missionaries were trying to teach them, 
was all "gammon,^' or deceit, but now he knows better. 
• — On visiting some of the Natives, at their fire, I saw the 
little, black boy, before noticed, after filling his pipe and 
smoking with the rest of his country people, lay it down, 
and kneel in his mother's lap, and suck ! This was a com- 
bination of circumstances such as I had never imagined ; 
and one that quite overpowered the feelings of gravity, 
excited by the degraded condition of the people. 

The afternoon being fine, I walked to a distance, among 
some hills, on which there were fine, small trees, of the 
CaUitris of this neighbourhood; which, like other species 
of the genus, resembles the Cypress and Red Cedar. In 
some of the vallies, dry Kangaroo-grass was ankle deep 
upon the ground; and thicker than I had seen it in any 
other place. 

29th. After an early breakfast with the two mission 
families, we set out, to return to Bathurst. J. C. S. Handt 
accompanied us to Newry. We had much conversation 
with him, respecting the discouragements attendant upon 
their engagements as missionaries, and parted from him 
under a more than common degree of interest. 

At Newry, there were four black men, at the hut where 
we lodged on the 18th. The hut-keeper expressed r^et, 
at one of their kings having come to take away the two 
youths, who had become so useful, in order to make them 
young men ; that is, to initiate them as young men in the 
tribe to which they belong, by knocking out a front tooth, 
and putting them under certain restrictions as to diet and 

We also called at another station, where now, as well as 
on our way to Wellington, we were hospitably entertained 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 325 

with beef^ damper^ and tea. There were four black women 
and a little boy sitting before the fire^ in a state of complete 
nudity^ except having skin rugs thrown over their backs. 
The principal use of these skin rugs, which they usually 
carry with them, is, to draw over themselves at night, when 
they sleep on the ground, by their little fires. The dews 
of N. S. Wales, are often very heavy, and the nights 
chilly, rendering this kind of protection needful. The flesh 
side of the rug is turned outward, and is ornamented by a 
number of lines, forming oblong compartments and undula- 
tions, cut into the skin, and marked with a red pigment. 
They likewise carry with them, skin bags, with the fur out- 
side, containing a few wooden implements for digging up 
roots, and taking grubs, also vessels for water, made of 
the large, tubercular excrescences of the gum-tree, hollowed 
out, which are here called Calabashes. These women were 
smoking and drinking tea ; they said, the men they belonged 
to were gone up the creek. Though prisoner-servants are 
generally without religious principle, and are so degraded, 
that in situations of this kind, they are little above the 
Aborigines, in point of cleanliness and manner of living, 
they are to be pitied, in being exposed to the company of 
such as were now here. 

On proceeding, we traced the foot-marks of the Natives, 
as far as the Three Rivers, where we again halted, made a 
fire, and prepared tea; we also cooked some Mushrooms, 
which are springing up abundantly, since the rain. 

The day was showery. The ground being soft toward the 
conclusion of our day^s journey, made it very fatiguing, and 
a slight error in regard to the road, lengthened thirty- 
eight miles to Molong, to forty. My companion was so 
much afliected by the wet, cold, and fatigue, that he was 
seized with cramp in his legs, and was obliged to go to bed, 
where rest and warmth restored him. Two yoimg men, 
also on their way from Wellington, reached this station 
before us, on horseback, and were kindly attentive. The 
overseer was from home: the men had got some spirits, 
from a dray that had stopped here for the night, and were 
in a state of excitement and disorder. One man, however, 


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S26 MOLONG. [9th mo. 

was prompt in furnishing us with such things as "we 
needed; and we were thankful to have reached a place of 
shelter before the rain set in^ though it was one wi^out 
glass in the windows^ which were closed with shutters^ 
and where the plaster had fallen from between the logs, 
till a hand might be put through in many places. On the 
way^ we passed two drays^ encamped for the night, by a 
large fire. They were conveying stores from Sydney, to a 
settler further into the interior. The poor draymen often 
spend very uncomfortable nights on these weary journeys, 
that take them many weeks ; and in a morning, they have 
often to wander far after their bullocks, which stray in 
search of pasturage. 

A short time after our visit to Molong, one of the 
men, went off the road, with a cart, toward a house, where 
spirits were sold illicitly. On the way, he upset the cart, 
which fell across his breast : he had cut away part of the 
side of the cart, with a pocket knife, but had died before 
he could extricate himself. When he was found, a wild 
dog was eating his head, and his own dog was eating the 
horse. — Accidents from the use of intoxicating drinks are 
not unfreqaent in this land, where the quantity of spirituous 
liquors consumed is very great, in proportion to the popu- 
lation. We lately heard of a jnan falling, in a state of 
helpless drunkenness, on one of the large, flat, loose, ant- 
hills, that are common in the bush. When found, he was 
lifeless, the exasperated ants having eaten the interior of 
his nostrils and throat. 

30th. The night was very wet, and the rain continued 
to fall heavily in the morning. Four black women arrived 
here, with two half-cast female children. The males of the 
mixed race are almost universally destroyed in infancy. 
This is more particularly the case in the remote parts of 
N. S. Wales ; where we only met with two or three in- 
stances, in which their lives had been preserved. A person 
of our acquaintance expostulated with a woman, who had 
killed her child, but she only laughed; and when he ap- 
pealed to another, as to the wickedness of the act, she 
said, " It was not a pretty baby.^* 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 527 

The women who visited Molong this mornings were 
mach pleased on being presented witih an emptied sugar- 
bag. They soaked it in a bucket of water^ and drank the 
muddy infitsion^ with avidity. One of them folded portions 
of the bag, took them into her capacious mouth, and 
sucked them, to extract the sweetness. They did not ap- 
pear in the least degree intoxicated with their ample pota- 
tions of the liquor ; which, in common with the washings 
of rum casks, is called '^ Bull.^' The Blacks of Sydney 
reel after drinking the infusion of sugar-bags, and put on 
the appearance of intoxication so well, that it has generally 
been supposed, that the liquor really made them drunk. 
The following circumstances satisfied an acquaintance of 
ours, that this appearance of intoxication was feigned, and 
our own observation has confirmed this view : — ^The son 
of this person was, on a certain occasion, boiling down 
brine, to make salt, when a black man came in, and asked, 
if the liquor were rum. The young man, instead of an- 
swering the question, asked the Black, if he would have 
some : he answered in the affirmative, and took a tin-pot 
full, which he drank off. He then began to throw about 
his arms, and to stagger. The yoimg man derided him, 
saying he surely did not mean to pretend to be drunk. 
The , man replied — " Me murry (very) drunk like a gentle- 
man.^^ This circumstance induced our informant to remon- 
strate with some Blacks, who were making the same pre- 
tence in Sydney, and they made similar replies ; certainly 
not much to the credit of some of the gentlemen of N. S. 
Wales, but strongly illustrating the force of example. 

Towards noon the rain ceased. Our young friends com- 
menced their journey, and kindly offered to mark the road 
for us, to Kangaroo Bay. We soon followed, and found 
they had done this effectually, by detaching bark from a 
tree, at the place of turning off, and scattering branches 
of a species of AcadUy with striking flowers, as they went 

Kangaroo Bay is a beautiful, sequestered, grassy cove, 
among the hills, fertilized by a streamlet, now reduced to 
a chain of pools ; by the side of which we saw one of the 

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328 KANGAROO BAY. [9th mo. 

large Bustards^ called here Wild Turkeys. At this place, 
we received a hearty welcome, from a warm-hearted Irish 
couple, who told us, that they had heard of our passing 
along the other side of the hills, on the way to WelliDgton^ 
in consequence of our having given tracts to some shep- 
herds, and had heen regretting that they should not be 
likely to receive a visit from us. — ^An old Irishman, who 
was also a sojourner in the family for the night, informed 
us, that he could trace many points of resemblance to tiie 
ancient Irish language, in the language of the Blacks of this 
Colony. There were here two black boys ; one of whom, 
named Dickey, said he was an orphan, belon^g a tribe to 
the southward, on the Lachlan River. They were clothed 
in some old garments of the stock-men ; which, though they 
fit badly, made them more decent than usual. Dickey, 
who appeared to be about twelve years of age, had become 
useful in the house, in the work of which, his mistress in- 
structed him with motherly kindness: she also gave him 
his meals in the same room with themselves, and of the 
same kind of victuals as themselves eat. Being thus raised 
to the same grade with the family, in many points, the 
boy was making more progress in civilization than most of 
his race. 

A rational attention to points of this kind, in labours 
to improve the condition of the Aborigines, is of more con- 
sequence than many well-intentioned Christians imagine. 
A line of consideration and conduct, such as Christian prin- 
ciples, fully carried into practice, would lead to, is of the 
utmost importance, in preparing the mind to receive the 
doctrines of the gospel. I now see more clearly than be- 
fore, how much the Tasmanian Blacks on Flinders Island, 
were indebted to the rational, and well-directed endeavours 
of W. J. Darling and A. M^Lachlan, in raising them in the 
scale of civilization. Though neither of these men could 
be looked upon as religious missionaries, their labours mate- 
rially advanced the Blacks toward a state, in which they 
might have been benefited by well-directed religious 
labours; not by teaching them to use forms of religion, 
without the power, or to go through formal repetitions 

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1835.] NBW SOUTH WAI.BS. 329 

of devotional compositions ; but by simply reading the 
Scriptares to them^ and turning their attention to the 
convictions of the Holy Spirit upon their own minds^ 
as the drawing of the love of their Heavenly Father^ 
seeking to bring them to his beloved Son^ in order that 
they may find the pardon of sin, and help to work right- 
eousness, through him. To these exercises, devout con- 
versations, and the reading of religious biography, and other 
practical works, might be usefully added, as the instructors 
became able to engage in such communication, and way 
opened for it. O, that many would give way to a right 
exercise of soul before the Lord ! who would then raise up, 
both ministers and missionaries, qualified for their work to 
his own glory. 

10th mo. 1st. We left Kangaroo Bay, accompanied by 
the two black boys, as guides. Soon after they left us, we 
missed our road, taking a sawyer's track, which was more 
strongly marked than the one along which we ought to 
have gone, a common circumstance in Australia. This 
lengthened our journey a few miles, and brought us across 
some rough hills of white quartz, covered with trees and 
scrub. At length we came out, upon a verdant tract, called 
Fredericks VaDey, where a man, who was making cheese, in 
a solitary hut, kindly gave us some milk. This article, 
which is scarce in V. D. Land, is abundant in this part of 
N. S. Wales ; and constitutes a part of the provision for the 
servants of many of the pastoral establishments. 

From over-exertion on the 29th ult. I became affected 
with violent pain in one leg ; and when, becoming so lame 
as scarcely to be able to get along, one of our acquaintance, 
from Newton, came up, with a spare horse ready saddled, 
on which he invited me to ride. This circumstance might 
be regarded by some as a mere casualty ; but I could not 
but consider it, as one of the many cases, in which relief 
was sent by the overruling of Him, who cares for the spar- 
I'ows, and much more for those who put their trust in 
Him, unworthy of his notice as they may feel themselves 
to be; and who, in his providence, often causes, circum- 
stances, casual in appearance, so to meet, as to bring about 

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SSO NEWTON. [10th mo. 

important ends. By this help we reached Newton in the 
evening ; and spent a little time with comfort, among tlie 
little company of Wesleyans there. 

2nd. We proceeded to Bathurst, in company with a 
pious man from the north of Ireland^ who has known 
something of the power of religion for many years^ and 
is more clear than many^ in his views of the teaching of 
the Holy Spirit, and attentive to this guidance^ in many 
respects. His conversation was cheering and edifying. 
Among many other things^ he mentioned, that on asking 
a poor, bare-footed, Irish girl, a pupil in a Sabbath-school 
that he attended in his native land, to explain the meaning 
of love, the word having occurred in one of their Scriptore 
lessons, she replied : ^^ It is the union of all the powers of 
the mind, in one strong desire to please.^^ This lucid and 
concise definition, from a child of drunken parents, greatly 
surprised him, but it tended to confirm him in his view of 
the benefits of such instruction. On arriving at Bathurst 
we again met a hearty welcome from John Espie and Mary 
Keane. Instead of the brownness of the country that 
existed on our first arrival in this part of the Colony, a 
fine verdure now covers the surface of the earth. The 
late, bountiful rain has caused both the people and the cattle 
to rejoice. 

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BathuTst. — CHmate of N. 8. Wales.— Public Worehip.— Doctrine of Baptism.— 
Settlers. — Bank. — Prisons. — ^Woodlands. — Geology. — O'Connell Plains. — Spi- 
ritual "Worship. — ^Fish River. — Dogs and Snakes. — Milk. — Prisoners. — Shrubs. 
— Blue Mountains. — ^Black Heath. — Goyetts Leap. — Awful Death. — Couch 
Grass. — Penrith. — Flagellation. — Nepean. — ^Doctrine. — ^Vineyard. — Absence 
of Dew. — Horses destroyed by thirst. — Nepean RiTer . — Castlereagh. — ^Windsor. 
— Richmond. — Information of a Black. — Pitt Town and Wilberforce. — Unfaith- 
ful Professor. — ^Pious Persons. — TemperanceMeeting. — Jail. — Religious Meet- 
ings. — Currajong. — Country. — ^Maize add Wheat Crops. — Orange Orchards. — 
Return to Sydney. 

10th mo. 3rd. The climate of Newton and Bathurst, is 
much cooler than that of Wellington Valley, or of Syd- 
ney. At Newton there was hoar frost yesterday morn- 
ing. At Bathurst and Newton, Apples and Gooseberries 
succeed, but not Grapes. At Wellington and Sydney, the 
heat is too great for. the fruits of the cooler chmates, and the 
winter of Wellington and Bathurst, is too cold for Oranges, 
and some other fruits, from the warmer parts of Europe. 

4th. We had two meetings in the school-house. The 
Episcopal Minister being at one of the out-stations, there 
was no congregation in his place of worship to-day, and 
many of the people, usually assembhng there for devotional 
purposes, met with the Presbyterians. I cannot but greatly 
esteem the privilege, of having been trained to the practice of 
meeting, to wait upon the Lord, independently of the interven- 
tion of a minister. The common custom, of no minister, no 
public worship, ill accords with the precept, ** Not forsaking 
the assembling of yourselves together, as the manner of some 
is.'* Indeed, I know of no people but Friends, who, exer- 
cising faith in the Redeemer's declaration, ** Wheresoever 

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332 BATHUR8T. [10th DIO. 

two or three are met together in my name^ there am I in 
the midst of them/^ act upon the Apostle's precept fully, 
by meeting when there is no preacher present. Much as I 
esteem Gospel Ministry as a gift of God, conferred for the 
edification of his church, I cannot but look upon those views 
of public worship, which render it dependent upon the 
intervention of a priest or a minister, as belonging rather to 
the dispensation of the law of Moses, than to the Grospel 
of Christ. 

5th. I spent some time in the school, under the care 
of J. E. Keane, in which there are about thirty pupils^ 
who are trained with much Christian care, and are diligently 
instructed in the Holy Scriptures. I could not, however, 
but lament to hear them taught such palpable error as is 
conveyed in the Catechism of the Episcopal Church, by 
which they are instructed to say, that they become mem- 
bers of Christ, and children of God, by baptism, clearly 
implying by baptism with water. I know this fallacy is 
attempted to be explained away, by various arguments; 
but it is quite in vain to try to twist the plain meaning 
of the words. It remains palpably untrue, that any infant, 
by water-baptism, becomes a member of Christ, or a child 
of God; and the direct tendency of such instruction, as 
teaches them to say that this is the case, is to deceive the 
young, with regard to their own religious state, and to lead 
them to attach to this rite, the imaginary effect of a mys- 
tical charm, and to divert their attention from the baptism 
of the Holy Ghost, received only through the mediation 
of Christ, by which alone they can become members of 
Christ, children of God, and heirs of eternal life. 

6th. In company with J. E. Keane, we visited several 
of the settlers on Bathurst Plains, who generally live a 
mile or two from each other. Their houses are comfort- 
able and well furnished, and more like those of England, 
than most we have seen in country situations, in this part 
of the world. 

7th. A Branch Bible Association and an Auxiliary Tem- 
perance Association were organized. A number of the 
respectable settlers were present. These came from various 

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1835.] NBW SOUTH WALES. 33S 

dist&nces^ within nine miles. Several of them are in sta- 
tions in life^ similar to those of the more opulent of the 
middle class^ in England. Among them, there is a pleasing 
attention to spiritual things : they generally assemble their 
"whole families, including prisoner-servants, daily : for read- 
ing the Scriptures, and other devotional exercises. At the 
suggestion of the zealous. Episcopal Minister, they have 
established a Bank, in which they take small deposits, 
with the view of encouraging the labouring classes to save 
their money. This has dready succeeded, in an encourag- 
ing degree, in regard to this object; it has considerably 
restrained the spending of money in strong drink, and, in 
other respects, has proved very useful in the district. 

9th. We visited the Jail, Factory, and Hospital. The 
first of these, generally contains about fifty prisoners, con- 
victs and others, under charges and sentences, all mixed 
together, and without employment ; eating and sleeping in 
the same room. It has also five cells, and two rooms for 
debtors; all without airing courts. The Factory, which 
is occupied by female prisoners, and the Hospital, have 
better accommodations; but the latter is without enclo- 
sure^ which is a great defect, especially, as many of its 
inmates are prisoners. These places are regularly visited 
by the Episcopal Minister, whose care for the prisoner, 
as well as the free population of the district, is exemplary. 
Having concluded our labours at Bathurst, we accom- 
panied a respectable settler, residing at Woodlands, at the 
junction of the Campbell and Fish Rivers, to his com- 
fortable residence. 

10th. The country about Woodlands is fine: the soil 
is a mixture of decomposed basaltic and granitic rocks, 
with pieces of rolled Jasper scattered on the surface. In a 
well, of seventy feet deep, in which water has not yet been 
obtained, a substance resembling soap-stone occurs, under 
the decomposed granite. — Several of the neighbouring set- 
tlers dined with us. Considering the shortness of the time 
since the Blue Mountains were first crossed by Europeans, 
the respectabiUty of the population in this district is re- 
markable. They are placed under inconvenience at present. 

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334 o'coNNBLL Pi^AiNS. [10th« mo. 

by the difficiilties of obtaining necessaries^ from the long 
droughty which has weakened the cattle^ and has caused the 
expense of carriage over the mountains, to be very great. 

11th. We had a meeting at (yConneU Plains, in a 
chapel, built by a prirate individual. The perceptible 
influence of our Heavenly Father's love was with us, both 
in time of silence, and when we were engaged in vocal 
labour. Ability was afforded us, to show clearly, the dif- 
ference between formal and spiritual worship, and to illus- 
trate the delusion and unprofitableness of the former, and 
the validity and profitableness of the latter; proving, that 
it extended, not only to the right ordering of the mind 
and conduct, in public and private devotion, but, having 
its root in the fear of God, to a consequent regard to his 
law, in all our public and private actions, as well as to oar 
words and thoughts ; so as to render the whole life of the 
spiritually-minded Christian, a continued act of worship. 

12th. We took leave of our hospitable friends, at Wood- 
lands, who kindly lent us their gig for the day, and pro- 
ceeding by O'Connell Plains, we traversed several miles of 
grassy and herby, open forest hills, affording pasturage for 
sheep and cattle, till we came to the dwelling of a setder^ 
on the Fish River. This person rented a section of land, 
probably six hundred and forty acres, of the Government, 
for £2 per annum. 

13th. Our route lay along the Fish River, which here 
has a granite bed, and except in rainy weather, is a slender 
stream. It takes its name from a fish, about the size of a 
Cod, that inhabits its waters. We passed over a ridge of 
granite and compact sandstone, the highest point of which 
is called, Evans's Crown. Exarrhena suaveolenSy a plant 
resembling Forget-me-not, but having large, white, fragrant 
flowers, and some others, common also in V. D. Land, but 
rare in N. S. Wales, were growing here. The mid-day sun 
was very hot, and Snakes, basking in its rays, were numerous. 
Two young dogs belonging one of our friends from Helvellyn, 
who accompanied us frY)m O'Connell Plains, killed four. One 
of the dogs barked in front of the snake, while the other 
seized it in its mouth, gave it a violent shake, and dropped 

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it. The other then barked, while his fellow attacked the 
reptile. This they continued, at the risk of their lives, till 
one of our party finished the destruction of the snakes with 
a slick. At Antonios Creek, we were refreshed with milk 
and damper, by a man formerly a prisoner. Milk is now 
so plentiful at many stations, that where ihey have not pigs 
to consume it, much of it is thrown away, after the cream is 
taken off. 

14th. One of the prisoners, at the house where we 
lodged, having been flogged by order of a magistrate, for 
allowing the sheep to ramble over a piece of marshy ground, 
the whole of those at the establishment refused to come* to 
the reading of the Scriptures, last evening. I went to them 
this morning, and gave them some counsel, which was well 

We pursued our way to Black Heath. The advance of 
spring has decorated the Vale of Clywd, as well as the Blue 
Mountains^ with many pretty blossoms. Among these, 
may be enxunerated several species of GreviUea, a genus, 
including shrubs, with handsome flowers, but of very 
various foliage, aspect, and altitude; some of them are 
creepers on the ground, others are lofty trees. 

Arriving at Black Heath, early, and not thinking it pru- 
dent to proceed further to day, we turned aside, to visit 
Govetts Leap ; where, at an interval of a few hundred 
yards, two small streams fall over a precipice, at the oppo- 
site sides of a cove, in a sandstone cliff. The cove is half 
a mile, or more, in width, extending beyond the falls ; and 
having ledges, upon which shrubs are growing; notwith- 
standing that to the eye it appears perpendicular. The 
perpendicular fall of one of the streams, is calculated, at 
600 feet. The water is diffused into a shower of drops, before 
it reaches a mound of moss, that has grown up from below, 
to meet it, The other fall, is somewhat less in height. The 
course of the water, from the foot of the cliff, is traceable, 
in the dense forest of "the inaccessible valley,'* where it joins 
the Grose River, by the darker verdure, and the tree-ferns, 
on the margins of the streams. The cliffs, on the opposite 
side of this dark glen, are of similar character, forming a 

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336 BLUE MOUNTAINS. [lOth mo. 

long series of coves. Above them^ rise some considerable 
woody eminences^ on which the snow lies in winter. Among 
these^ are Eling Georges Mounts Mount Hay^ and Mount 
Tomah; some of which^ are visible from Sydney. The 
access to the pointy from whence the waterfttUs were seen, 
was difficulty but the magnificence of the scene, amply- 
repaid for the trouble, in reaching it. The lofty, sinuous, 
sandstone cliffs, of this neighbourhood, have given it the 
name, of Hassans Walls. 

15th. We set out in a smart snow-storm, dined at the 
Weatherboard-hut, and reached the Valley in the evening. 
Several showers of hail and rain feU, in the course of the 
day. In the lower altitudes of the moimtains, the advance 
of spring was more striking. Telopea speciosissima, form- 
ing low bushes, with heads of flowers as large as small 
Peonies, was in full blossom. The Blue Mountain Parrot, 
partly blue, and with a breast of crimson, as brilliant as 
the flowers, was drinking nectar out of the blossoms of 
this splendid shrub ; and a brown Honey-eater was darting 
its tongue, like a slender pencil of hair, into the elegant 
pink flowers of Grevillea linearis. Gompholobium^ grmidin 
florumy a large, yellow, pea-flowered shrub, of great beauty, 
and several species of Platylobium, Diwiesia, Baronial and 
Eriostemon, enlivened the solitude, and beguiled the walk, 
of thirty-one miles, through this dreary forest, which we 
accomplished in ten hours. This kind of exercise, in sach 
a climate, gives vigour to the digestive powers, and cheer- 
fulness to the spirits. The number of dead bullocks had 
increased considerably, since we last crossed the moun- 
tains. We fell in with several parties of meii with drays, 
conveying supplies for the settlers to the westward. Some 
of them were resting, others pursuing their way with cattle, 
so weak, that many of them appeared likely to die before 
reaching the other side. Notwithstanding the late rains 
have caused the grass again to grow, it is still very scarce 
in the little mountain glens, where it is not of a nutritious 
qxiality ; and the cattle, in the low countries, have not yet 
had time, since the rain fell, to get into such condition, as 
is necessary to enable them to endure such a journey. 

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16th. Toward the close of the day, we overtook a ma- 
gistrate, returning from an inquest, on the remains of a 
woman, who had hung herself, in a state of excitement 
from drinking. Her husband had been committed to pri- 
son, on the charge of wilful murder, for having assisted his 
wife, in the accomplishment of this rash and wicked act ! 
— The man was afterwards tried, found guilty, and sen- 
tenced to death ; but was respited till the opinion of the 
English Judges could be had, upon the before unheard of 
case ; and this opinion had not been received, when I lefit 
N. S. Wales. 

Our walk to Penrith was pleasant. As we descended 
from the mountains, the grass, on Emu Plains, looked 
beautifully green. It is of the kind, called here. Couch- 
grass, Cynodon dactyUm, which creeps deep in the ground, 
and spreads over the cultivated lands, of this part of N. S. 
Wales. It is a widely difiiised species, occurring also on the 
south coast of England, and in India, &c. 

On visiting the Police-office at Penrith, to apply for leave 
to hold a meeting in it, we witnessed the inffiction of the 
degrading punishment of flagellation, on two prisoners, to 
the amount of one hundred lashes each. One of them 
bore his punishment without complaint ; the other writhed 
much under it, complained piteously, and was so faint, as 
to require to be frequently supplied with water. Yet I 
saw this man, a few minutes after, putting on his clothes, 
behind the jail, and jeering with a woman, in a way that 
proved that his mind was not beneficially operated upon, 
though in body, he must have suffered severely, unless the 
torpor of the mutilated flesh, rendered him temporarily 
insensible. I beUeve the disposition of mind, of those who 
think to keep mankind in subjection by severity, is much 
the same as it was in Rehoboam, when he took the counsel 
of the young men ; and that it will, in one way or other, 
lead to similar results. — See 2 Chron. x. 

At Penrith, a Jew, professing Christianity, the father-in- 
law of the landlord of the inn, told us, that as we had come 
among them to preach the gospel, we should be free of 
all charges. We acknowledged his kindness, and explained 

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338 PBNKiTH. [10th mo. 

how oar expenses were pud, to which he replied, he hoped 
we wotdd not debar him of this privilege. 

18th. At ten o'clock, a small congregation met ns at 
the Police-office, at Penrith, where religion and morality 
are at a low ebb. In the afternoon, we had a meeting at 
Nepean, which was well attended. The Wesleyans preach 
here occasionally, but the tone of religious feeling is low. 
The message we have generally to proclaim is, that all un- 
righteousness is sin, and all sin the service of the devil; 
that none can be saved in the service of the devil, for he 
is the enemy of God, and so are all his servants. We 
find it also omr place, to state the fundamental doctrines of 
the Gospel, and to urge the importance of attention to the 
convictions of the Holy Spirit upon the mind, discovering 
sin, condemning it, and leading to repentance, as being the 
only way by which we can come to a true faith in Christ, 
and a holy walk with God. These doctrines we are engaged 
to press, with a variety of Scripture illustrations, and with 
appeals to the convictions of their truth, in the minds of our 
hearers, and with exhortations to seek after an experimental 
knowledge of them. — ^After meeting, we called to see an 
aged man, who had been confined to bed with palsy, for 
several years, and was in a state of great suffering. He 
was formerly a prisoner, became thoughtful without instru- 
mental means, got a little forward in his circumstances, 
gave the land where the school-house is built, and reared 
a large family, by some of whom, he has been in danger of 
being again led away from righteousness, by their joining 
a medical man, in recommending him to take spirits as a 

19th. We breakfasted at Regentville, the hospitable 
owner of which, has a large vineyard on his fine property, 
but the promise for fruit this season is not great, in con- 
sequence of the late drought, during many weeks of which, 
the sky was clear, and there was " neither rain nor dew,^' 
a circumstance not uncommon in these regions. During 
the droughty the proprietor of R^entville, had a herd of 
sixteen horses, which strayed to a peninsula, on the moun- 
tains, where they could hear the fall of water, but could 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 339 

not reach it. As if enchanted by the sound, they had con- 
tinued to pace round the spot, till they all perished by thirst. 

20th. We called upon some of the neighbouring settlers, 
and visited Glen Brook, a romantic valley, through which a 
branch of the Nepean River flows, between high, woody 
difis, of the same character as those forming the inaccessible 
Tallies of this part of the country. It contained several 
remarkable trees and shrubs ; among which were a wild fig- 
tree, and Hibiscus heterophyUtiSy the flowers of which resem- 
ble the Hollyhock, and are of a delicate white, with a deep, 
purple eye. * 

21st. We walked by way of the little village of Castle- 
reagh, to Windsor, a town of about 1,500 inhabitants, 
beautifully situated, upon the Hawkesbury, and of very 
English appearance, where we found pretty good accommo- 
dation at an inn. 

22nd. We called upon some of the Inhabitants, and 
made arrangements, for holding some meetings, in which, 
we were kindly assisted by the Wesleyan Minister. 

23rd. We went to Richmond, another little town on 
the Hawkesbury, four miles distant from Windsor. The 
country here is very fine, and productive, with extensive 
grassy flats, along the sides of the river. On these, people 
continue to build and reside, notwithstanding there have 
been floods, at intervals of a few years, that have risen far 
above the tops of their houses. 

A respectable Wesleyan, at Richmond, told us, that he 
had heard of our visit to Wellington Valley, several days 
ago, from a Native, who had had the particulars detailed 
to him, by a Black from that coimtry. Our persons, 
costume, and many other particulars, including our man- 
ner of communicating reUgious instruction, had been mi- 
nutely described. And on our Wesleyan friend inquiring 
what the Black supposed all this meant, he replied, ^^ God 
Almighty come and sit down at Wellington;^' implying, 
that the Most High would be worshipped there. The 
scattered natives of Australia, communicate information 
rapidly; messengers being often sent from tribe to tribe, 
for great distances. In the evening we returned to Windsor. 

Y 2 

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340 RICHMOND. [lOth mo. 

24th. Accompanied by a thoughtful, military officer^ 
we walked to the villages of Pitt Town, and Wilberforoe. 
At Pitt Town, we were helped, in obtaining a place to hold 
a meeting in, by the Episcopal Minister. 

25 th. We had meetings at Richmond, in the forenoon, 
and at Windsor, in the afternoon. There was a painful 
feeling in both meetings, on behalf of such as profess to be 
awakened, but do not maintain an inward exercise of soul 
before the Lord ; and who try to feed upon external excite- 
ments, instead of upon " the true Bread," " which oometh 
down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world.*' 

26th. We had some conversation with an unfaithful pro- 
fessor of religion ; with whom we expostulated, on his in- 
consistency, in endeavouring to add to his income, by 
distilling spirits, both to his own injury, and to that of 
those who consumed them. This man tried to vindicate 
his practice, but himself became gradually ensnared by the 
insidious poison; he ultimately died of delirium tremens, 
declaring that the pains of hell were already his portion. 
We also visited some thoughtful people, not professing \iritli 
any associated body of Christians; one of whom left the 
army on half-pay, when he became religiously awakened, 
finding military associations inimical to his religious pro- 
gress. — In the evening, a Temperance Meeting was held in 
the government school-room, when we gave the company- 
some information, on the progress of Temperance Societies* 
There are about ninety members here, many of whom are 
soldiers : one of their officers is a diligent labourer in this 
good cause. 

27th. After breakfast, we went to see the jail; and 
were scarcely in the yard, before the prisoners, of their 
own accord, arranged themselves, to afford us the oppor- 
tunity of addressing them, standing in the scorching sun- 
shine, and leaving us the shade. We inquired, if we could 
not have an interview with them, in one of the rooms of 
the prison, and being answered in the affirmative, they 
were soon assembled and seated, and we had a memorable 
time with them. The sense of divine overshadowing 
prevailed in a remarkable degree, the message of mercy 

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1835.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 341" 

was freely proclaimed among them^ and they were invited 
to turn to the Lord, against whom they had deeply revolted ; 
witli the assurance, that if they would submit to the govem- 
ment of his good Spirit, he would be their God, and pardon 
their past transgressions for Jesus' sake. — We afterwards 
Tv^alked again to Wilberforce, where we had a meeting in 
the school-house, with a congregation consisting chiefly of 
Australians, of European extraction, with whom I had an 
open time, in preaching the Gospel; to which, as regards 
its power, the auditors seemed much of strangers. — It is to 
be regretted, that in public preaching, a theoretical know- 
ledge of the blessed doctrine of the atonement, should so 
much take the place, as it generally does, of the practical 
application of the Gospel, spiritually. There is ground to 
beUeve, that this is one great cause, why so few come to 
true repentance, such as is wrought by attention to the 
convictions of the Spirit of Truth, and leads to the practical 
and saving application of the atoning sacrifice of Christ. 

28th. At six o'clock this morning, we had a religious 
interview with a road-party, of twenty-four prisoners, em- 
ployed in replacing a wooden bridge, over the South Creek, 
close to Windsor. In the afternoon, we visited the hospital, 
and had a meeting with about forty patients, who were 
assembled in one of the four wards, of which this building 
consists. In the evening, we met about one hundred and 
twenty persons, in the school-room, at Pitt Town, to whom 
much Christian counsel, and warning were extended. The 
district of Pitt Town, contains about seven hundred in- 
habitants; many of whom have been prisoners, and are 
notorious for their drunkenness, profligacy, and neglect of 
public worship. 

29th. We returned to Richmond, and made calls upon se- 
veral persons, for the purpose of furnishing them with tracts. 
In the afternoon we held a meeting at Currajong, a scattered 
settlement, on the ascent of the mountains, near the con- 
fluence of the Nepean and Grose Rivers ; which, uniting, 
form the Hawkesbury. The land here has been cleared, and 
numerous cottages have been erected ; but the inhabitants, 
who are chiefly Anglo-Australians, seem very uncultivated. 

Y 3 

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342 WINDSOR. [10th mo. 

In the evening we returned again to Windsor. The 
country in this neighbourhood^ was settled at an early 
period of the Colony. Some of the alluvial flats on the 
Hawkesbury^ which is navigable to this pointy for small craft, 
are very rich ; and the people are now busy planting Muze 
or Indian Com. Crops of thb useful grain are often 
obtained, after Wheat has failed from frost, drought, or hot 

30(ih. At six o'clock in the morning, we mounted a four- 
horse coach, which stopped for breakfast, at Parramatta, 
and arrived at Sydney, in four hours and a half, the distance 
being thirty-eight miles. — Between Windsor and Parramatta, 
there are a few large Orange-orchards, which are said to 
yield a very profitable produce to their owners. 

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Opening of Friends* Meeting House, at Sydney. — Voyage to Van Diemens Land. 
— Escape from danger. — Electric Phenomena. — ^Arrival at Hobart Town. — 
State of the Congregation of Frienda. — Yearly Meeting. — Journey to 
KelTedon, Falmouth, Launcetton &c. — ^Dangerous Riding. — Hunting Cattle. — 
Oentleness of Bulls. — Accident. — Launceston. — Influence of Strong-drink. — 
Religious Attainments. — Mounds of Oyster Shells. — Remarkable Tide. — 
High Rents. — Hospitals. — Irrigation. — ^Wesleyans. — Progress of Temperance. 
— ^Return to Sydney. 

On the 1st of 11th month, we had the privilege of assem- 
bling, for the first time, in a neat meeting-house, in Mac- 
quarie Street, built by John Tawell, for the accommodation 
of persons professing with Friends. Several strangers met 
with us, on the occasion. Some of them seemed disappoint- 
ed, that we did not dedicate this house for worship, by 
some vocal communication. We were willing to have 
spoken, had anything been given us to communicate, but 
this not being the case, we bore a plain testimony, by our 
silence, to our conviction, of the advantage of attending to 
the injunction, " Cease ye from man, whose breath is in his 
nostrils,^' and of trusting in the Lord alone. Our silence 
was also calculated to encourage those who might meet in 
our absence, to bear this testimony faithfully. 

Having believed that it would be right for us, to join our 
friends in Van Diemens Land, at their Yearly Meeting, in 
the 12th mo. we engaged berths, in the cabin of the brig, 
Maria, for jBlG each, and sailed on the 13th of the 11th 
month, for Hobart Town. In leaving Port Jackson, we 
narrowly escaped drifting upon the South Head. We were 
delivered from this danger, by the springing up of a breeze. 

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344 HOB ART TOWN. [11th mo. 

when all human efforts appeared to be unavailing. Being 
affected with sea-sickness, I had *' gone down into the sides 
of the ship/' and was fast asleep, I did not awake till the 
danger was past; from which we thus escaped, by the inter- 
vention of the almighty power of Him, "who maketh the 
wind his messenger,*' and watcheth over us when we are 
asleep, as well as when we are awake, and *^ suffereth not 
the briny wave to prevail against us,'' though, at seasons^ 
he permits the billows to assume a threatening aspect, in 
order that we may know, that it is indeed himself who 
protects us, and thus may be stirred up, to give to him 
the glory, due unto his holy name. 

On the 18th, we were off the point of Van Diemens 
Land, called St. Patricks Head, and observed much snow 
on the ridge of Ben Lomond. The Aurora australis was 
remarkably brilliant, this evening, forming faint columns of 
light, like the Aurora borealis. In New South Wales, there 
is an electric phenomenon, somewhat allied to this. It 
occurs in warm, summer evenings, when no clouds are to 
be seen ; and it is a diffuse, flickering light, differing from 
lightening, in not being discharged from any perceptible 
clouds, and in its want of density: it generally appears to 
the eastward. 

On the 20th, we landed, at Hobart Town ; where we re^ 
ceived a cordial welcome from many of our former acquaint- 
ance, including the Lieutenant Governor and his family. 

During our absence in New South Wales, the little con- 
gregation professing ^idth Friends, had been enabled to 
maintain their ground, and some of them appeared to have 
grown in grace, notwithstanding they had had to mourn over 
the departure of one of their number, from the paths of 
rectitude. His deviations had so offended another, that he 
had ceased to assemble with the rest, for divine worship, 
notwithstanding they had faithfully testified their disunity 
with the offender, and after endeavouring in vain to restore 
him, in the spirit of meekness, had disowned him as a mem- 
ber of the Society. 

The Yearly Meeting commenced, on the 4th of 12th 
month, and continued, by adjournments, to the 10th ; on 

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1835.] VAN DUBltSNS ULXD. 345 

the eTening of which day, it concluded, after recording the 
following minute : 

^* In reviewing the several sittings of this Meeting, we feel 
it mcumbent upon us, to record, that though we have met 
in much weakness, yet, through the unmerited mercy and 
condescension of our Heavenly Father, we have been made 
sensible ; that ' the Everlasting Arms were underneath ;* 
and strength has been afforded us, to conduct the business 
that has come before us, in unity and brotherly love ; for 
which we feel humbly thankful; and reverently acknowledge, 
that ' hitherto, the Lord hath helped us/ '* 

12th mo. 16th. Having purchased two horses, one for 
£215 and the other for JB30, we commenced a journey, in 
company with Francis and Anna Maria Cotton. Crossing 
the Derwent, in a steamer we proceeded to Lauderdale, 
where we paid a visit to our friends, the Mathers. 

On the 17th, we rode, by way of the Hollow Tree, to the 
Coal River, and from thence, on the 18th, to the Eastern 
Marshes. The road between Jerusalem and this place, is 
undergoing improvement, by a long cut, in the side of a 
steep hill. It is formed by prisoner labour, and is a great 
accommodation, though it is yet only passable for horses, 
and requires some nerve to ride along it. From the 
Eastern Marshes, we travelled by a road, lately cut, which 
winds up the Sugar-loaf Hill ; and by which. Little Swan 
Port is rendered accessible for carriages. 

On the 19th, we reached the peaceful dwelling of our 
friends, at Kelvedon. On the way from Hobart Town, we 
visited several of the families of the settlers; many of whom 
appeared to be prospering in temporal things. We were 
received with much cordiality, by an aged woman, who was 
slowly recovering from an apoplectick attack. She expressed 
great thankfulness, that she was not cut off at once, by the 
disease, but allowed time to repent. We were glad to see 
her in such a state of mind, but were confirmed in the 
conviction, that it is a dangerous thing to defer repentance 
to such a time. Well might the prophet exclaim, ^^ O, that 
my people were wise, that they understood this, that they 
would consider their latter end !'^ 

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346 PALMOUTH. [1835. 

On the 28th^ we left Kelvedon, being accompanied by 
Francis Cotton ; and after visiting some of the settlers in 
Great Swan Port, who also appeared to be in improving 
circumstances, reached Moulting Bay, in the evening. On 
the following day we arrived at Falmouth. Our chief object 
in taking this route, was to visit our friend David Stead, 
who was still residing here. My horse proved a very un- 
tractable one, and several times exposed me to danger, on 
the way through the forests. To-day, he ran off with me, 
and when passing under some low trees, close to the shore, 
a short stump, projecting from one of them, caught my coat 
by the shoulder, and took me off his back ; but when I feU, 
he stopped, and I was mercifully preserved from injury. 
The manner in which a skilful rider, on a tractable horse, 
avoids the branches of trees, clears logs upon the ground, 
rocks, and other impediments, in riding at full speed, 
through the continuous, and hilly forests of this coimtry, 
is very remarkable ; particularly when hunting cattle out 
of the bush. As these cattle are brought into the fold, in 
some instances, only once a year, when the young ones are 
branded, in order that they may be identified by their 
owners, they are consequently, almost as wild as those that 
have never been under human control. But the ferocity 
observed in bulls, in England, may be said to be unknown 
in them, in the Australian Colonies. Whether this arises 
from the climate, or from some other cause, is doubtful. 

On the 30th, we crossed the hills, and traversed the 
Break-o'-day Plains, which being less parched than the land 
on the coast, were more verdant than most of the country 
that we had seen, since returning to V. D. Land. We 
continued our journey by Avoca, and the Buffalo Plains, to 
Launceston, where we arrived on the 1st of 1st mo. 1836; 
having renewed our acquaintance with several estimable 
families, on the way. 

My horse fell, as if shot, when near the Nile-bridge, and 
going at a smart pace. I received a severe bruise on my 
right side, from which I was not fully restored for many 

On the 5 th, we had a meeting with many of the inhabitants 

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1836.] VAN DIEMEN8 LAND. 347 

of Launceston, in a large chapel, lately erected by the 
Wesleyans, who have become a numerous and influential 
body in the place, which is remarkably improved, both as 
a town, and in moral and reUgious character. In the course 
of the day, we visited a person in the chain-gang, who was 
brought up among Friends, but who sacrificed all his ad- 
vantages to the love of strong drink, and through its influ- 
ence became a prisoner. Having been respectably con- 
nected, he was treated with more than ordinary lenity, but 
he abused his privilege, received the addition of a year to 
his original sentence, and is now wearing party-coloured 
garments, and double irons. O that young men would 
take warning, and neither touch, taste, nor handle this 
accursed thing! and that they would beware of despising 
the counsel of their friends, and the reproofs of the Holy 
Spirit ! for, after having suffered themselves to be carried, 
by almost imperceptible degrees, into evil habits, it is hard 
indeed for them to learn to do well. 

We left Launceston on the 7th, and reached Kelvedon 
again on the 9th, having again visited some thoughtful 
families, with whom we were acquainted, upon the way. 
It was truly pleasant to see among them, the tokens of ad- 
vancing religious character; yet I could not but lament 
that the immediate teaching of the Holy Spirit seemed to 
be so little understood. The consequence of this is, that 
it is not waited for, and little, if any, of its baptizing in- 
fluence is to be felt, in the generality of the devotional 
exercises, of many truly estimable characters, who know 
something of the evidence of their past sins being blotted 
out, through faith in the blood of Jesus, and cherish a 
desire to conform themselves to the will of God, so far 
as they understand it. These have witnessed so much of 
the work of the new birth, as makes them very distinguish- 
able from those whose minds are not yet, in any degree, 
brought under divine influence. They have a religious 
understanding also, according to the measure of their 
faith; but not having faith in the perceptible guidance 
of the Spirit, they do not so walk, as to perceive things 
clearly, by its light, and much of their religious exercise is. 

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349 KELVEDON. [1st mO. 

consequently^ the produce of their own natural powers, with 
little, or, often, with nothing, of the Spirit of Life. In 
one family, in which we again proclaimed the Gospel mes- 
sage, I had to point out to the company, that, to the hum- 
ble mind, the way of salvation is opened, not by deduc- 
tions of the reasoning powers, but by the light of Christ 
shining into the mind, and giving a perception of the mercy 
of God in his beloved Son, and of the state of the soul 
before him, and of other truths, progressively, as there 
is a preparation of heart to receive them. How favoured 
are those, who, becoming humble and teachable, as little 
children, come to Christ, and know^ him to baptize them 
with the Holy Ghost, to open their eyes, to unstop their 
ears, and to bring them into the state of his disciples of 
old, to whom he said, ^' Blessed are your eyes, for they see, 
and your ears, for they hear!** 

We left Kelvedon on the 19th, and again reached Hobart 
Town on the 25th, having travelled by way of Little Swan 
Port, Spring Bay, Richmond, and Lauderdale. 

At Little Swan Port, we visited the mounds of Oyster 
shells, left by the Aborigines, who formerly inhabited this 
country. These shells are now dug out and burnt for lime ; 
they must have been the accumulation of ages. 

The tide was very high, in Spring Bay, on the forenoon 
of the 21st. It flowed four times in the course of the 
day ! This might possibly be the effect of conflicting 
winds on the Pacific, or of a volcanic eruption somewhere, 
at sea. 

While in Hobart Town, we took a room, at the rate of 
JBIO a-year, for a meeting-place, for those professing \*dth 
Friends; the one they had lately occupied, being wanted 
for another purpose. Rents are very high in ^'. D. Land. 

On the 1st of 2nd month, I went with F. Cotton to 
New Norfolk, to pay a parting visit to my friends at that 
place, and returned by coach the follow^ing day. The Hos- 
pital there, as well as that in Hobart Town, is much 
crowded. In the one at New Norfolk, there are now about 
300 inmates, 50 of whom are lunatics, and several others 
are aged, infirm persons. A successful experiment has 

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1836.] VAN DIEMENS LAND. 349 

lately been tried^ in the irrigation of some land^ near the 
town of New Norfolk, by which its produce, in this dry 
climate, is greatly augmented. Though the places capable 
of being irrigated, in this country, are comparatively few, 
yet the eflFect of irrigation is so decidedly beneficial, that it 
will probably be carried on hereafter, to a considerable 

The Wesleyans are building a meeting-house, at New 
Norfolk, and another at the Back-river. They are an in- 
dustrious people, and are making way in V. D. Land, in 
spite of many cases of halting and relapse among their 

The anniversary meeting of the Temperance Society, was 
held on the 8th, when the cause was ably advocated by 
several persons of influence. The practice of spirit-drink- 
ing is materially diminished, in respectable society, in this 

Having, for the present, concluded our labours in V. D. 
Land, we engaged berths on board the Ellen, an American- 
built ship, bound for Sydney, and embarked on the 10th ; 
having, among our fellow-passengers, a medical man and 
his wife, from India, a pious couple, whom it was a com- 
fort to us to meet, in various places. 

On the 11th, we proceeded on our voyage, and had a 
fine view of the stupendous, projecting cliff, of columnar 
basalt, called Cape Raoul, passing very near it. Cape 
Pillar was involved in clouds ; and a long bank of fog, 
stretched to the S.E. indicating an adverse wind, of which 
we soon felt the influence. The wind, however, became 
fair, on the following day ; and after a succession of calms 
and thunder showers, we came safely to anchor, in Sydney 
Cove, on the 21st. 

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Sydney. — Religion of Feelings. — Botanic Garden. — Collection of Vines. — Self 
examination. — Library of Frienda' Books. — ^Destruction of Spirits. — Discord 
and Talebearing. — Temperance Lecture. — Scripture Lessons of the Brittdi 
and Foreign School Society. — Voyage to Moreton Bay — State of the Prison- 
ers. — Eflfects of Spirit-drinking. — ^Afilictions. — Mount Warning, &c. — ^ArriTsI 
in Moreton Bay. — ^Tree Oysters. — ^ArriTsl at Brisbane Town. 

2nd mo. 22nd. On returning to Sydney, we found several 
letters from England, the perusal of which brought my mind 
renewedly into sympathy with my friends there, and into fer- 
vent desires that they might watch agaiiist that spirit, which 
would lead them from waiting upon God, with their atten- 
tion directed to the Light ; or, in other words, to the Holy 
Spirit, the Comforter, who takes of the things of Christ, and 
showeth them to his followers ; to which our early Friends, 
following the example of Christ and his apostles, directed 
the attention of the people. There is a delusion, which 
requires to be guarded against, that is couched under denun- 
ciations against a " religion of feelings ;*' as though convic- 
tioji, repentance, faith in Christ, peace in him, dependence 
on God, and every other impression, made upon the mind 
by the Holy Spirit, were not feelings. A religion without 
feelings, would be like a body without a souL 

24th. I spent a few hours with Alexander M'Leay, Chief 
Justice Francis Forbes, Sir John Jamison, William Mac- 
arthur, and some other gentlemen, who requested me to join 
them in examining the firuit of the Vines, of which they have 
a collection, amounting to about three hundred varieties ; 
they were brought to the Colony, by James Busby, from 
Luxemburgh, Montpelier, &c. Among them, under their 

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1836.] NKW SOUTH WALES. 351 

French names^ are most of the varieties cultiyated for the 
table in England. Many parts of N. S. Wales are favour- 
able to the production of Grapes, and for the drying of 

The Sydney Botanic Garden is a fine institution ; it is 
furnished with a good collection of native and foreign 
plants. Some of its Curators, have ranked highly as men 
of science. 

28th. In our little meeting, I had to labour to turn the 
attention of the congregation, to the importance of self--ex- 
amination; lest, by any means, after having known recon- 
ciliation with the Father, through repentance, and fEuth in 
his beloved Son, they should have forsaken their first love, 
and have suffered other things, so to have occupied their 
minds, and entangled their affections, as to have taken 
precedence of the love of God. They were also reminded, 
that though the deeds of a good man, will bear the light 
of open day, in the sight of his fellow-men, yet, as things 
may look well to the eye of man, while the heart is, never- 
theless, far from right before God, it is necessary to bring 
our deeds to that Light, which manifests whatsoever is 
reprovable, which is spoken of by the apostle Paul, in his 
Epistle to the Ephesians, (chap. v. 13, 14,) and which is the 
same, as that treated of by the evangelist John, when, in 
speaking of Christ, he says, ''in him was life, and the life 
was the Light of men/^ I had also to point out that if, in 
bringing our deeds to this test, we should find, that any thing 
has gained an undue place in our affections, or that, through 
unwatchfulness, and the evil propensity of our nature, the 
enemy of our souls has betrayed us into sin, it is necessary 
that we humble ourselves, repent, and do our first works, 
that we renew our attention, to the convictions of the Holy 
Spirit, and afresh seek the pardon of our transgressions, 
through faith in Christ, our Mediator and Advocate with 
the Father, and " the propitiation for our sins ; ^' and that 
-we abide in humble dependence upon God, waiting upon 
him, in watchfulness and prayer, for the renewal of our 
strength ; in order that we may run in the way of holiness, 
and not be weary, and walk therein, and not faint. I had 

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352 SYDNEY. [2nd mo. 

also to assure those^ who were thus exercised^ in the fear 
of the Lord^ that how much soever they might have been 
cast down^ God would restore unto them^ the joys of his 
salyation, uphold them by his free Spirit^ and enable them 
to walk in his love^ and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost ; 
that such should feel his presence to be with them^ in their 
daily course^ and when assembled^ to wait upon him, and 
to worship him^ to their own peace, and to his praise. 

3rd mo. 3rd. A quantity of books, illustrative of the prin- 
ciples and practice, of the Society of Friends, were deposited 
in a room attached to the Meeting House, as a library, as is 
customary in England, for loan to persons frequenting our 
meetings, or inquiring into these subjects. 

5th. We had the satisfaction of witnessing the destruc- 
tion of five puncheons of Rum, containing four hundred 
and ninety-two gallons, and two hogsheads ot Geneva, 
containing one hundred and sixteen gallons. They were 
the property of one of our friends, who had received them 
as part of an investment, from his agent in England, who 
had not been apprized of a change in the views of his 
correspondent, respecting the use and sale of spirits, in 
which he cannot now, conscientiously, be concerned. He 
therefore represented the case to the Governor, who allowed 
them to be taken out of bond, free of duty, under the same 
circumstances as if for export, and under the charge of 
an officer of Customs, placed on board a staged boat, which 
took them out into the Cove, where the heads of the casks 
were removed, and the contents poured into the sea. A 
few friends of the owner accompanied him, to witness this 
''new thing under the sun,^' in this Colony. We were 
much pleased with the hearty manner in which the custom- 
house officer superintended this sacrifice of property to 
principle. Some persons, from neighbouring vessels, looked 
on with approval, others with surprise, and others, not yet 
awake to the evils of spirit-drinking, expressed regret. A 
man, from a little vessel, cried out, ''That's real murder." 
One of the puncheons, being too near the edge of the boat^ 
went overboard, and brought its top above the surface of 
the water, with much rum in it. It floated close by the 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 355 

same little vessel^ and a man dipped a horn into it^ to try 
to get a drink of the devoted fluid. It was now rum and 
li^ater ; but happily for the man, it was rum and salt-water ! 
even his ritiated palate rejected it, and he poured it back 
to the rest, which was soon mingled with the briny flood. 

7th. Some discord having arisen among a few, of the 
little company who meet with us for public worship, we had 
an interview with them. An explanation shewed, that some 
things, innocent in themselves, that had been said, having 
been reported, had been made to appear very malicious : 
and that others, that had not been spoken with proper 
consideration, had been made to appear much worse than 
they originally were. The mischief of talebearing and de- 
traction, which are common evils in these Colonies, were 
pointed out, as well as the necessity for those who desire 
to be found among the disciples of Christ, to maintain the 
spirit of love and forgiveness. Our admonitions were con- 
firmed by the recital of the following passages of Scripture, 
with many others, as the Lord, in his goodness, brought 
them to our remembrance. ^^Thou shalt not go up and 
down as a talebearer among thy people.^^ "Where there 
is no talebearer strife ceaseth.^' "The Lord hateth him 
that soweth discord among brethren.'^ "So likewise shall 
my heavenly Father do unto you, if ye, from your hearts, 
forgive not every one his brother his trespasses.'^ — (Mat. 
xviii. 35.) "By this shall all men know that ye are 
my disciples, if ye have love one to another.'* " If ye 
have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, 
and lie not against the truth. This wisdom cometh not 
fipom above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish : for where envy- 
ing and strife is, there is confusion and every evil work." 
" Be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one 
another, even as God, for Christ's sake, hath forgiven you." 
Before we parted, a comfortable sense of the influence 
of the divine Spirit overshadowed us, exciting the hope, 
that this labour might not be in vain in the Lord. 

9th. We attended a lecture on the manufacture and 
sale of spirits. The lecturer faithfully denounced the pro- 
duction and sale of these pernicious fluids j and by cogent 


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254 8TDNBY, [3rd mo- 

argument, proved, that when informed upon the subject, 
no one could continue to circulate such pestilential beverage, 
for the sake of gain, and be guiltless. 

15th. We presented copies of the Scripture Lessons, 
of the British and Foreign School Society, to some Mis- 
sionaries, going to New Zealand, and Tonga. This work is 
invaluable to persons attempting the translation of the Holy 
Scriptures, into foreign languages. It may be considered an 
epitome of the Sacred Volume, which may be usefully put 
into the hands of those, who have not the whole Scriptures; 
and being in the words of the text, a translation of it, is so 
much, effected toward that of the whole of the Bible. 

22nd. The Governor having granted us liberty to proceed 
to the Penal Settlement, at Moreton Bay, and being furnished 
with a letter of introduction from the Colonial Secretary, 
to the Commandant, we embarked on board the Isabella 
schooner, of 126 tons. The company on board, consisted of 
forty-four prisoners, a guard of fifteen soldiers, inclusive of a 
sergeant in charge, and two corporals, a soldier's wife, the 
crew of the vessel, sixteen in number, including the master 
and mate, with G. W. Walker and myself; in all seventy- 
eight souls. The prisoners were chiefly men under short 
sentences, for crimes committed in N. S. Wales, while under 
sentence of transportation to the Colony. A few of them 
had been at Moreton Bay before, imder similar circum- 
stances. They were secured in a fore-hold, by chains from 
ankle to ankle ; within which, a long chain was passed, and 
bolted at each end to the deck, so as only to allow them to 
move a few feet. They were very clean, when they came 
on board ; and their prison was fresh white-washed, so as 
to make it as comfortable as such a place could be^ to men 
so secured, who were lodged, without blanket or other bed- 
ding, on the bare boards. 

23rd. We got to sea yesterday. Most of the prisoners 
look pale, from sea-sickness, not being allowed to come on 
deck. Since an attempt at mutiny, on board the Governor 
Phillip, about a year ago, which occurred when a chain of 
the kind described, was opened for the purpose of taking 
off a few prisoners, to let them have air, die captains of 

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1836.] KEW SOUTH WALES. 355 

these vessels, for their own safety, have kept the prisoners 
constantly below. 

24th. The wind was adverse. It set up a high sea, and 
a curling biDow pitched its white crest on the quarter deck, 
and sent us dripping below. Three of the crew were sick, 
from hepatic diseases, the result of hard drinking. The 
Government vessels of New South Wales, sail on Tem- 
perance principles. The seamen on board, acknowledge that 
this is much to their comfort. Nevertheless, not abstaining 
on principle, they have not resolution to abstain when 
on shore. One of those, now sick, is a hardy, old tar, 
a pensioner, in consequence of having lost an arm, in 
firing a salute ; he is so skilful, that he is stationed at the 
helm, on aU critical occasions. This man is now threatened 
with apoplexy, the result of his late inebriety. Another, 
is a man, lately returned from a whaling voyage. Two of 
his comrades died in Sydney, within the last three weeks, 
of inflammation of the liver, brought on by hard drinking ; 
and this man is now suffering from the complicated effects 
of the same disease, with the fear of death ! The soldiers on 
board, are allowed a ration of spirits, greatly to their 
injury. It keeps alive an appetite for drink, which leads 
them into all sorts of disorder. 

25th. My companion, who had been sea-sick, was able to 
accompany me in visiting the prisoners, many of whom were 
so much affected by the roUing of the vessel, and the warmth 
of the weather, that they hardly attempted to sit up. We 
read a portion of Scripture to them, and made some remarks 
on the design of our Heavenly Father, in creating man 
liable to affliction, and in sometimes permitting his crea- 
tures to bring themselves under suffering. This design 
was shown to be, that they might consider their ways, and 
turn to the Lord. In the evening, we were off Shoal Bay. 
The weather was clear, with lightning in the horizon in the 
south and east. 

26th. A brisk breeze in the night, brought us to Cape 
Byron by morning, and we made good progress during part 
of the day. Toward night, we had a light sea-breeze, and 
stood off the land. There were many of the fires of the 


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u) \ • ^ V,, 1 

\'%. I ' '-W' 


I \\. 


In -A 

"1 ''*■'■;' 






7 V 

F^ ■>///■■ 

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356 MORETON BAY. [3rd mo. 

native Blacks^ on this part of the coast^ as well as on that 
we have passed. A long sandy beach extends from Cape 
Byron to Point Danger, behind which are low, woody hills, 
some of which are pointed. Further back, there are woody 
mountains ; some of them of remarkable appearance, par- 
ticularly Mount Warning, which also has trees to its summit. 
This mountain, with the adjacent hills and coast, is repre- 
sented in the accompanying etching ; in the foreground of 
which, two Wandering Albatrosses and some Gulls are 

28th. Before noon, we were within sight of the pilot's 
station, at Amity Point, Moreton Bay, and passed between 
two rocks above water, with a light breeze. While in the 
part of the bay, open to the sea, a large Turtle was seen 
swimming, not far from us. Three species of turtle are 
met with here, one of which is black and unwholesome. 
We took the pilot on board, who conducted our little vessel 
through the intricate channels, among the sand-banks; the 
depth of water in some places did not exceed two fathoms 
and three quarters. The pilot's dwelling is a neat build- 
ing, with red walls, that look like brick : but he told 
us, that it was of wood, and greatly infested with Scorpions, 
Centipedes, and such-like vermin. The land about the en- 
trance of Moreton Bay is low and sandy, and generally 
covered with scrub. When the Isabella got into smooth 
water, we took the opportunity of reading to the prisoners 
and of conversing with them respecting their voyage, during 
which they were not even furnished with salt water to wash 
themselves. The tide serving, the vessel proceeded toward 
the west side of the bay, which, within Moreton Island, is 
about sixty miles long and twenty-five broad, and is full of 
sand-banks and small Islands, that are covered with Man- 
groves, particularly to the southward; over most of these 
the water flows, at spring-tides. At ten o'clock at night, 
a part of our luggage was put into the pilot's boat, along 
with a number of small packages; and with a soldier, as 
guard of the despatches, we proceeded toward our point 
of destination, on the Brisbane River, the mouth of which 
was distant about twenty miles. The night was fine and 

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Digitized by 


1836,] NEW SOUTH WALES. 35? 

moonlight, but the temperature so low as to render the 
protection of some of our warmer sea-clothing, very agree- 
able. About midnight, we came upon some shoals, on 
^which the boat was often aground ; but after shoving her 
backward and forward, she was at length got into deeper 
i«^ter. The recollection, that we were now on the utmost 
verge of that part of the British dominions, inhabited by 
its white subjects, and that these were the very outcasts of 
civilized society, and that we were surrounded by uncivilized 
tribes of Blacks, often passed my mind, with a feeling I can 
hardly describe. But believing we were here in the allot- 
ment of religious duty, I could not desire to be in any 
other place; and though deeply sensible of my own un- 
worthiness of the least of the mercies of the Most High, 
I had a sense of his power sustaining me, such as is to be 
accounted among tlie greatest of blessings. 

29th. About two o'clock in the morning, the moon hav- 
ing set, and the tide being against us, we landed on one of 
the islands, on which the Mangroves were thick. Small 
Oysters were attached to the branches and trunks of those 
that were within the high- water-mark. This is commonly 
the case within the mouths of rivers, on this coast. Here we 
rested, on a little elevation, scarcely above the reach of high- 
water, and lighted a fire ; by the side of which, our boat's 
crew refreshed themselves with their homely fere, of maize- 
meal-bread, and water; to which some of them added a 
smoke of tobacco. They were very attentive, carrying us 
from and to the boat, and in other ways showing their 
good-will. After some of them had taken a nap on the 
ground, and we had amused ourselves, by listening to the 
voices of Grasshoppers, and of Red-bills and other birds 
that cry in the night, one of which almost said " Cuckoo,'' 
we re-embarked, and proceeded up the river, twelve miles, to 
the Settlement, where we landed, early in the morning, on 
a wooden-jetty, near to the quarters of the Commandant, 
Captain Foster Fyans ; who received us with much kindness, 
and afforded us all the attention and accommodation that 
our circumstances required. 


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Moreton Bay. — ^BriBbane Town. — Gardens. — Tread-mill. — Swearing. — ^Plants, 
&c. — ^Natiyes. — Prisoners. — Family Worship. — Trees, &c. — Plants, and Ani- 
mals. — ^Female Prisoners. — Wood. — ^Destruction of Spirits. — ^Teredo. — ^Kan- 
garoos, &c. — ^Birds. — ^Want of Bibles. — Absconders. — ^Aborigines. 

3rd mo. 29th. After making a hearty breakfiast, we set 
out to inspect the settlement, which is called Brisbane 
Town ; it consists of the houses of the Commandant, and 
other officers, the barracks for the military, and those for the 
male prisoners, a penetentiary for the female prisoners, 
a treadmill, stores, &c. It is prettily situated, on the 
rising, north bank of the Brisbane River, which is navigable 
fifty miles further up, for small sloops, and has some fine 
cleared, and cultivated land, on the south bank, opposite 
the town. Adjacent to the Government-house, are the 
Commandant's garden, and twenty-two acres of Govern- 
ment-garden, for the growth of Sweet-potatoes, Pumpkins, 
Cabbages, and other vegetables, for the prisoners. Bananas, 
Grapes, Guavas, Pine-apples, Citrons, Lemons, Shaddocks, 
&c. thrive luxuriantly in the open ground, the climate 
being nearly tropical. Sugar-cane is grown for fencing, and 
there are a few thriving Coffee-plants, not old enough to 
bear fruit. The Bamboo, and Spanish Reed have been 
introduced. The former, attains to about seventy feet in 
height, and bears numerous branches, with short, grassy 
leaves, the upper twenty feet bending down with a graceful 
curve. It is one of the most elegant objects, in the vege- 
table world. Coffee and sugar, will probably at some period, 
be cultivated here, as crops. The surrounding country is 
undulating, and covered with trees. To the west, there is 

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1836,] NEW SOUTH WALES. 359 

a range of high^ woody hills^ distant, in a direct line, five 

The tread-mill, is generally worked by twenty-five pris- 
oners at a time ; but when it is used as a special punish- 
ment, sixteen are kept upon it, for fourteen hours, with 
only the interval of release, afforded, by four being off at 
a time, in succession. They feel this extremely irksome, 
at first; but notwithstanding the warmth of the clii^ate, 
they become so far accustomed to the labour, by long 
practice, as to leave the tread-mill, with comparatively little 
disgust, after working upon it, for a considerable number 
of days. Many of the prisoners were occupied, in landing 
cargoes of Maize, or Indian-corn, from a field down the 
river ; and others, in divesting it of the husk. To our 
regret, we heard an officer swearing at the men, and using 
other improper, and exasperating language. This practice 
is forbidden by the Commandant i but it is not uncommon, 
and in its effects, is perhaps equally hardening to those, 
who are guilty of it, and to those who are imder them. 

Whilst walking a few miles down the river, toward a brook, 
called Breakfast Creek, the waters of which are generally 
brackish, at high tide, we saw a number of remarkable 
plants, &c. On the margins of the brook, Acrosticum 
fraaAnifoliumy a large, ash-leaved fern, was growing, along 
with Crinum peduncidatumy a great bulbous-rooted plant, 
with white, tubular, lily-like flowers. HeUenia cceruleay a 
reedy-looking plant, with broad leaves, and blue berries, 
and a species of Phytolacca^ with pretty, pink blossoms, were 
among the brushwood. By the sides of fresh-water ditches 
there were a Jussieuay resembling an Evening Primrose, 
with small yellow blossoms, and a blue-flowered plant, in 
figure like a Pentstemon. On the grassy slope of the hills, 
near the river. Hibiscus Fraseri, with yellow blossoms, 
like those of the Hollyhock, but having a deep purple eye, 
was in flower. Among the Mangroves, the Moschettos 
were so numerous, that we could not proceed many yards 
for them, notwithstanding we wiped them continually, off 
our hands and faces. Several striking butterflies were 
fluttering bota flower to flower ; some of them having 

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360 MORETON BAT. [3rd mo. 

considerable portions of the wings transparent. In retumingy 
we fell in with half-a-dozen native youths, who, like the 
rest of their countrymen, in places uninfluenced by civilized 
society, were quite naked. As we could not converse with 
them, we shook hands with them, and they seemed pleased 
with this token of good-will. Having dressed their ebon 
skins afresh, with charcoal and grease, they communicated 
to us a little of their colour. Circumstances of this kind^ 
we never regarded as important, compared with securing 
their friendship. We also met some older Natives, who 
afterwards came to the Settlement, having their hair filled 
with small, white and yellow feathers, and their bodies taste- 
fully decorated, with broad lines of the same, stuck on 
with gum. 

30th. We visited the Prisoners* Barracks, a laige stone 
building, calculated to accommodate 1,000 men; but no^w 
occupied by 311. We ♦also visited the Penitentiary foF 
Female prisoners, 71 of whom are here. Most of these, 
as well as of the men, have been re-transported for crinaes 
that have been nurtured by strong drink. The women were 
employed in washing, needle-work, picking oakum, and 
nursing. A few of them were very young. Many of them 
seemed far from being properly sensible of their miserable 
condition. We had, however, to convey to them, the mes- 
sage of mercy, through a crucified Redeemer. 

31st. Was very rainy. We dined at the table of a 
pious Commissariat Officer, who is remarkable for his firm- 
ness, in what he believes to be his religious duty, and for 
his regularity in his family devotions, which he does not 
allow to be interrupted by visiters being present. After 
tea, the servants were called in, as usual. At the request 
of our worthy host, I read a portion of Scripture, but felt 
restrained from further vocal service. This led to conver- 
sation upon our view of waiting to feel, what we believe to 
be the putting forth, and guidance of the Good Shepherd, 
in these services, and to some comments, that appeared to 
be understood, on the frequency of no further vocal exer- 
cise than the reading of the Scriptures, occurring in the 
femily devotions of Friends, the rest of the time being 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 361 

generally occupied in reverent^ silmt waiting on Ood^ often^ 
under a precioius sense of the overshadowing of his love^ 
or in the lifting up of the heart to him, in secret prayer. 
This exercise is known to be greatly blessed to the spi- 
ritually minded; and to be one, which often contributes 
much to the spiritual edification of their families. 

4th mo. 1st. Being the day called '^ Good Friday/^ no 
work was exacted from the prisoners; but they, with the 
military and civil officers, whether Protestant or Roman 
Catholic, assembled, as on First-days, in the chapel ; where 
the prayers and lessons of the Episcopal Church, with a 
few omissions, in deference to the Roman Catholics, were 
read, in a becoming manner, by the Superintendent of Con- 
victs. After the service was gone through, I had a good 
deal to communicate; directing the audience to the con- 
victions of the Holy Spirit, by which alone, man can be 
brought, savingly, to exercise faith in Christ, and to know 
him as his Mediator and Advocate with the Father, and the 
propitiation for his sins, and through him receive strength 
to walk in holiness. Prayer was also put up, in the name 
of Jesus, for an enlightened understanding of these truths. 
At three o'clock, we again met the male prisoners. G. 
W. Walker read the seventeenth of Acts; after which I 
addressed them on the importance of considering their 
latter end, and constantly bearing in mind, that we must 
all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ. 

2nd. Accompanied by the surgeon, two prisoners, and 
a native Black, we visited a forest, called the Three-mile 
Scrub, on a low, alluvial soil, through which there is a 
small stream. Some of the trees far exceed 100 feet in 
height, a few may be 150. Among the lofty ones, may be 
enumerated some Eucalypti^ called Iron-bark, Forest-maho- 
gany, &c. and three species of Fig, with leaves resembUng 
those of Laurel or Magnolia. One of these, Ficua macrophyUay 
was forty feet in circumference, at the greatest height that 
I could reach : its roots formed wall-like abutments, extend- 
ing from the tree, over an area, thirty feet across. These 
Pig-trees are very remarkable in their growth : they often 
spring from, seeds, deposited by birds, in cavities of other 

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362 M ORETON BAY. [4tll xnO. 

trees^ at elevations of, peAaps, fifty feet, or more. From 
these situations, they send roots down to the ground, which^ 
in their course, adhere to the tree : these again emit trans- 
verse, or diagonal roots, that fix themselves to others, in 
their course downward. Those that reach the ground diicken 
rapidly, still spreading themselves upon the face of the 
foster-tree, which, at length, is completely encased. These 
gigantic parasites rear their towering heads above all the 
other trees of the forest, sending out vast limbs, and spread- 
ing their own roots in the earth, from which also, they some- 
times grow without the aid of other trees to sustain them* 
The trunks and limbs of these, and other trees, sup- 
port several species of fern, and some epiphytes of the 
Orchis tribe, with fleshy leaves, and singular stems and 
flowers. Numerous climbing plants, with stems varying in 
thickness, from that of pack-thread, to that of a man's 
body, ascend into their tops, and send down their branches 
in graceful festoons. Among the slenderer climbers were two 
species of Passion-flower, and one of Jasmine. The most 
gigantic climber, which might properly be called a climbing 
tree, belonged to a race of plants, called Apocynea : it had 
rugged bark, and sometimes formed a few serpent-like 
wreathes upon the ground, before ascending, and spreading 
itself among the tops of the other trees. There were also 
three species of Cisstis ; one of them with simple, and the 
other two with trifoliate leaves ; these are kinds of Vine, bear- 
ing Grapes, about equal in size to English Sloes, but sweeter. 
The fruit of the figs is rather dry, but it is eaten by the 
native Blacks, and by numerous birds. The Moreton Bay 
Chestnut, Castanospemmm australey is a fine tree, with a pro- 
fusion of flame-coloured blossom, and with leaves like those 
of the European Walnut. Some of its pods are ten inches 
long and eight round ; they contain several seeds, in size and 
colour resembling Horse Chestnuts, but, in flavour, between 
a Spanish Chestnut and a fresh-ripened Bean, with a slight 
degree of bitterness. The Blacks roast them, and soak them 
in water, to prepare them for food. Acrosticum grande^ 
one of the ferns that grow on the trees, is as large as a 
full-grown Scotch Cabbage, and is remarkably beautiful. 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 363 

Caladhim fflycMrhiztmy a plant allied to the Aram, and one of 
the race called Tara, the roots of which afford food to the 
islanders of the Pacific, abounds in these woods. The root 
is beaten and roasted by the Aborigines, till it is deprived 
of its acrimony ; it is then eaten, and is said to be plea- 
sant to the taste. In the margins of the woods, and on 
the banks of the rivers, the climbers are also numerous, and 
very beautiful. Among them, are Tecomaja^minoides, a 
large, white Trumpet-flower, with a rosy, pink tube sikdlpomma 
pendvla, before noticed, as bearing elegant, pink, convolvulus- 
like blossoms. In the grass of the open ground, is a re- 
markable climbing Nettle, and in the forests, the Giant Net- 
tle, Urtica gigas, forms a large tree. Many of the hills in this 
neighbourhood are dry, and covered vdth quartzose gravel* 
On these, the trees are chiefly of the genera. Eucalyptus, 7V»- 
tafua, CoMtarina, and Acacia. In the basaltic soils Altingia 
Cwfwinghamiiy the Moreton Bay Pine, is interspersed ; and 
in some places, farther into the interior, it forms large 

One of the men who accompanied us, shot a Cockatoo 
Pigeon; it is of a lead colour, with a reddish-brown crest, and 
about the size of the English Wood Pigeon. Some of the 
pigeons here, vie with the parrots in the gaiety of their plu- 
mage. Butterflies are numerous, large, and gay. Snakes are 
frequent. The largest species, called the Carpet-snake, is 
harmless ; its skin is sometimes prepared for making into 
slippers, &c. There are also several species of Lizard, some 
of them very large, and prettily marked ; they are eaten by the 
Natives. One kind, of a moderate size, has a pouch, like a 
large toothed, tippet, which it spreads when irritated : its 
colour is blackish brown, with lighter markings. 

3rd. This being the first First-day in tlie month, was 
muster-day ; when, after the service of the Episcopal Church 
has been read to the prisoners, the regulations for their con- 
duct, are also read, and subsequently, such men as think their 
continuance of good conduct entitles them to any indul- 
gence, or relaxation of the severity of their sentence, prefer 
their petitions to the Commandant. We visited the pri- 
soners in the Penitentiary, in the morning, and those in the 

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364 MORETON BAT. [4th mo. 

Barracks in the afternoon. A few Blacks came into the 
Barracks, and seemed desirous to understand what was 
going forward; but no one could interpret into their lan- 
guage on religious subjects. 

4th. We visited the establishment at Eagle Farm, six 
miles from Brisbane Town, toward the mouth of the river : 
It is under the direction of a Superintendent who, with his 
wife, resides in a small cottage, close by some huts, formerly 
occupied by the male prisoners; by whose labour seven 
hundred acres of land were formerly cultivated, chiefly in 
maize. At present, there are no male prisoners here ; but 
forty females, who are employed in field-labour : they are 
kept in close confinement during the night, and stricdy 
watched in the day time, yet it is found very difficult to 
keep them in order. Some of them wear chains, to prevent 
their absconding, which they have frequently done, under 
covert of the long grass. Though these women are twice 
convicted, and among them, there are, no doubt, some of 
the most depraved of their sex, yet they received a religious 
visit with gladness; and the sense of the divine presence 
was with us, strengthening us to proclaim the message of 
mercy, through Him, who came " to seek and to save that 
which was lost,*^ and in declaring the day of the vengeance 
of God, on those who continue in sin. 

On the way to Eagle Farm, there are a few small 
trees of Erythrina indica ? a species of Coral-tree, out of 
which, the natives to the north, are said to form canoes. 
The beautiful, blue Ipomma hederacea, was in blossom, in 
the thickets, in which a Wistariay not in flower, formed 
a luxuriant climber. In the margins of the woods, there 
was a white-flowered Grewiaf with a thin, sweetish covering 
to the seeds, for which, it is valued by the natives. We 
saw several of the male Blacks, but none of the females ; 
the latter are said, seldom to shew themselves, in this neigh- 

6th. In a wood, on the margin of the river, a few 
miles above Brisbane Town, I met with a species of Lime, 
CitruSy having small diversified leaves, and fruit, the size of 
a walnut ; it formed a tree 15 feet high. Flindersia austraHs, 

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1836.] Ns;w SOUTH wales. 365 

Oxleya zanthoxyhiy and Cedrella Toonaj ? trees, of the 
same tribe as the Mahogany, attain to a large size, in these 
forests. Oxleya zanthoxylOf is the yellow wood, of Moreton 
Bay : one I measured, was forty feet round, at about five 
feet up : it was supposed to be one hundred feet high. The 
Cedrella, is the Cedar of N. S. Wales ; the wood of which 
resembles Mahogany, but is not so heavy. The Silk Oak, 
Grevillea rohustay also forms a large tree : its foliage is 
divided, like that of some umbelliferous plants ; its flowers 
are somewhat like branched combs, of crooked, yellow 
wire, shaded into orange, and are very handsome. Hoya 
Brotvrdiy and Jaaminum gracUe? were abundant, on the 
bank of the river, along with Tecoma jasminaideSf and many 
other curious and beautiful, climbing shrubs. Eleven epi- 
phytes, of the orchis tribe, were growing on the trunks of 
the trees, in the forest. Most of these, were of the genera 
Dendrobkim, Cymbidium, and Gvnnia. Some Bananas, 
which had been washed from a place, in the Limestone 
Country above, where sheep, for the provision of the 
settlement, are kept, had established themselves on the 
borders of a creek. Pumpkins were growing among the 
brush-wood, in great luxuriance. The last were observed, 
with evident pleasure, by my boats' crew of prisoners, who 
anticipated making a meid of them, at a future day. They 
are much used as a table vegetable, in New South Wales, 
and are certainly to be valued as such, in this climate ; they 
keep well, and are a good substitute for potatoes, or for 
turnips^ by land, or by sea. 

7th. We dined, in company with some other persons, 
at the table of the Commissariat Officer. In the evening, 
he desired the company, to witness the destruction of his 
private stock of brandy, which he poured out in the yard, 
having resolved to join the Temperance Society, and thus, 
by his example, to throw his influence into the scale, 
against one of the greatest of moral evils, and one, that 
has brought a majority of the prisoners, to this place, and 
has been the bane of a large proportion of the officers, and 
military, who have had the charge of them. One of the 
young men of the company, told us, that, oh a certain 

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366 MORETON BAT. [4th mo. 

occasion^ when lost in the bush^ he was driyen by hunger^ 
to eat a species of Teredo, or Angur-worm, called by the 
Blacks, Cobra, which he found very palatable. In this 
part of the country, within the reach of the salt water^ 
this animal is abundant in logs, which it perforates, till 
they resemble honeycomb. 

8th. We visited the Hospital, which is in a dilapidated 
state. There being some prospect of opening this fine coun- 
try to settlers, and the penal establishment being, conse- 
quently, reduced, many of the buildings have been suffered 
to get a Uttle out of repair. The prevailing diseases here 
are Ophthalmia, Chronic Rheumatism and Dysentery ; for- 
formerly Ague was frequent, but it has rarely occurred since 
the prisoners were properly fed, clothed and lodged. The 
surgeon, is an intelligent man, who has paid great attention 
to the anatomy of the curious tribe of animals, that inhabit 
this part of the world, and which, in Australia, generally, 
with the exception of the Native Dog, and a few others^ 
are marsupial. They rear their young, from a very minute 
size, in pouches. Some species of Kangaroos, are met 
with here, that we have not seen before ; also many birds, 
that are new to us; among them, are several splendid 

9th. On the way to Eagle Farm, we noticed a beautiful 
Pavonitty with a rosy, purple blossom, shaded deeply toward 
the centre. Here also, growing parasitically upon the climb- 
ers, was a splendid Loranthus, with foliage like that of a 
Lemon, and clusters of crimson, tubular blossoms, tipped 
with yellow. Several other fine species of this genus, grow 
on the branches of the Eucalypti and other trees, in the 
various parts of Australia. At Eagle Farm, we again visited 
the female prisoners, for whom a selection of tracts was 
left, with their Superintendent ; they expressed thankful- 
ness for them, being very destitue of books, even of Bibles, 
which the prisoners generally, have not access to, even on 

On the way back to Brisbane Town, a prisoner con- 
stable was our guide. He gave us some account of his 
sufferings, when, on one occasion, he absconded, and was 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 367 

in the bush for three months. His companion died from 
the hardships he met with. In one place they foimd 
the remains of two men^ and in another of three, who 
were supposed to have run away from Port Macquarie, 
and to have been unable to sustain the fatigues and priva- 
tions to which they had subjected themselves. Instances 
have occurred, in which men have run away, and lived for 
some years among the Natives ; but at length, they have be- 
come so tired of savage life, as to return and give themselves 
up. In general, the Blacks bring back runaways, but a few are 
supposed still to be out among them, to the northward. 
Absconding is not now common among the prisoners. 
This is attributable to the encouragement given to good 
conduct, by relaxation of sentence, and to the regulation, 
which requires the time spent in the bush, to be made up, 
before any indulgence, or freedom, by expiration of sentence, 
is allowed. 

10th. We again had religious interviews with the pri- 
soners and officers. Sixteen Blacks came to the Settle- 
ment, and we presented them with some cotton handker- 
chiefs, with which they seemed much pleased, and not less 
80, with some Bananas, given them by the Commandant. 
The Blacks here show less value for articles of European 
manufacture, than those of some other parts of the Colony; 
and though less contaminated by intercourse with white 
people, they are evidently less civilized; they, however, 
find Sweet-potatoes, Maize, and other food, such as they 
obtain from the military and officers, so much superior to 
the roots they generally feed upon, in their native haunts, Ihat 
some of the males visit the settlement daUy, to obtain 

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Departure from Briabane Toym. — Plombago. — Fbhes and Birds. — Diigong. — 
Stradbroke laland. — Amity Point. — Aborigines. — ^Penal Begulations. — More- 
ton Island. — ^Trees. — Crabs. — ^Amusements. — Huts. — Native Dogs. — ^Flsh. — 
Manufacture. — ^Mangroves, &c. — Animals. — ^Fight of Natives. — ^Mistake in 
tbe name of Biscuit. — Departure from Moreton Bay. — Storms. — ^ArriTal at New- 
castle. — Native Guides. — Ebenezer. — Aborigines. — Amusement. — ^Mission- 
ary Labours. — Civilisation of the Blacks. — Amount of Native Population. 
— ^Forest. — Remarkable Spring. — Oregarious Caterpillars. — ^Wages of Blacks. 

4th mo. 11th. We took a final leave of the Officers of 
the Penal Settlement^ and embarked on board the Com- 
mandant's gig^ a fine boat of eight oars, to return to the 

At the Lower Wharf, we took in two military officers, 
one of whom was returning to Sydney. While waiting 
for them, I went on shore, and saw, in the bush, a beau- 
tiful, blue PlumbaffOy possibly P. capensis, which I believe 
is not known as a native of N. S. Wales. As we crossed 
the Bay, we saw great numbers of Pelicans, standing in a 
line, at the water's edge, on a sand-bank. One was also 
fishing among shoals of Mullet, a migratory fish, probably 
not the Mullet of the Northern Hemisphere, that is just 
coming in from the sea, so thick, as to darken the water ; 
out of which, they are so continually jumping, as to give 
the idea, of a dance among the fishes ! but it is probably 
a dance of terror, to elude the pursuit of their enemies, 
the Porpoises and Sharks. The Blacks do not kill the 
Porpoises, because diey shew where there are fish to be 
caught; but they value the flesh of another cetaceous ani- 
mal, called here Youngon, the Dugong of India, Halicore 
Dugong, This animal feeds on marine vegetables ; and is 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 369 

taken when it goes up narrow creeks, by means of nets, 
skilfully made of the bark of various species of Hibiscus. 

Moreton Bay is shut in from the sea, by three islands, 
the northermost of which, is called Moreton Island, and 
the middle one. Amity or Stradbroke Island. On the north 
point of the latter is the Pilot's station. The forest about 
this point, is formed of some species of Eucalyptus^ Mela- 
leuca, and Banksia, with the Cypress-Pine, CalUtris arenosa, 
which forms a spreading tree, forty feet high, and eight 
feet round. On the sandy flats, by the shore, Ipomcea 
nuaitima, sends out long, straight shoots, to the extent 
of many yards : it has large, pink, convolvulus-like blos- 
soms, and curious, two-lobed leaves. It helps to bind 
the sand together, as do also, the large, yellow-flowered 
Hibbertia volubUis^ and several maritime grasses. Although 
H. vohMUs is ofiensively fetid, in English green-houses, 
I could never perceive that it had any smell, either here, 
or at Sydney. Some of the smaller species of the ge- 
nus, are offensive in Tasmania. Many interesting shells 
are found upon the shores of this bay; among them, the 
Crowned Melon Shell is much esteemed for its beauty. 
The Blacks watch for it, and take it as the tide ebbs, before 
it has time to bury itself in the sand, or they probe for 
it, with a bone skewer, in the places where its track is seen. 

The Blacks on Stradbroke Island, like those resorting 
to Brisbane Town, are fine-personed, in comparison with 
those about Sydney. Some of them can speak a little 
English. Their intercourse with the white people, at this 
station, has not increased their virtue, but it has evidently 
advanced them a few steps towards civilization, beyond 
those of Brisbane Town. Pride produces its painful effects 
among these people, as well as among those who profess civili- 
sation and Christianity, among whom it is less tolerable. The 
nudes of this tribe of Aborigines, ornament themselves, by 
cuttmg their flesh, and keeping it from healing, till it forms 
elevated marks. They cut nineteen ridges, that look like 
ribs, right across their breasts, from the line of their arm- 
pits, downwards. One man, about six feet high, had them 
^ wide as my thumb, and half as much elevated. Their 

A A 

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370 MORETON BAY. [4th mO. 

backs and thighs are thickly marked^ with lighter^ zigzag 
lines^ of great regularity. The right shoulder is marked 
with lines, like epaulettes^ and the left ^ith irregular scars, 
received in combat with stone-knives ; with which, on such 
occasions, they wound one another on the left shoulder, 
left thigh, or left leg ; considering it a point of honour not 
to deface the ornamented portions of the frame! Some 
of them have curly hair, but others have it, lank, and wear 
it tied up, often jforming a knot at the top of the head, 
and decorated with feathers. In this knot they stick their 
bone skewers, and other implements; for being without 
clothing, this is the only place in which they can carry an 
implement not in the hand, except under the strips of skin 
that they occasionally wear round their arms and loins. 

12th. The wind not favouring our departure^ we went 
on shore, and had a religious interview with the White 
people. We met them in the boat shed, which afforded 
good accommodation, and was pleasantly cool for this al- 
most tropical climate, in which the heat is still great, not- 
withstanding the summer is past. A considerable number of 
Blacks came also into the boat-shed, and as we could not 
convey to them our sentiments of Christian good-will, in 
words, we presented them with a few handkerchiefs. Some 
of these useful articles were also given to the boat's crew, 
as an acknowledgment of their attentive services. Though 
prisoners, they may be allowed to wipe the perspiration 
from their faces with them ; but so strict is the discipline^ 
that they would not be allowed to tie them round their 
necks ! They are not allowed to wear any thing but the 
slop clothing, provided by the Government Perhaps this 
may be a good regulation, tending both to keep up the 
feeling that they are prisoners, in consequence of their 
crimes, and to prevent their stealing. Some of the soldiers 
and prisoners, applied for tracts, which they received grate- 
fully, along with a few books, including a testament. 
They are very destitute of books, the only Bible I heard of, 
at the station, belonged to the pilot. 

The wind continuing adverse, I accompanied a party 
from the Isabella, to Moreton Island, with a view of 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. Sjl 

examining its vegetable productions. Bordering the sands, 
there were a 8c4evola, with brilliant, blue flowers, and 
black berries, Ipomcea maritima, some of the shoots 
of which, were fifty yards long, CanvalUa Bauerianay a 
kidney-bean-like plant, with rose coloured flowers, and 
another leguminous plant, with yellow blossoms, both of 
-which, grow also on Norfolk Island, and several other 
plants, with trailing stems. The part of the Island, that 
I crossed, was sandy, with swamps and lagoons. Most of 
it was covered with trees, such as Callitris arenosm, a large 
TVistania, Banksia (smulay and integrifoliay and Melaleuca 
vhridifloray which attains a large size. Here, in sandy 
places, Pandarms pedunculatvsy a species of Screw Pine, 
forms a singular tree, fifteen feet high. Its leaves, re- 
semble those of the Pine-apple ; its fruit, is as large as a 
child's head, yellow, and composed of clustered, oblong nuts, 
fleshy at the base, which separate in attached groups, when 
ripe. The fleshy part, is eaten by the Blacks ; but it has 
an unpleasant smell, and though sweetish, is rather acrid. 
The trunk, is supported securely, by roots, that descend 
from various parts of it, into the sand, and are as thick 
and straight, as broom-sticks; they look rather like the 
stays of a ship. In returning from the west side of the 
Island, my attention was diverted, by a multitude of butter- 
flies, and by a large lizard; and after walking for some 
time, I again, and again, found myself on the west coast. 
Taking therefore my compass, I determined, to make my 
way direct to my companions, whom I succeeded in reach- 
ing, after some fatigue, by wading through a lagoon, and 
crossing some steep sand-hills. The latter, were overgrown 
by Myrius tenuifoliay a Myrtle, of low stature, with narrow 
leaves, and sweet, aromatic, white berries, spotted with 
purple. These are the most agreeable, native firuit, I have 
tasted in Australia; they are produced so abundandy, as 
to afford an important article of food, to the Aborigines- 
Near the east coast, there were a yellow Crotolariay and 
Lyffodium micrqpkyllumy a beautiful, climbing fern, also 
Pteris esculentay and Blechnum cartilagineumy ferns, the 
roots of which, are eaten by the Blacks. 

A A 2 

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372 MOBBTON ISLAND. [4th mO. 

On the shore, there were herds of crabs, covering many 
acres of sand: they were globular, and about an inch in 
diameter; their bodies roundish, and of a bluish colour, 
and their legs long ; they made a noise, like the pattering 
of rain, while filing off, in all directions, to allow us to pass ; 
in doing this, they scraped the sand into masses, like peas. 
A few of them buried themselves, by a rotatory movement, 
like their smaller allies seen at Circular Head, in V. D. 
Land. The Moreton Island species is also found on the 
shores of Port Jackson, but in much smaller numbers. 

13th. We again went on shore at Amity Point, where 
some of the Blacks were amusing themselves, during a rsdny 
portion of the day, with dancing. One of them beat two 
of their Boomerings together, for music, and produced a 
deafening clack. The men danced, or rather, stamped, to 
the tune, often changing the position of their hands, and 
using great exertion, till every part of their bodies and limbs 
quivered : they chanted at the same time, with a loud voice, 
and in this the women assisted, adding also to the noise by 
means of their hands. Once they sent the women out, that 
they might not witness a dance, which had nothing about 
it particularly striking; they also collected bushes, and 
danced with them in their hands, and under their arms, 
concealing themselves partly by them. They seemed to 
enjoy this boisterous child's-play, for such it greatly resem- 
bled. If custom did not render people in some measure 
blind to folly, many of the amusements practiced in circles 
of society, considered highly civilized, might perhaps, seem 
as absurd, and almost as barbarous. I consider the Society 
of Friends to have made great advances in true civilization^ 
beyond the rest of the world, in having abandoned such 
amusements, as well as in some other particulars. By this 
abandonment, they also avoid much that is inimical to 
Christian sobriety, and turn their relaxation into channels 
more rational, and conducive to domestic happiness. I 
believe no people in the world realize so much' temporal 
comfort as they. When the rain ceased, we walked to a 
native village, on the coast. It consisted of a number of 
huts, formed of arched sticks, and covered with tea-tree 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 373 

bark, so as to form weather-tight shelters^ just high enough 
to allow the inmates to sit upright in them, and equal in 
comfort to the tilts^ inhabited by the Gipsies, in England. 
One of these is represented in the accompanying wood-cut. 

Openings were left at their larger eilds, opposite to which at 
the outside^ there were little fires^ at which many of the 
women were roasting fern-root. This, after it was roasted, 
was held by one hand on a log of wood, while its whole 
length was beaten, by a stone, held in the other hand, so 
as to break the woody fibre. In this state it is eaten, 
without removing the charred surface ; its taste is something 
like that of a waxy potato, but more gelatinous. In most 
instances, there were a man and a woman in each hut, and 
in some of them there were also a few children ; but the 
number of the children is small, in comparison with 
what it is in the families of Euxopeans. Many of the 
huts had shelters of leafy boughs placed so as to keep 
off the wind. We were informed that these people had 
several such villages on the Island ; and that they re- 
sorted to one, or to another, according to the weather, the 
season of the year, and the contiguity of food. At present 
diey are near die opening between Moreton and Stradbroke 
Islands, depending chiefly on the shoals of Mullet for food. A 
few weeks ago, they went further into the interior, collecting 
honey. At some seasons they resort to places producing 

A A 3 

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374 STRADBROKE ISLAND. [4th mo. 

wild fruits ; and in wet weather, to elevated situations, con- 
tiguous to those parts of the coast, abounding with oysters. 
In these last situations, their huts are said to be large enough 
for a man to stand up in. 

Some of the native dogs appeared to be in a half-domes- 
ticated state, among the Aborigines. One was shot to-day^ 
by a sergeant, in tiie act of stealing his fowls : he said the 
women would make great lamentation over it. It was about 
tiie size of a cur, but slenderer, and of a reddish colour. 

14th. Our company again went to Moreton Island, to 
fish, with a view to economizing the stock of provisions. 
The kinds they caught are known here, by the names of 
Mullet, Pimbore, and Guard-fish. Pimbore is the native 
name of a superior fish, larger than tiie Mullet of these 
seas. We also picked up a few shells, and saw some 
Gigantic Cranes and Fishing-eagles, a considerable number 
of Pelicans, and large flocks of Curlews, Terns, and Red- 
bills. In the evening, we again visited the village of the 
Natives, on Stradbroke Island. One of them was busy, 
twisting rushes, to make a dilly or bag. The base of the 
rushes is of a pale colour,the portion included in the sheatiis, 
at the base, or just emerging from them, is of a pinky hue, 
and the top green. By arranging the knots, so as to form 
diagonal lines across the bag, the colours are brought into 
a tasteful order, by these poor creatures, who have been 
erroneously represented as below all other human beings in 
capacity. In forming huts, and making nets and bags, and 
various implements, those here excel their more southern 

15th. We took a walk, along the inner shore of Strad- 
broke Island. Here we observed Hibiscus tiUaceus, witii 
its fine, yellow flowers, like those of Hollyhock, but 
witii crimson eyes, growing to the size of a pear-tree ; 
and near it, EdtDordsia nuda? a pretty bush, with yel- 
low flowers, but inferior in beauty to the Edwardsias of 
New Zealand. On the muddy land, within the reach 
of high tide, there was a small species of Bhizophorti, 
or true Mangrove, and a Bruguiera, another shrub of a 
nearly allied genus. The Mangrove resembles a thick- 

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leaved Liauiel, and has roots from its stem above ground^ 
like the stays of the mast of a ship: its fruit is about 
an inch in diameter, and it vegetates, as it hangs on the 
bush, and sends out a green radicle, about a foot long, 
and swollen toward the pointed base ; this, bearing the 
germ on its top, drops from the fruit, and either sticks in 
the mud, and vegetates, or floats in the sea, till landed on 
some congenial spot, or till it perishes. The Bruguiera 
forms a fine bush, eight or ten feet high, and has the bell- 
shaped cup to its evanescent petals, in substance, resembling 
red-morocco leather, and cut into ten narrow segments. 
Its mode of propagation is similar to the former, but its 
radicle is shorter, and not swollen toward the base. These 
gay, red^leather-hke flowers, and long, green, spindle-like 
radicles, were washed up abimdantly on the shore, and till 
I saw them growing, tliey puzzled me not a little. 

16th. We took a walk upon a part of the beach, where 
the variety of shell-fish was great. The Rock Oysters were 
attached to the portions of the various Mangroves, within 
the influx of the sea. Drift Oysters were in large masses, 
below the high-water mark ; among them were various spe- 
cies of Cypraoy Cowrie, Canus, &c. Common and Pearl 
Oysters were thinly scattered, lower down on the shore. 
While walking on the beach, a native Black, who, in 
answer to a question respecting his name, said ^^ Tommy 
Green,'^ came dancing toward us, the picture of good na- 
ture ; he made signals to us to put on our shoes. This we 
found, was to save our feet from being cut by fragments 
of shells, in a mud-flat, which we were about to cross, and 
in which there were a large Pinna, a sort of wedge-shaped 
Muscle, and a strange thing, without a head, somewhat 
like a lady^s riding whip, as well as many other creatures, 
of unusual form, that might reward the investigation of a 
diligent naturalist. By the instruction of our black friend, 
we obtained specimens of a large Cardium, or Cockle; 
the impressions of the margin of the shells of which, were 
visible on the sand under which it was buried. 

On our return, two Natives were fighting, at the village. 
One of them, according to their custom, had seized a 

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woman from another tribe^ for a wife^ and had been chal- 
lenged by one of her connexions. The combatants, wore 
white fillets round their heads, and had boomerings in their 
belts, and wooden shields, and waddies, in their hands; 
with the latter, after some fencing, they gave each other 
heavy blows, upon the head. They then retreated a few 
paces, but mamtained a vociferous contest, in which^ the 
women of the village joined. It was painful, to witness 
this afiray, which we could not interfere, to put an end to^ 
on account of not knowing their language. At lei^;th^ 
to our great relief, a shoal of mullet was announced. The 
people took their nets, and hastened to the beach; and 
when there were no abettors, the contest ceased, and the 
company, belonging our boat, who had been standing in 
the rain, to witness this painful spectacle, no longer delayed 
returning on board the Isabella. It is said, the battles 
sometimes become very general, on occasions of this sor^ 
but that they are seldom attended by loss of life. Several of 
the men, at this time, were armed with spears, and boome- 
rings ; and seemed only to wait, for a little more excitement, 
to join in the combat ; others, paid litde attention to the 
fight, and one continued, quietly building a hut, notwith- 
standing, the combatants were often close by him. 

On the borders of Moreton Bay, into which, several small 
rivers discharge themselves, there are said to be fouf tribes 
of Natives, of about one hundred each. Those, about Point 
Skirmish, to the northward, are reported, to be remarkably 
pugnacious, and cruel. Possibly, they may have been 
influenced by runaway prisoners. The ornaments, of those 
we met with, were necklaces, of short pieces of reed, pieces 
of nautilus, or other pearly shell, feathers, and bands of 
kangaroo sinews, or of opposum-fur : of the latter mate- 
rial, some of the female children wore short, fringe aprons. 
They smear their bodies, with charcoal, pipe-clay, or 
ruddle, and grease. Some of them, are affected with 
disease, said to have been communicated, from an American 
Whaler ; but most of them seem, healthy, and robust. 

While in Moreton Bay, we were surprised, by hearing 
the Blacks call biscuits. Five Islands. This we learned, 

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1836.] NBW SOUTH WALES. 377 

arose firom some men, who^ several years ago^ were driven 
from the part of the lUawarra coast, called the Five Islands^ 
having held up biscuits, to the Blacks, and said. Five 
Islands, in the hope, of learning from them, the direction 
of their lost home. The Blacks, however, mistook this, 
for the name of the biscuits, and hence have continued 
to call them by this name. The lost men remained among 
the Natives, for several years, and were kindly treated. 
At length, they were brought away, by a vessel that put 
in here, and subsequently, one of them was returned hither, 
as a prisoner. 

17th. The weather having become more favourable, the 
anchor was up, at an early hour; we parted from Lieut. 
Otter, the officer, whose duty it was, to see the vessel 
off, and who had shewn us much kind attention, and 
soon crossed the bar, by a shallow passage. At sea, the 
wind was adverse, and the rolling of the vessel, was such, 
as to produce much sickness. This continued to be the 
case, till the 20th, when we had a fine breeze, and were 
off Port Macquarie ; but the sea was too high, to admit of 
our being put on shore there, without risk to the vessel. 
In the night of the 22nd, there were violent squalls, and 
in the morning, a gale commenced. We were then to the 
south of Port Jackson, having been unable to make the 
land. In standing off, during the night, we were driven 
by a current, to the north, so that in the morning, we were 
off the mouth of the Hunter River. 

The gale continuing, and our provisions being reduced to 
four days consumption, we concluded to run for Newcastle, 
in Port Hunter. On coming opposite the port, a gun was 
fired, and a signal made, which was answered by one that 
perplexed us, signifying that the tide had begun to ebb. 
We therefore again beat off the land j but on referring to 
the tables, it was foimd that the ebb could not have com- 
menced, and that the tide would yet flow for several hours ; 
we therefore again approached the shore, fired another gun, 
and made another signal, shewing that the vessel belonged 
the Government. This was answered by one such as we 
desired, and quickly by a second, indicating that the pilot 

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578 NEWCASTLE. [4th mo. 

had left the shore to board us ; he soon reached the vessel, 
and made an excuse for the wrong signal^ that was not 
very satisfactory ; but under his prompt directions, we beat 
into Port Himter, tacking first to one side, and then to the 
other, close to the breakers, until we reached a place of 
safety, under a natural, though imperfect breakwater, termi- 
nated by an islet, called The Knobby. The Tidewaiter, and 
another officer, soon boarded us to know our business ; and 
after they, with our captain, and our fellow passenger, had 
gone on shore, we mustered such of the people as inclined to 
meet with us, to whom we read a chapter, and addressed some 
counsel. It was far from a bright time, and there is reason 
to fear, that more of a disposition to murmur, at the privar 
tions that had been endured, existed among them, than of 
one to give God thanks for the unmerited mercies, continued 
to us, and by which we had now been delivered from being 
driven to sea, in a femishing state. Last night the topping- 
lift of our mizen sail broke, when two men were on the 
boom, which swung over the side, but they kept their hold, 
and escaped injury. Another man received a severe bruise 
by it, and would have gone overboard, had not his leg got 
jammed between a water-cask and the bulwark. This poor 
fellow, though now unable to turn in bed from the injury, 
seemed thankful for his escape from a watery grave ; frx>m 
which, in a dark night, with a high sea, he could not have 
been rescued, had he been precipitated into the ocean. 

25th. The gale continuing we went on shore, and were 
kindly welcomed by George Brooks, the Colonial Surgeon. 
Newcastle in New South Wales, like the town in England 
from which it is named, is famous for the production of 
coal; but Newcastle in N. S. Wales, is only a village of 
about forty houses, inclusive of a jail, a hospital and mili- 
tary barracks. It stands at the mouth of the Hunter River, 
on a sand-stone promontory, on the point of which, there 
is a lighthouse. The harbour is not of easy access ; the 
river, which is shallow in this part, widens beyond it, and 
forms several channels, separated by low. Mangrove islands. 
There being no prospect of the Isabella getting to sea again 
for a few days, we embarked in the Ceres steamer in the 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 379 

evenings but the sea proved too high for her to proceed, and 
she put back to Newcastle about midnight. 

26th. Most of the day was spent with our kind friend 
the Surgeon, in company with a gentleman in the Survey de- 
partment and a settler, who were, like ourselves, delayed here 
by the storm. In a walk, we passed the burial ground, in 
which a detachment of an ironed-gang was at work, under 
an overseer, and three sentries. These men had been oc- 
cupied here about a month, in making improvements, that a 
quarter of their number of industrious men, would have 
effected in the same time. Work without wages proceeds 
slowly, by a natural consequence that is not at all reversed, 
by the work being imposed as the punishment of crime. 
The state of the weather rendering it imlikely we should be 
able to proceed to Sydney for some days, we concluded to 
visit Ebenezer, on Lake Macquarie, where Lancelot Edward 
Threlkeld is employed by the Government, as a Mission- 
ary to the Aborigines, With this view we engaged as our 
guide Beerabahn, or M'Gill, a tall, intelligent man, the chief 
of the tribe of Blacks resorting thither. 

27th. We set out with our black conductor, who could 
speak a little English, and one of his countrymen named 
Boatman or Boardman. These people had contracted a 
debasing appetite for strong drink, which was often given 
them by the military and other persons, perhaps from 
mistaken notions of kindness. Boatman some years after- 
wards, lost his life in a dnmken fray. 

M'Gill was dressed in a red-striped shirt, not very clean, 
a pair of ragged trowsers, and an old hat. Suspended 
from his neck, by a brass chain, he had a half-moon-shaped, 
brass breastplate, with his native and English name, and a 
declaration of his kingly dignity, engraven upon it: his nose 
and part of his cheeks were besmeared with ruddle, but he 
had few cuttings upon his flesh : he carried one of our 
bundles, and took a young dog upon his shoulder, on this 
journey, of twenty-six miles through the bush. In passing 
his hut, he stripped off his shirt, which he left behind to 
avoid encumbrance. Boatman, who is represented in the 
accompanying wood-cut, in the act of throwing a spear, by 

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380 NEWCASTLE. [4th mo. 

means of a womera, an implement used to increase the 
impetus, wore a ragged, blue jacket, and trowsers. — On the 
way through the bush, our guides stopped to seek wild 

honey, but without success. Sometimes the Blacks capture 
bees, and stick small pieces of feather to them, with gum; this 
makes them fly heavily, and enables their pursuers to watch 
them in their flight, until they reach their nests. Many of the 
^ open places in the forest, abounded with Gigantic-lily ; the 
flower stems of which rise from 10 to 20 feet high. These 
stems are roasted, and eaten by the Aborigines, who cut them 
for this purpose, when they are about a foot and a half 
high, and thicker than a man^s arm. The Blacks also roast 
the roots, and make them into a sort of cake, which they 
eat cold : they likewise roast and pound the seeds of Zamia 
spiralis, and then place the mass for two or three weeks, 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 381 

in water^ to take out the bitter principle^ after which it 
is eaten. M'Gill thought potatoes were better than most 
vegetables they used: he said^ the Blacks^ in this neigh- 
bourhood, had ^^thrown away^* the use of fern-root. These 
people find maize, potatoes, bread, and other articles pro- 
duced by the industry of white people, so much better than 
their own native articles of diet, that they stay much about 
the habitations of the European population, and do little 
jobs, for which they get these articles in return : they also 
find this kind of provision more certainly to be relied upon, 
which induces them to keep near to the usurpers of their 
country, notwithstanding the abuse and indignity they some- 
times meet with, and their liability to be fired upon, if 
seen helping themselves among the growing Indian com. 

The sun had just set, when we reached the residence of 
Li. E. Threlkeld and his nmnerous family, from whom 
we received a kind welcome. 

28th. L. E. Threlkeld has applied himself diligently to 
attaining the language of the Aborigines, and reducing it 
to writing, compiling a grammar, preparing a translation of 
the Gospel according to Luke, and some smaller selections 
from Scripture, also a vocabulary. He has been employed 
several years in the mission, in which he has been unas- 
sisted by any other Missionary. He has had, at the same 
time, to provide for his own family, which now consists of 
nine children, and is living on his own land, a portion of 
which he has cleared, with much labour. In the afternoon, 
we walked to a woody point, extending into the lake, which 
is twenty-five miles long, and seven broad, and has a nar- 
row opening into the sea. Some Blacks were fishing, to 
whom L. E. Threlkeld spoke a few words, in reference to 
the Deity, to which they attended with gravity. 

29th. We accompanied L. E. Threlkeld, in a boat, rowed 
by three Blacks, to the site of the old missionary station, 
at the head of the Lake, where we landed on a fine seam 
of coal. This station was abandoned some years ago, by 
the London Missionary Society, on accoimt of its expense, 
and the misrepresentations of persons who had never been 
upon the spot ; and thus an opportunity was lost for 

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382 EBENBZBR. [4th mo. 

benefiting the Blacks, such as will never occur again in tihis 
part of N. S. Wales. Those who were collected here^ ha^e 
become dispersed among the settlers^ toward Newcastle; 
and through the acquired love of strong drink, and other 
causes, such as occasion Black men ^^to fade away/^ have 
become greatly diminished in number. The Natives obtain 
fish and oysters in the lake ; which tiiey exchange for flour, 
tobacco, &c. In the forest, at the north end of the lake, tiie 
variety of trees is considerable ; among them is Achras aus- 
tralisy which bears a fruit like an inferior plum : its seeds are 
something, in form, like the handle of a gimlet, but are 
pointed and polished. The Blacks scratch various figures 
upon them, and amuse themselves by guessing what the 
figure is, on the one held in the hand of another person. 
30th. Was very rainy: it was spent in examining 
into the labours of L. E. Threlkeld, which have been very 
persevering and disinterested. He has succeeded in im- 
parting to the Blacks, some general ideas respecting the 
Deity and the responsibility of man^ but so far as yet 
appears, without that elSect by which, under the influence 
of tiie divine Spirit, such knowledge becomes practical, in 
leading to repentance and faith in Christ. We have come 
to the conclusion, that no impediment exists, to the Abo- 
rigines of New South Wales becoming civilized, or re- 
ceiving the Gospel, beyond what applies to other tribes 
of human beings, destitute of civilization. In these, tiie 
wandering habits, induced by living on the wild produce 
of the earth, are uncongenial to the settlement requi- 
site for instruction; but this might be overcome, espe- 
cially in the rising generation. But there have been im- 
pediments of another class, in New Soutii Wales, such as 
the demoralizing influence of the white population, and 
the prejudices of benevolent persons, who had given way to 
discouragement, in consequence of individual Blacks, who 
had been brought up among the Whites, returning to their 
own tribes. This circumstance has arisen from the feeling 
that such had, that they were looked down upon as black 
men among Whites ; while they were looked up to, because 
of their enlarged knowledge, among their own people. The 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 383 

amount of the Black population of Australia has been a 
subject of much variety of opinion; but it has probably 
been greatly over-rated. On comparing the number of Abo- 
rigines, known to eidst between Batmans Bay and Port Mac- 
quarie, with the whole extent of N. S. Wales, and this with 
the whole of Australia, making large allowance for the reduc- 
tion of the tribes, by European influence, and doubling the 
amount for contingences, we came to the conclusion, that the 
whole Black population of Australia, probably did not exceed 
fifty thousand; and nothing that we subsequently saw in 
Southern or Western Australia altered our impression on 
this subject. 

5th mo. 1st. We were present during the season devoted 
to public worship, in the mission family, in which oppor- 
tunity was afforded us, for the expression of what was upon 
our minds. It is seldom that any of the Blacks are present 
on these occasions. Among the marks of improvement, in 
regard to civilization, exhibited by the Natives of ±his 
neighbourhood, none of whom can be said to remain per- 
manently here, may be noticed, their wearing clothes, and 
their consequent abandonment of the practice of ornamenting 
themselves by cutting their flesh ; their ceasing to knock 
out a tooth, on their youths attaining to manhood; their 
intelligence and friendly feeling toward the white population, 
and their willingness to do little turns of work, for rewards 
in flour, tobacco, clothing, &c. 

2nd. Taking leave of Ebenezer, L. E. Threlkeld con- 
veyed us in a boat, to the head of the lake ; firom whence 
we proceeded by a road, originally cut from the old mission- 
ary station to Newcastle, through forest of Red Gum, Ango- 
phora lanceolata, Apple-tree, A, auffustifolia. Iron Bark, 
Stringy Bark, Blood-tree, Bastard Box, Spotted Gum, and 
other species of the genus Eucalyptus. About two miles 
from Newcastle, there is a singular spring of water, that 
rises a few inches above the surface of the ground, inside of 
the trunk of a Spotted Gum-tree, a root of which has proba- 
bly tapped the spring : the water is accessible by an inversely 
heart-shaped hole in the tree, and occasionally flows out 
in wet weather. ITie beautiful Blandfordia grandiflora. 

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384 NEWCASTLE. [5th mo. 

with yellow^ bell-shaped^ lily-like flowers, was growing 
in the forest, along with many other pretty plants. In 
the course of onr walk, we fell in with some regiments of 
hairy caterpillars, following one another in long lines^ the 
head of each, except the first, touching the tail of the one 
before it. A friend of mine told me, that once, on meet- 
ing some of these caterpillars, traversing a rock, he directed 
the head of the first, with a stick, to the tail of the last, 
and they continued following one another in a circle, for 
several hours, without seeming to discover the trick that 
had been played upon them! Our sable guides were joined 
on the way through the forest, by another of their tribe^ 
whose name was Macquarie, and we saw several other par- 
ties, passing backward and forward. They sometimes amused 
themselves and us, by throwing their boomerings, which 
made circuits, almost like the flight of birds. On reaching 
Newcastle, they received their wages in bread, tea, sugar^ 
and tobacco. This kind of payment, they seemed to under- 
stand better than one in money ; of which it has not been 
the policy of the settlers to teach them the value ; perhaps 
more from seeing that they appreciated more readily the 
worth of useable commodities, than from an intention to 
keep them in ignorance of a point, that would have been 
desirable for them to understand, in order to save them 
from imposition, in regard to the value of their own la- 
bour. — In the afternoon, we embarked on board the Ceres, 
a fine vessel, built on the Williams River, carrying two 
engines, each of forty horse power, and once more put to 
sea, with a contrary wind. 

3rd. We landed at Sydney, after a rough passage of 
sixteen hours, and were kindly welcomed by our friends. 
The Isabella, on board of which was our luggage, arrived 
before us, having beaten up, against the wind, in three 

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Sjdaey. — ^Tidings of J>. and C. Wheeler. — ^Aborigines in Towns. — ^Work 
of the Spirit. — Grant of a Burial Ground. — Reformed Prisoner. — ^Wills. — 
Trial of Blacks. — Bibles in Strange Tongues. — Meetings. — ^Voyage to Mait- 
land. — ^Dronkenness. — Season. — Ironed-gangs. — Fossils. — Country. — Plants. 

— ^Arthurs Vale. ^Management of Prisoners St. Aubins.—*' Prisoners of Aus* 

tralia." — ^Plants. — B4un. — Sheep. — Snow. — Mount Wingen. — Objects of Curi- 
osity. — ^Return to Maitland. — Compass, &c. — Geology. — Cock-fighters Bridge. 
— Prisoners. — Bibles andCard-playing. — Small Congregations. — ^Friends' Prin- 
ciples. — Self-delusion. 

5th mo. 7th. We had the satisfaction of hearing of our 
dear friends^ D. and C. Wheeler, through the medium of 
a letter from Charles Barff, to William P. Crook, of this 
place, dated ^^ Huaine, Jan. 19th, 1836;*' he says, "I men- 
tioned in my last, that I accompanied Mr. Daniel Wheeler 
and Son, to Pora Pora, as interpreter. The Natives Ustened 
with profound attention, to their pious, pointed, and Scrip- 
tural addresses.'^ 

8th. Very wet. Only seven persons were at our meet- 
ing in the morning, and eight in the afternoon. Both were 
silent seasons, except that I gave expression to a few sen- 
tences in prayer, in the morning. — Our hlack guides, M^Gill 
and Boatman, called to see us. They are in town, in con* 
sequence of the trial of some Aborigines, to whom, on 
behalf of the Government, in conjunction with L. E. Threl- 
keld, M^Gill acts as interpreter. We gave them some arti- 
cles of clothing, with which they were much pleased. — ^These 
poor creatures called upon us several times afterwards, du- 
ring their stay in Sydney. They were mostly in a state of 
excitement, from strong drink ; which they are easily per- 
suaded to take. The Blacks are not like the same people, 

B B 

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386 SYDNEY. [5th mo* 

when in towns^ as they are^ when remote from places where 
they are incited to vice, into which many of the white 
population take a pleasure in leading them. 

12th. The week-day meeting was very small. To me it 
was a season of comfort, notwithstanding a prevailing sense 
of my own weakness and poverty. The clear perception 
of these, is the direct work of the Holy Spirit. If we have 
any just sense of the state of man before his Maker, it 
must be of his helplessness, and that, without Christ, the 
best of men can do nothing for the glory of Grod, the 
edification of one another, or the salvation of their own 
souls. It is by waiting upon God, in the depth of humil- 
iation, that we have the evidence confirmed to us, from 
season to season, of being reconciled to him, through the 
death of his Son, and know a union, one with another^ and 
with Christ, and through him, with the Father. It is thus 
that we experience, the fulfilment of that, for which our 
holy Redeemer prayed, not for his immediate disciples 
alone, but for all who should believe on him, through their 
word : " That they all may be one, as thou Father,^* said 
he, ^^ art in me, and I in thee ; that they also may be one 
in us ;^' '^ that they may be one, even as we are one ; I in 
them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in 
one.^^ — John xvii., 21, 22, 23. 

13th. In consequence of the decease of a child belong- 
ing to parents, one of whom was brought up among Friends, 
and has a religious objection to the modes of burial, in 
common use, and who could not, on that account, attend 
the interment of her own babe, we made an application 
to the Governor, for a burial place for Friends, in the land 
reserved for Burial Grounds, adjacent to Sydney. This re- 
quest was afterwards granted. 

14th, On behalf of a reformed prisoner, who has for some 
time been associated with us, in religious fellowship, we 
remitted to the persons who prosecuted him, the sum of 
£20, toward the expense they incurred in the prosecution. 

19th. At the suggestion of my Brother, who has kindly 
taken care of my temporal concerns during my absence, 
I made some needful provisions, by a codicil, in my will. 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 887 

I haye often regretted not having brought a copy of this 
document with me^ as I cannot recollect with certainty 
its contents. When in England^ it was my practice to 
read it once a year, to see that it was according to my 
mind and conscience; and more than once, I have seen 
occasion to alter it. Before I had a proper will made, I 
was a few times imwell, when firom home ; and though fa- 
voured with peace in looking toward eternity, I was never- 
theless uncomfortable at not having a satisfactory will. It 
is well to attend to such subjects in proper season, and to 
remember, that in the Day of Judgment, account will 
as surely have to be rendered, for the right use, and the 
disposal, that has been. made of the talent of property, as 
for that of any other talent. 

24th. We received a call from L. E. Threlkeld, who is 
about to return to Lake Macquarie. The Black who was 
tried lately, was acquitted, and some others have been dis- 
charged. In the course of this trial, one of the barbarous, 
white evidences, stated in open court, that he considered 
the Blacks as no more than the beasts of the field. This 
is a sentiment too prevalent among many of the Whites of 
the Colony. The presiding Judge expressed his abhorrence of 
such a sentiment, and his conviction, that they were human 
beings, responsible before God, in whose sight, killing them 
was as truly murder as killing human beings of any other de- 
scription : he stated also, that they were responsible to the 
laws of the Colony, and must be protected by them ; and 
said he was glad, that through the medium of a respectable 
Missionary, their causes were capable of being pleaded in 
that Court. 

27th,. On visiting the Bible Society's Depot, to obtain 
an Irish Bible, for an old Hibernian, in the interior, both 
the Depository and myself were at a loss, among the va- 
riety of languages, in strange character, to distinguish the 
Irish. This diflBculty was at length overcome, by reference 
to the word. New Testament, in forty-eight languages, 
forming the frontispiece to Bagster's Polymicron New Tes- 
tament. This circumstance suggested, that the name of 
the language in which each Bible was printed, might be 

B B 2 

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388 SYDNEY. [6th mo. 

advantageously introduced^ in English^ in the titlepages of 
foreign Bibles. 

6th mo. 12th. Since returning to Sydney, we hare been 
much occupied in sending books, and tracts to persons 
whom we visited in our late journey. In the prospect of 
again leaving this place, for a season, we felt a debt of 
Christian love toward the inhabitants, which it seemed time 
to endeavour to discharge, by inviting them to a meeting 
for public worship, which was held this morning. I was 
much oppressed in it, by a sense of a lamentable want of a 
true hungering and thirsting after righteousness, in the con- 
gregation, among whom there were nevertheless some pious 
persons. I had to address them on the passage, ^^ It is a 
fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.'' At 
the conclusion, notice was given of the hours of meetings 
on First and Fifth-days. At three o'clock about thirty 
persons assembled, with whom we sat an hour and a half 
in silence. My own state was one of great emptiness, and 
under such circumstances, I dared not to attempt expres- 
sion, much as the people seemed to need religious instruc- 
tion. Tracts were distributed at the dose of the meetings. 

14th. Being furnished with letters of introduction, from 
our kind friend, the Colonial Secretary, to several settlers 
on the Hunter Kiver, we sailed by the Ceres steamer, for 
Maitland, and had a fine passage, the sea being so smooth 
as scarcely to give motion to the vessel. 

15th. About five o'clock in the morning, the steamer 
anchored at Newcastle. After waiting an hour for daylight, 
it proceeded up the Hunter, to the Green Hills or Morpeth, 
the port of the embryo town of Maitland, which is about 
twenty miles from ^Tewcastle, by land, and forty by water. 
The Hunter is here of considerable width ; its banks are 
low, alluvial land, but little of which is cleared. A thick 
scrub, containing a variety of trees and shrubs, extends to 
the water's edge. Some of the trees are clad with shaggy 
Lichens, and many of them support the Golden Mistletoe, 
and a species of Loranthus. The Elkshom Fern, Acrosticum 
alcicome, which in Port Jackson, generally grows on decom- 
posing, sandstone rocks, forms here protuberant girdles, 

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1836.] NBW SOUTH WALES. 389 

round the trunks of trees^ among the branches of which 
Ipomoea pendtUOf and Marsdenia JragranSy are striking climb- 
ers. Water-fowl are numerous, near the bushy islands, at 
the mouth of the river, especially Pelicans. The Williams 
River and the Paterson, both of which are navigable, join 
the Hunter from the north. In proceeding up the river, 
the depression of the waters, before the packet, occasioned 
by the elevation produced behind, by the action of the 
paddles, made the reeds of the margin, bow to our 
approach, with an amusing regularity. — Maidand is about 
three miles from Green Hills : it consists of a considerable 
number of houses, scattered by the sides of a soft road, for 
upwards of two miles, some of which are substantially built 
of brick. We found good accommodation at an hotel, 
between Green Hills and Maitland. There are also several 
decent inns in the town. We had been told, that we should 
find a large proportion of the inhabitants of this place, 
drunken with rum and prosperity ; and this description was 
not without ground, in regard to many ; for the place has 
of late, become one of importance, in traffic between the 
coast and the interior, and at the time of our visit, devoted- 
ness to the world, and drunkenness, were awfully prevalent. 

16th. We made several calls in the town ; in which a 
considerable number of the native Blacks, were working for 
the inhabitants, as hewers of wood and drawers of water. 
We also visited the Jail, a place of temporary confinement, 
till the prisoners are examined and transferred to Newcastle : 
it consists of a few cells, enclosed within a high, wooden 
fence, and is said to be sometimes so crowded, that prisoners 
have to be brought into the yard to avoid suffocation. 

I7th. At sunset, several Night Hawks, in flight resembling 
owls, were soaring in various directions. Plovers were cry- 
ing, and frogs croaking in the marshes. Large Bats, called 
Flying Foxes, are common in this neighbourhood. It is 
now nearly mid-winter, but the frost has scarcely touched 
tbe leaves of the Pumpkins and Potatoes, and the second crop 
of Maize is not yet fully harvested. The springing wheat is 
beautifully green, and the '^brushes," on the sides of the river, 
scarcely vary from the verdure of summer, except in the 

B B 3 

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390 MAITLAND. [6th mOm 

yellowness of the foliage of Melia Azedarach. The eveninga 
and mornings are chilly^ but the middle of the day is as 
warm as that of an ISnglish summer^ and Swallows are 

19th. We had a meeting in the Court House, and nol>- 
withstanding the roads are very soft, from late rains, about 
150 persons assembled ; to whom, after a considerable period 
of silent waiting upon God, we were enabled to bear a clear 
testimony to the truth, with expressions of earnest desire^ 
that our auditors might become individually acquainted with 
the blessings, proposed to mankind in the Gospel. In the 
afternoon, we visited an ironed-gang, employed on the roads, 
under a military guard ; we found them locked up in their 
caravans, out of which only one-third were allowed to come 
at a time, for exercise. When locked in, only half of them 
can sit up, on the ends of the platforms, on which half of them 
sleep ; the rest must sit back, with their legs at a right- 
angle with their bodies. On our arrival, they were all turned 
out, counted, and then marched to a place, at a short dis- 
tance, where they stood, with the guard of soldiers, under 
arms, behind them. After a pause, we addressed them, invit- 
ing their attention to the convictions of the Holy Spirit,asthe 
witness in their own minds, against sin; by neglecting which, 
they had fallen into transgression before God and man, 
until they had been permitted to commit the sins which had 
brought them into grievous bondage, among their fellow- 
men ; when, if they had attended to this warning voice of 
the Most High, they would, on the other hand, have been 
led to repentance, and faith in Christ, and through him, 
would have become of the number of his reconciled and 
obedient children, free from the bondage of Satan. They 
were invited to turn at the reproofs of instruction, as at 
the voice of Him who desires not that any should perish. 
In commenting on the passage, ^^ Eye hath not seen, nor ear 
heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things 
which God hath prepared for them that love him ; but God 
hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit; for the Spirit 
searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God ;'' it was 
mentioned, by way of illustration, that our ideas of aU 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 391 

things, are liable to be very defective, till we see or feel 
them; that thus, though themselves might have heard of 
the sufferings of prisoners, they had had a very defective 
idea of them, till they felt them ; and though they might 
have seen men in chains, they had had a very imperfect 
notion of the suffering of this punishment, till they felt it ; 
and that so, likewise, though of an opposite nature, the 
blessings of the Gospel required to be felt, to be imderstood. 
These comments excited a significant assent, in the counte- 
nances, and movements of the heads of the prisoners, 
expressive of their sense of the suffering under which they 
have brought themselves, by having multiplied their offences, 
so as to incur the extra-coercive discipline, of this part of 
our penal laws. 

20th. Was occupied in connexion with a lecture, on 
temperance, held in the Court House, in the evening. The 
evils of strong-drink seem scarcely to have claimed the 
notice of the people here, notwithstanding they suffer griev- 
ously under them. 

21st. We travelled westward through open, grassy forest, 
toward Harpers Hills, where another ironed-gang is sta- 
tioned* In the evening, we were overtaken by a settler, 
professing with the Church of Rome, who kindly invited 
us to his house, and readily assembled his family and ser- 
vants, in order that we might express to them our Christian 
desire for their present and eternal welfare. 

22nd. In the morning, we had an interview with the 
Ironed-gang, at Harpers Hills, who were working on the 
road, at a place where, I think, there were marine fossils, 
sparingly imbedded in basalt. The officer in charge, pro- 
mised to send me some, to Sydney; but those received from 
him, had evidently come out of an argillaceous rock, and 
seemed to have been selected on account of their beauty. 

We pursued our route for a few miles further, along the 
course of the Hunter River, which here flows through a 
rich, alluvial vale, in some places spreading into extensive 
flats, and in others narrowed by ranges of hills, which, in 
the distance, rise to mountains of three or four thousand 
feet high. The whole country is still one vast wood, except 

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392 HUNTER RIVER. [6th 010* 

here and there^ a patch of a few hundreds of acres, where 
the forest has yielded to the axe. In the erening, we 
reached Dalwood, the dwelling of a pious and hospitable 
settler, by whom we were kindly welcomed. 

23rd. We proceeded to Kirkton, the residence of a 
settler, who has a considerable vineyard. In the course 
of the day, we saw a Kangaroo, an animal diat has become 
scarce in the settled parts of N. S. Wales; where flocks 
of sheep, and herds of cattle, now consume the thin grass 
of the continuous forests. Kennedia ovata, a blue, pea- 
flowered climber ; a species of Tecomoy or Trumpet-flower^ 
with small, pale blossoms and bright leaves; Sicyos ausiraliSf 
a little plant of the Cucumber tribe; Nicotiana imdukUOf 
a species of Tobacco, with flowers, that are fragrant in an 
evening ; a species of Hemp, possibly Cannabis ituUca, and 
several other striking plants, were growing on the banks 
of the Hunter. 

24th. Continuing our walk, we passed the dwellings of 
several considerable settlers, and crossed Patricks Plains, 
an extensive flat, partially cleared, with some small scat- 
tered houses upon it. At the further end of the plain, the 
Hunter is fordable, dose to a little rising town, called Dar- 
lington, where we were kindly received by a &mily of the 
name of Glennie. Prom Darlington, we proceeded over 
low, gravelly hills, thinly covered with grass, to Dulwich, 
where, as well as on other parts of our journey, we were 
received with hospitality. 

25th. We passed through a beautiful, park-like pro- 
perty, called Ravensworth, belonging to a gentleman in 
Sydney. Oranges were ripe in the garden, but the crop 
was thin, from continued drought. The rains nearer the 
coast, have scarcely reached this part of the country. Be- 
tween this place and Muscle Brook, our route lay over 
sandy, gravelly, poor, clay hills, thinly clothed with grass 
and Iron-bark trees, and with some other species of Eu- 
calyptus, and the Forest>-oak. The town reserve, of Muscle 
Brook, is marked by a small, weatherboard inn. Near this 
place, we came again upon the rich, alluvial soil of the 
Hunter, and a few miles further, reached Arthurs Vale, a 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 393 

large ferming establishment, belonging to Henry Dumaresq^ 
l>y whom we had been recommended to the kind notice 
of his agent. This morning, the country was white with 
boar frost, but a swallow flew into the house at Dulwich, 
and took a fly off the ceiling. 

25th. We had some religious service with the femily of 
the agent, and the prisoner-servants of the establishment, 
in Tvhich their attention was directed to the teaching of the 
Holy Spirit, by which alone, the truth of the Oospel can 
be practically understood. The prisoner-servants were nu- 
merous, and under excellent management. The greater 
proportion of them are lodged in ten, neat cottages, with 
gardens attached. The wives of several of those, of good 
conduct, have been permitted to join their husbands. The 
cottages of the married people, present a neater ap- 
pearance, than those in which the different classes of 
single men reside. Classifying the single men, and placing 
the married men with their wives and families, and at the 
same time, maintaining a good superintendence over the 
whole, has a decidedly beneficial effect upon them ; and were 
they brought to entire abstinence from intoxicating drinks, 
much might reasonably be expected in regard to moral re- 

27th. We proceeded to St. Aubins, the residence of 
William Dumaresq, from whom we received a most kind 
welcome. This establishment is conducted on a similar 
plan to that at Arthurs Vale, and with similarly bene- 
ficial results. In this family we met a pious person, 
much interested in the state of the female Convicts, 
and who, since her return to England, has published an 
intelligent, little volume respecting them, entitled '^The 
Prisoners of Australia.^' In the course of our journey, we 
crossed the Hunter, at a shallow ford, and passed over a 
series of low hiUs, covered with thin, grassy herbage, and 
open forest, of small trees. Among the trees were species 
of Eucal^tus, known in the Colony as Box, and Bastard 
Box. Lotus australts, with pink or white, vetch-like blossoms, 
was scattered, in pretty tufts, among the thin herbage. The 
quantity of rain that falls in this part of the country, is 

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394 8T. AUBiNS. [6tli mo. 

often very small, in proportion to the evaporation. The 
grain crops are consequently, too uncertain to be calcu- 
lated upon. Few settlers aim at growing more wheat tiian 
may support their own establishments. Sheep form the 
great object of the attention of the settler of the Upper 
Hunter ; and far beyond this district, they are extensively 
fed, on the open tract, called Liverpool Plains. The flocks 
consist of about 400 each : several of these flocks are often 
folded at one place, the folds being slightly separated by 
a few rails. The sheep are counted into the folds, and 
conmutted to the charge of a night-watchman, to be pro* 
tected from thieves and wild dogs : in the morning, they are 
re-counted to the respective shepherds, who travel with 
them, several miles, in the course of the day over the thin 

28th. The night was very cold. In the morning, the 
adjacent mountains were covered with snow, a phenomenon 
that had not occurred in this part of the country, for a long 
period. Snow also fell in Sydney at this time, which it 
is said not to have done previously, for more than thirty 
years. After having a religious interview with the feunily 
and establishment, at this place, we walked in the direction 
of Mount Wingen, or the Burning Hill, a pseudo-volcano, 
distant about fourteen miles. It would have been interest- 
ing to have visited this and some other objects of curiosity, 
had our time admitted, but as our object was to visit the 
people, we were not disposed to go out of our way, even to 
see the wonders of creation, unless when delayed at a place 
longer than was necessary for the primary object. But 
when the wonders and beauties of creation, fell in our way, 
we counted it a privilege, to be able to admire them, and 
to remember that ^* our Father made them all.^* 

29th. Not apprehending it to be our duty to proceed 
further in this direction, we returned by way of Henry 
Dumaresq's house, at St. Helliers, to Arthurs Vale, and 
from thence, on the 30th, we crossed through the forest, 
to Ravensworth, using the compass and a map to direct 
our course. When the weather was clear, we more fre- 
quently resorted to the sun and a watch, than to the 

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1836*] NEW SOUTH WALB8. 395 

compass for this purpose. The country about St. Aubins^ 
is on porphyritic rock ; about Arthurs Vale it is on Sand- 

7th mo. 1st. On leaving Ravensworth, we were assisted 
with horses^ in fording the Hunter. We continued our 
journey on foot, passing the habitations of some settlers, to 
Cock-fighters-bridge, on the Wollombi Rivulet; where we 
were hospitably entertained, at the house of a person belong- 
mg the Survey Department, imder whose chai^, a party of 
prisoners were employed in the erection of a bridge. 

2nd. The Bridge-party here, were lodged in huts of 
split timber. The numerous fissures in the walls of which, 
admitted much air ; but fires were allowed, to keep out the 
frost. The men had only one blanket each, in which they 
slept, on large sheets of bark, put up like berths in a 
ship. No religious instruction was provided for these 
men, nor any suitable occupation, for the first day of the 
week. Bibles were distributed among them about three 
years ago, but none are now to be found. Men in such 
situations often take to card-playing, or other demoralizing 
occupation, to fill up vacant time. In some places in these 
Colonies, they have been known to convert the leaves of 
their Bibles into cards, and to mark the figures upon 
them with blood and soot! After a religious interview 
with these people, we returned to Darlington, and again 
met a kind reception from the Glennies. 

3rd. At eleven o'clock, we walked about two miles, to 
the school-house, which we found a miserable slab-building, 
in a ruinous condition, with seats fixed into the ground, 
much exposed to the weather, and without doors or windows. 
By half-past twelve, about twenty-five persons had assem- 
bled, among whom were some of the more respectable 
settlers of the neighbourhood ; to whom we were strength- 
ened to point out the ^^ way of life.'' We learned that the 
Presbyterian Minister, from Maitland, was in this neigh- 
bourhood to-day, and that he had only the family in whose 
house he preached, as a congregation. The indisposition 
of people to think of eternal things, which is increased by 
the approximation of the races, at Maitland, and the want 

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396 MAITLAND. [7dl mO. 

of a convenient place tx) assemble in^ were probably the 
chief causes of the smallness of our congregations. 

We arrived at Maitland, on the 5th. On re-visiting a 
settler on the road^ he told us^ that he had long leaned a 
little toward the Society of Friends, although his acquaint- 
ance with them had been small, but that he had not sup- 
posed their principles to be so decidedly scriptural, as he 
now had found they were, on reading some of the tracts 
that we had given him. 

6th. Maitland was in a state of great exdtement yester- 
day, from the races, and to-day, from a large sale of live 
stock, belonging to the Australian Agricultural Company. 
From rain, and the treading of the cattle on the rich soil 
of the road, through the eastern part of the town, it had 
become so cut up, as to make a journey to the post-office, 
distant from our inn, one mile and a half, a difficult task. 
I succeeded in effecting it, and returning, in two hours. 

8th. On expostulating with a store-keeper, against his 
practice of selling spirits, the evil of which he acknowledged, 
as well as, that temporal and eternal injury might accrue 
to his family, through this means ; he pleaded the necessity 
of doing it for their maintenance. Thus, people too often 
delude themselves, and as it were, sell themselves to the 
devil, and those with whom God has intrusted them, imder 
the pretext of obtaining a supply for their temporal necessi- 
ties, even in the midst of other means. Such practically 
deny their professed belief in the promise of Christ, that 
the things needful for the body, shall be added to those 
who seek first the kingdom of heaven and its righteousness. 
They shrink from following his example, in denying them- 
selves of the glories of this world, when offered on condition 
of falling down to Satan, and worshipping him. 

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MaiUand. — Cedar Brushes. — Morpeth. — ^Retired Officer. — Faithfnl Spaniel. — 
Baymonds Terrace. — Pottery. — Country. — ^Plants. — Reformed Prisoner. — 
Port Stephens. — Carrington. — Territory of the Australian Agricultural Com- 
pany. — Kama Riyer. — Booral. — Stroud. — Stock — Land Speculations.— Blacks. 
— ^Dingadee. — WaUaroba. — Paterson. — ^libraries. — Maitland. — Newcastle. — 
Meetings. — Coal-works. — ^Voyage to Port Macquarie. — Lake Cottage. — Penal 
Establishment. — Town. — Rocks. — Prisoners. — ^Wilson River. — ^Trees, &c. — 
Rollins Plains. — ^Natives. — Sugar Canes. — Tacking Point Wood. — Acrosticum 
grande. — State of Prisoners. — ^Return to Sydney. 

7th mo. 9th« After attending to some subjects of im- 
portance, we took a walk into one of the luxuriant woods, 
on the side of the Hunter, such as are termed Cedar 
Brushes, on account of the colonial White Cedar, Melia 
Azedarachy being one of the trees that compose them. 
Eugenia myrtifoUa and Ficus Muntia, are among the variety 
of trees in these brushes. The former resembles a large, 
broad-leayed Myrtle, and attains to twenty feet in height; its 
fruit, which is now ripe, is about the size of a cherry, but 
oblong and purple, with a mixture of sweet and acid. Ficiia 
Muntia is a spreading Fig, growing as large as an Apple- 
tree. Where its branches touch the ground, they root, and 
send up erect shoots, forming a succession of trees. The 
insipid fruit, which is about the size of a Gooseberry, 
is sometimes produced from the bare trunk and boughs, 
as well as from the leafy branches, giving the tree a very 
unusual appearance. These Cedar Brushes are also thick 
with climbers, such as Cissus aniarctica, the Kangaroo Vine, 
Evpomatia laurifUB, a briary bush, allied to the Custard- 
apple, but with an inferior fruit, and several Apocinea, 
10th. We held a meeting with about fifty persons, in 

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S98 GRBBN HILLS. [7^1 mO. 

a school-house^ at Green Hills^ or Morpeth, in which the 
Gospel was preached, with much warning. We afterwards 
dined with the benevolent individual, who let us have the 
use of the school-house, which he built for the benefit of 
the neighbourhood. He belongs to a class that is pretty 
numerous in these Colonies, who, having been brought up 
to a military life, have beaten their swords into plough- 
shares, and have proved, that the pecuniary profits of the 
arts of peace, as well as their comforts, are much greater 
than those of war. The eldest son of this person, when 
between two and three years old, wandered into the bush, 
and was lost; he would probably have perished, but for 
a faithful spaniel, that followed him, and at midnight, came 
and scratched at the door of one of the servants^ huts, 
and when it was opened, ran toward the place where the 
child was. A man followed the dog, which led him to a 
considerable distance, through a thick brush, by the side of 
the river, where he found the little boy, seated on the ground, 
almost stiff from cold, but amused with watching the sport- 
ing of some porpoises and sharks. The dog afterwards 
lost its life, from the bite of a snake, which proved feital 
in fifteen minutes, much to the sorrow of its little master, 
who pointed out the comer of the room where it died, with 
evident emotion, though several years had now elapsed 
since the event. 

nth. We proceeded by the steamer Ceres, to the mouth 
of the Williams River, and walked from thence to Ray- 
monds Terrace. Here we had a meeting, in the evenings 
with the assigned-servants of a considerable estabUshment, 
in an overseer's cottage, situated among some trees, in con- 
tact with the forest. The large Bats, called Flying Foxes, 
and the black. Flying Opossums, made considerable noise 
among the over-hanging trees, but this did not seem to 
divert the attention of our congregation. 

12th. There is a manufactory of superior, brown earthen- 
ware, at Raymonds Terrace ; it is one of the most successful, 
of the few attempts that have been made to manufacture 
pots, in the Australian Colonies. — From a hill in this neigh- 
bourhood, there is a fine view of the surrounding country, 

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wbich, like most other parts of N. S. Wales, is one vast 
wood, interrupted by a few open swamps. Near this place, 
Sarcostemma ausirale^ a remarkable, leafless shrub, with 
green, succulent, dimbing stems, as thick as a quill, and 
bearing clusters of white flowers, resembling those of «i 
Hoyuy was growing on some rough, conglomerate rocks. 
In the more fertile spots, by the sides of brooks, there 
was a species of Tarn, the root of which is eaten by the 
Aborigines, as well as Eugenia trinerviSy and another shrub of 
the Myrtle tribe, and LogamafloriJmnda, a Priyet-Iike bush, 
with smaU, white, fragrant blossoms. The coimtry toward 
Port Stephens, whither we next proceeded, was decorated 
with Acacia longifolia, and some others of that genus, with 
lively, yellow flowers, and with Bursaria spvnosa, which is 
fragrant and white, Lambertia farmosay a stiff bush, with 
beautiful, deep crimson flowers, and DiUwyniaparv^fbUa with 
pretty, orange blossoms. 

We were accompanied a few miles on our way, in this 
direction, by a prisoner, who had been the subject of re- 
ligious impressions in early life, but had yielded to temp- 
tations, which led to the forfeiture of his liberty. The 
trials to which he had been subjected, by association with 
wicked men, had become, imder the divine blessing, the 
means of stirring him up to watchfulness and prayer; and 
here, he met with kindness, from those imder whom he was 
placed, whose hearts became opened toward him, as his own 
became again turned to the Lord. A boat, belonging to 
the Australian Agricultural Company, conveyed us from 
Sawyers Point, on the south-west of the estuary of Port 
Stephens, to Tarlee House, the residence of Henry Du- 
maresq, the Company's First Commissioner, by whose family 
we were received with much Christian kindness. 

13th. Much rain has fallen lately. Our journey through 
the forest, yesterday, was a very wet one, and to-day we 
were almost confined to the house by rain. 

14th. We visited the little village of Carrington, which 
is situated on the north shore of Port Stephens, and is 
composed of a few weather-board cottages, occupied by 
officers and servants of the Agricultural Company, with 

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400 POBT STEPHENS. [Jth mo. 

whom we had a meetings in the evening, in a carpenter's 
shop, which was used also as a place of worship, by the 
Episcopal Minister. There were a few Aborigines in the 
village, where they are kindly treated. Their number is 
very small in this neighbourhood. Port Stephens is studded 
with a few, little islands, which, with the contiguous Por- 
phyritic hills, give it a pretty appearance ; but the country 
is not of the most fertile description. The territory of the 
Australian Agricultural Company consists of detached tracts, 
amounting together to 1,000,000 acres. The parts where 
their sheep and cattle are chiefly kept, are on LiTerpool 
Plains and the Peel River, distant 150 miles firom Port 

15th. We proceeded to Booral, up the Kama River, 
which is wide and navigable to within a short distance of 
this place, and flows through a sandstone country. Where 
the water is salt, it is maigined with Mangroves, which 
give place, where it is fresh, to various species of Eucor^ 
lyptus, Flcus, Casuarinay and a number of climbers. We 
were kindly received at Booral, by the Second Commissioner 
and his brother, and had a religious interview with the 
people of the settlement, in a neat little chapel. 

16th. Passing a small settlement, called Alderley, we 
continued our journey to Stroud, where we were hospitably 
entertained by an intelligent, medical man, having the su- 
perintendence of the stock of the Company, which consists 
of about 60,000 sheep, 3,000 homed cattle, and 500 horses. 
At the sale of some of their stock, last week, sheep averaged 
28s. each, cows with calves j£8, and horses j£20; which 
are high prices for this Colony. Their last year's dividend 
was three and a half per cent, and they have now a pros- 
pect of a progressive increase. The Speculations of Com- 
panies, in land, in the Australian Colonies, have not an- 
swered the expectations of the parties who have embarked 
in them; nor is it very likely that they should, as the 
salaries of officers alone, amount to more than the profits 
of most private settlers. The Company have about 300 
acres in cultivation here, and 200 at Booral. The popula- 
tion of Stroud is considerably greater than that of the 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 401 

other stations. — ^This evening, a large party of Blacks were 
singing and dancing around some fires, near the village« 
Their number is considerable on the territory of the Com- 
pany ; and if its object had been as much to do justice to 
the people, whose lands they have occupied, as it has been 
to enrich themselves, they would, doubtless, have made 
more effort than they have done for their civilization. 

17th. We had a meeting in the evening, with the people 
of the settlement, in a chapel built by Sir Edward Parry, 
the former First Commissioner of the Company. The ser- 
vice of the Episcopal Church is read by a pious overseer, 
except once a month, when the clergyman from Carrington 
visits the place. 

18th« A young German, in the employment of the 
Company, and a Native, accompanied us part of the way 
to Dingadee, at the confluence of the Carowery Creek and 
the Wilson River, to help us over some swollen rivulets, by 
means of horses. These being cleared, we passed over some 
high land, on a narrow ridge, and over several lower hills. 
The forest was open, but in places, rather thick. In the gul- 
lies, there were large Myrtle-like Eugenias, of handsome 
fonn, with Cedars, and other trees, not occurring on the fSftce 
of the open, forest hills, which were of poorish soil, and 
thinly covered with Kangaroo-grass, besprinkled with va- 
rious plants, among which Swainsoma gaJegifoliay forming a 
low, sufiruticose bush, with white or pink pea-flowers, was 
strikingly pretty. At Dingadee, which forms a peninsula 
of rich, alluvial soil, nearly surrounded by the Williams 
River, and which has been partially cleared of thick brush, 
we met a kind reception from a settler, with whose estab- 
lishment we had an interesting religious interview, and 
who, in his solitude, seemed glad to converse on subjects 
of eternal importance. The distance between Stroud and 
Dingadee is about seventeen miles. When these places 
were first occupied, the parties went to them from different 
points, and our friend at Dingadee said, that when he first 
saw a white man come from the hills behind him, his surprise 
was excessive, as he had no idea that his countrymen had 
penetrated the woods, in that direction. 

c c 

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402 DUNGOG. [7th mo. 

19th. We proceeded down the Wilson Kver, to Dan- 
gog, where the site of a town is marked by a small, weather- 
board Court-house. The brush by the side of the river 
is very rich, and ornamented by numerous, fim-leayed pahns, 
Confpha austraUs, some of which are about sixty feet high. 
On leaying the river, we passed over a hilly country, of 
poorish soil, clothed with open forest and thin grass, to 
WaUaroba, where we were very cordially received, by a 
settler and his wife, whose connexions, we were well ac- 
quainted with in England, and who emigrated to this coun- 
try in a time of great depression, in agriculture. In this 
land, they have exerted themselves, with a spirit of inde- 
pendence, that led them to decline the help of money on 
loan, and by persevering industry, they are now possessed 
of a comfortable home, and a location of land, on which 
they have a fair stock of cattle. They have also maintained 
a kindly feeling toward the Aborigines, who live about 
them in quietness and confidence, but who have been 
reduced, in this neighbourhood, by various causes, among 
which has been the Small Pox, from about 200, to 60. 
These kind-hearted settlers say, they are convinced, that 
the misimderstandings between the Blacks and Whites, 
always originate with the latter; many of whom would de- 
stroy the Blacks if they happened to take a few cobs of 
Indian-corn, from the fields, enclosed firom their own coun- 
try; they also strongly deprecate the indiscriminate ven- 
geance, often returned upon this hapless people, when any 
of their number have committed outrages, by the Govern- 
ment sending armed police, or soldiers upon them, often 
before the merits of the case can be properly ascertained. 
One of the Blacks brought our host a present, of a small 
species of kangaroo, called in this part of the Colony, a 
Paddy-melon: it is about the size of a hare, which it is 
said to resemble in flavour, when roasted. 

20th. After a wet walk of ten miles, over hills and flats, 
of open grassy forest, we reached a little settlement, called 
Paterson, consisting of a few houses, on a river of the same 
name, and were kindly entertained by a settler whom I had 
met in London, and at whose house, we had a meeting with 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 40S 

such persons as could be assembled to receive our gospel 
message. Our friend here had brought with him a good 
Ubrary. This is a point which a few other settlers have 
also attended to ; but emigrants are not generally a reading 
people^ their rural pursuits occupying most of their time and 

21st. Much rain having fallen^ many parts of the road 
to Maitland were inundated^ and strong currents were flow- 
ing through the hollows. Some of these^ we crossed, upon 
logs, such as, from the woody nature of the coimtry, fre- 
quently happen to have fallen across the brooks and rivers. 
In other places, the post and rail fences, which commonly 
divide the located portions of the land, enabled us to cross 
the water; and in others, we had to wade, alter going a 
Uttle out of the way, in search of fordable places. Some 
parts of the coimtry bordering on the Paterson, were fine, 
and interspersed with houses and cultivated lands ; but we 
found the children of the lower classes here, as we have also, 
found them in some other parts of this Colony, growing 
up in much ignorance. There was no school among them, 
and the only apology for public, reUgious instruction, was 
a sermon from the Episcopal Clergyman of Maitland, once 
a month, in a lock-up-house, on the site of the intended 
town of Paterson. Some of the settlers however, collect 
their servants on First-days, for devotional reading, but 
this is far from being a general practice. 

On the 22nd, we were detained at Maitland, by rain ; on 
the 23rd, we proceeded by the Sophia Jane steamer, to 
Newcastle, where the Police Magistrate, who is a military 
officer, granted us permission to hold a meeting for pubUc 
worship in the Police Office, and the Episcopal Chaplain 
kindly lent us some seats for the place. 

24th. In the forenoon, we had a religious interview with 
about 120 prisoners, in the jail; in the evening we had a 
crowded meeting with the inhabitants of Newcastle, in the 
Police Office. On this occasion, great freedom was felt, in 
preaching the Gospel, and in drawing a dear line, between 
the service of God, and the service of the devil, and in 
testifying to the grace of God that brings salvation, and to 

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404 NEWCASTLE. [7^1 mo. 

the manifestation of the Holy Spirit, sent into the world, of 
the Father, in the name of his beloved Son, to conYince 
the world of sin, bring them to repentance, and lead diem 
through fedth in Christ, to reconciliation with Ood. There 
was a comforting sense of the divine presence widi us, 
enabling us to bear witness to that justification by feiAj 
through which we have peace with God, through our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and receive the spirit of adoption, 
whereby we cry, Abba, Father, knowing the divine Spirit 
to bear witness with our spirits, that we are the children 
of God. 

25th. We breakfisusted with a pious couple of Anglo- 
Australians, and inspected the Jail, which is a considerable 
building, but very baldly arranged, for the complete sepan- 
rion of the male and female prisoners. — Between the Jail 
and the town, there is a sandy hill, that was once covered 
with brushwood. This was cut down, when Newcastle was 
a penal settlement, to prevent the concealment of prisoners; 
and ever since, the drifting sand has bid defiance to all oppo- 
sition, burying walls, and all other impediments, raised to 
obstruct its course. In the afternoon, we had an inter- 
view with an ironed-gang, stationed here, who are chiefly 
employed in the formation of a break-water, at the mouth of 
this harbour; several soldiers were also present; the whole 
of the company were very attentive, while we discharged our 
debt of Christian love toward them. 

26th. We visited a detachment of fourteen men, belong- 
ing to a bridge and road-party, at the Iron-bark Creek, about 
eight miles firom Newcastle, toward Maitland, a part of 
whom we gathered up, by walking two miles back into the 
bush. They were at length collected in an overseer's hut ; 
and we were strengthened to extend to them, an invitation, 
to turn to the Lord and live, calling their attention to the 
proofs of his unwillingness that they should perish in theur 
sins, exhibited in his having freely deUvered up his beloved 
Son for us aU, and in the pleadings of Ws Spirit, by 
which he still convinces the rebellious of their transgres- 
sions, and warns them to repent and turn, that they may 
be saved. 

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1 836.3 NBW SOUTH WALES. 405 

The road to this place was sandy and heavy^ but the 
fineness of the day made the walk pleasant. The bush, 
through which it lay^ was gay with Kennedia monopkyUa and 
rvbicunda. Acacia Umg^olia and suaveoleng, and other shrubs, 
and the air was perfdmed with their fragrance. 

27th and 28th. We had religious interviews with the 
patients in the Upper and Lower Hospitals, and with the 
pitmen, of the Coal-works, of the Australian Agricultural 
Company, the last of whom are about ninety in number. 
We also took part in the oi^nization of a Temperance 
Society, and a Branch Bible Auxiliary. Among the pitmen, 
there seemed an ear open to religious counsel. Seyeral of 
them were formerly in connexion with a religious society, 
but were transported for offences, connected with '^ striking 
for wages.^^ — ^A considerable quantity of good coal is raised 
here, and shipped to Sydney, Hobart Town, the Cape of 
Good Hope, &c. 

29th. At the request of the Military Officer, in charge, 
we had an interview with the Soldiers stationed here, for 
the purpose of giving them some hints on the importance 
of temperance. — I received a letter from India, from the 
young maan to whose care we committed some of the writings 
of Frieu'ds; and respecting which he says: ^'The books 
which you entrusted to me, afforded me much pleasant, and 
I hope also profitable reading, during the voyage to Madras ; 
and I will tell you frankly, that in many, perhaps in most 
things, I find myself satisfied that the truth is with you. 
I refer, in thus saying, chiefly to your application of the 
precepts of the Gospel to the every-day practice of life ; in 
which, I have long felt, that Christians fail, and are content 
to fall very far short of what they ought to attain to.*' 

30th. We embarked on board the William the Fourth 
steamer, which put in at Newcastie this morning, on the way 
to Port Macquarie, and early in the forenoon, we were in 
Nelsons Bay, Port Stephens, where the steamer had cargo 
to deliver to a whaling brig. Keeping close in with the 
land, the view of the coast was fine. The islets and head- 
lands, about Port Stephens, present a remarkable, and 
ruggedly furrowed appearance, and have numerous vertical 

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406 PORT MACQUARIE. [7th mO* 

fissures. They are also much varied in colour^ with red, 
yellow^ and dirty white. The tide was running with great 
force^ round some of the points within the port. 

31st. We anchored under a head-land^ on the south 
side of Port Macquarie, until the tide allowed the steamer 
to cross the bar; when we proceeded to the jetty^ which 
is an overhanging^ conglomerate rock^ where we landed. 
After depositing our luggage at a small inn^ we proceeded 
to Lake Cottage^ seven miles distant, where we received 
a hearty welcome from Archibald Clunis Innis^ and his 
wife^ son-in-law and daughter of our kind friends^ Alex- 
ander and Elizabeth MXeay, of Sydney. On the way, 
we had a religious interview with a small road-party, in 
which there is a person, who was brought up a clergyman 
of the Episcopal Qiurch. They were without a Bible, or 
any religious instruction. 

8th mo. 1st. A. C. Innis drove us to Port Macquarie, and 
introduced us to the Episcopal Clergyman, and the Police- 
magistrate, both of whom i^ceived us kindly, and signified 
their willingness to assist us, in obtaining religious interviews 
with the prisoners and free population. Port Macquarie 
was a penal settlement, up to a late period, but is now 
thrown open to free settlers: it still is a depot for that 
description of educated prisoners, denominated ^^ Spedals,^' 
and for invalids, decrepit, and insane persons, and idiots, 
who are lodged in miserable, wooden barracks, about to be 
superseded by new ones of brick. 

The town is prettily situated, on the side of a bay, witii 
a sandy beach ; upon which, the rocks are of Quartz, and 
mottied, green Serpentine. The soil is rich, and of a re- 
markably red colour. On the south of the town, the forest 
is very thick. The buildings are few, and chiefly of weather- 
board. The principal ones are, the Commandant's Quarters, 
Military and Prisoners Barracks, Hospital, a few stores and 
a windmill. 

2nd. We visited the female prisoners, the ironed-gang, 
and the invalids. The Ironed-gang assembled in " the 
Punishment-yard ;'^ in which, three men were shordy after, 
to be flogged. They were all very quiet, while we set forth 

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18S6.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 407 

to them^ the way of salvatioD^ and pleaded with them on the 
folly of sin. 

3rd. We visited the specials^ operative prisoners, patients 
in the Hospital, a free overseer who had brought on dropsy 
by drinking strong liquors, a prisoner who had attempted 
to conimit suicide, imder the mortification produced by the 
restraints imposed upon him, and some of the specials, 
individually. Neither their association here, nor that of the 
other prisoners, seems likely to produce reformation. 

5th. We had a meeting with the free inhabitants, in 
a room in the Colonial Hospital. It was not numerously 
attended, neither was it a season of much brightness. 
There is reason to fear, that in this place, as well as in 
many others, the people are much more concerned about 
their temporal things, than about those that are eternal; 
forgetting that temporal things will soon pass away, and 
that then, those who are not rich toward God, will be poor 

6th. We rode to the Plains, on the Wilson River, and 
oh the way visited a road-party, at Blackmans Point, where 
there is a ferry across the Hastings River, at its confluence 
with the Wilson. By an order firom the Commandant, 
the road-party met us at the ferry-house, where a few 
other persons also assembled with them, and we had a 
satisfactory season of gospel labour. These people have 
no appointed religious instruction, but had borrowed a 
Bible, from which, on First-days, one of their number, 
who had been a clergyman of the Episcopal Church, read 
to them. At Balingara, where there is a ferry across the 
Wilson, we met another road-party, in a large bam, used 
as a barrack for them. The quietude of our meeting was 
much interrupted, by the passing of a herd of cattle, and by 
the swearing of their drivers, but we were favoured with a 
sense of the divine presence, both while silent, and in 
preaching the Gospel. This company, consisted of from 
twenty to thirty men, some of them persons of education ; 
they had not a Bible, nor were they assembled, even on 
First-days, for religious instruction. 
Tlje brushes on the border of the Wilson, are very 

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408 WIL.80N RIVER. [8th mo* 

magnificent. The trees^ some of which are of gigantic size, 
are ovemm with climbing, evergreen shrubs, twisted about 
them in fanciful coils, or wreathed around them, like huge 
serpents, or hanging from them Uke ropes ; their leafy tops 
being enlivened by gay and fragrant blossoms, and oftm 
hanging pendent to the ground, which is covered thickly 
with beautifid shrubs, ferns, and flowering plants, nou- 
rished by the moisture of the rich alluvial soil, and kept 
from the parching influence of the sun, by the exuberant 
foliage. Mosses, epiphytes of the Orchis tribe, and splendid 
Ferns, as well as various species of Fig-tree, support them- 
selves on the trunks and branches of the larger timber, and 
add greatly to the richness of this kind of forest scenery ; 
among which, gay Parrots, Cockatoos^ and other birds, 
uxilike those of our native land, sport and chatter in har- 
mony with the rest of the surrounding objects, which are 
strongly calculated to remind an Englishman, that he is far 
from home, even though he may have made this, his adopted 
country. But to one who, feeling reconciled to God through 
the death of his Son, can, with a sense of the divine presence 
in his mind, look upon these objects, and with filial love to 
his and their Creator, say, '^My Father made them all;'' 
even though such a one may be reminded by them, that he 
is far from his nearest ^ connexions in life, they have an 
interest which cannot be imderstood by those who are living 
at enmity with God. In some sense of this interest, we are 
often favoured to feel the length of our journeys beguiled, 
and our minds cheered. And with thankfulness, I would 
add, that often, when withdrawn from these enlivening 
scenes, and amidst various conflicts and exercises, both on 
accoimt of ourselves and others, we are favoured with such 
a measure of peace, and such a sense of the love of God 
extended to us, poor, unworthy, and of ourselves, helpless 
creatures as we are, as reconciles us to our allotment, and 
restrains us from wishing to be anywhere but where we are, 
at the time, willing to leave the morrow to the morrow, 
knowing that suflBcient for the day is the evil thereof, with- 
out adding to it, by useless anticipation. 

7th. We proceeded along a line of little alluvial plains. 

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1836.] NEW SOUTH WALES. 409 

intersected by the windings of the Wilson River, still mar- 
gined by rich brushes, among which nmnerous Cockatoos 
-were screaming. Parrots chattering, and the singular and 
loud-voiced, snake-killing bird, called the Laughing-jackass, 
was at intervals, setting up its rolling note, until we reached 
the house of a settler, at which we had a meeting appointed, 
that was attended by several young persons of the neighbour- 
hood, and a considerable number of assigned prisoners. It 
1I7BS held in the verandah, and was satisfactory, notwith- 
standing the wind was strong and cool. The auditory 
listened attentively to the doctrines of truth, which com- 
mend themselves to the conscience, according to the measure 
of light, and the experience of those that hear; who, at 
least, can trace in themselves, the work of the Spirit of God, 
as a witness against sin. 

In returning, we called on a settler of our acquaintance, 

on Rollins Plains, which is one of a series of rich aUuvial 

flats, adjoining the river, and backed by wooded, grassy hills. 

Considerable alarm was existing at this time, in consequence 

of some of the native Blacks having speared some cattle, 

and committed other outrages. Two little boys, who were 

staying at the house of our acquaintance, durst not venture 

off the road, into the adjacent brush, lest they bhoidd be 

killed by their countrymen, who, on account of some pique, 

had destroyed all the rest of their tribe. The impression 

among the settlers is, that the Blacks spear the cattle to 

eat ; and as the locating of the land by Europeans, has 

greatly diminished the. Kangaroo, and other food of the 

Natives, this seems highly probable. Maize is the principal 

crop now grown on these plains, which are liable to be 

flooded, and were naturally clear of timber or scrub. A 

few years since, the Government tried the growth of sugar 

upon them. The canes came to good perfection, but before 

arrangements were made for harvesting them, they were 

injured by frost, and the growth of sugar was abandoned. 

The land here has been sold by the Government, to the 

persons who have located it, at from 7s. to 67s. per acre. 

8th. Hoar frost was strong in the night, and the open 

grounds were very white in the morning. While the 

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410 PORT MACQUABIE. [8th mO. 

house of the settler with whom we lodged, was got ready, 
the room used as a dormitory at night being the sitting- 
room during the day, as is often the case in a newly-setded 
country, I walked into a copse, for shelter from the cold, 
and met with a beautiful little palm, resembling a South 
American Geanoma, in form. It was from six to ten feet 
high, and had pinnate leaves, three feet long, and bore its 
minute flowers, in long, simple spikes. 

The vegetation here is very striking. On our return to 
Port Macquarie, we noticed a shrubby, white-flowered 
Helichrymm, two species of Cassia, Tasmania ins^pida, Ficus 
macrophyllayferrugineay and another species. Hibiscus ^Jen- 
dens, with blossoms six to nine inches across. Hibiscus heter- 
ophylluSy and a shrub, with white flowers, aUied to Sida, but 
of a distinct genus, having five red glands at the base of the 
common filament, also a singular, climbing plant, belonging 
the Aroidea^ adhering to the trees along with Disc/ddia ntomi- 
laria, Polypodium querctfolium and atienuatum, Dendro